The Union Movement (UM) was a far-right political party founded in Britain by Oswald Mosley. Where Mosley had been associated with a peculiarly British form of fascism, the Union Movement attempted to redefine the concept by stressing the importance of developing a European nationalism rather than narrower country-based nationalisms. The UM has therefore been characterised as an attempt by Mosley to start again in his political life by embracing more democratic and international policies, than those with which he had previously been associated. The UM has been described as post-fascist by former members such as Robert Edwards, the founder of the pro-Mosley European Action UK pressure group.
|Founder||Sir Oswald Mosley|
|Preceded by||British Union of Fascists|
|Succeeded by||Action Party|
Europe a Nation
|European Parliament group||European Social Movement (1951-1960s)|
National Party of Europe (1960s)
|Colours||Flash and Circle|
Having been the leader of the British Union of Fascists (BUF) before World War II, it was expected that Mosley would return to lead the far right afterwards. However Mosley remained out of the immediate post-war political arena, instead turning to writing, publishing his first work, My Answer (1946), in which he argued that he had been a patriot who had been unjustly punished by his internment under Defence Regulation 18B. In this and his 1947 follow up, The Alternative, Mosley began to argue for a much closer integration between the nations of Europe, the beginning of his 'Europe a Nation' campaign that sought a strong united Europe as a counterbalance to the growing power of the US and USSR.
Mosley perceived a linear growth within British history and he saw Europe a Nation as the culmination of this destiny. Therefore, he argued that it was "part of an organic process of British history", as Britain had united into one nation, and that it was Britain's national destiny to unite the whole continent.
He further envisaged a three-tiered system of government headed by an elected European government, to organise defence and the corporatist economy. The continuation of national governments, and a collection of local governments was still seen as necessary, for the sake of independent identities.
Mosley's ideas were not as such new, as concepts of a Nation Europa and Eurafrika (the same idea only with parts of north Africa included as natural sectors of Europe's traditional sphere of influence, an idea that Mosley himself felt had some merit) were already growing in Germany's post-War underground, whilst Benito Mussolini’s 1944 Italian Social Republic had returned to fascism's roots with an attempt at a corporatist economic system during its brief existence. Nonetheless Mosley was the first to express the ideas in English and it came as no surprise when he returned to proper political activism in 1948. These plans were to form the basis for the policy programme of the Union Movement.
Following the release of interned fascists at the end of World War II a number of far-right groups had been formed. These were often virulently anti-semitic and tried to capitalise on the violent events taking place in Palestine. Large meetings were organised in Jewish areas of east London and elsewhere which were often violently broken up by anti-fascist groups such as the 43 Group. Fifty-one separate groups were united under Mosley's leadership in the Union Movement (UM), launched at a meeting in Farringdon Hall, London, in 1948. However the four main groups were Jeffrey Hamm's British League of Ex-Servicemen and Women, Anthony Gannon's Imperial Defence League, Victor Burgess's Union of British Freedom and Horace Gowing and Tommy Moran's Sons of St George, all groups led by ex-BUF men. Another early member was Francis Parker Yockey, who had come to England to seek Mosley's help with publishing his written work. Yockey briefly headed up the UM European Contact Section, although he was gone fairly quickly after a fall-out with Mosley.
The Union Movement was also noted for its attempts to recruit Irish people living in Britain and Mosley wrote a pamphlet in 1948 entitled Ireland's Right to Unite when entering European Union. There were also links between the UM and the Irish nationalist and pro-fascist party Ailtirí na hAiséirghe (Architects of the Resurrection) and Mosley wrote articles for their newspaper Aiséirghe.
Mosley remained a critic of liberal democracy, and the UM instead extolled a strong executive that people could endorse or reject through regular referendums, with an independent judiciary in place to appoint replacements in the event of a rejection. The party marched 1,500 supporters through Camden that same year and went on to contest the following year's local elections in London. However, outside of Stepney and Bethnal Green where there was some support, the UM performed very poorly at the polls and secured no representation. After this, the Union Movement ceased to be a significant political party and attendance at meetings dwindled until it was negligible. Disillusioned by the stern opposition that the UM faced, and with his style of street politics being exposed as somewhat passé, Mosley went into self-imposed exile in Ireland, leaving the UM to languish.
Union Movement member F.B. Price-Heywood was elected as a councillor in Grasmere, Lake District, Cumbria during the 1953 Municipal Elections but this was a rare success for the party, and UM won no parliamentary seats.
The Union Movement published several weekly newspapers and monthly magazines including Union, Action (also the title of the pre-war weekly newspaper of the New Party and the British Union of Fascists), Attack, East London Blackshirt, The European and National European.
After the British Nationality Act 1948 there was a great increase in immigration, particularly from the newly independent Commonwealth states, as well as, to a lesser extent, from the colonies. In the early 1950s immigration was estimated at 8,000–10,000 per year, but this had grown to 35,000 per year by 1957. Perceptions of the new migrant workers were frequently oppositional and stereotypical, although the Conservative Party, despite the private opinions of some of its members, was loath to make a political issue out of it, for fear of being seen as gutter politicians. Minor disturbances occurred in 1958 in Notting Hill (following a Mosley rally) and Nottingham with clashes between racial groups, a new phenomenon in Britain.
The new uncertainties revitalised the UM and Mosley re-emerged to stand as a candidate in the 1959 election in Kensington North (which included Notting Hill), his first parliamentary election since 1931. Mosley made immigration his campaign issue, combining calls for assisted repatriation with stories regarding criminality and sexual deviance of blacks, a common theme of the time. The 8.1% share of the vote he secured was a personal humiliation for a man who still hoped that he would be called to serve as Prime Minister some day, although the UM as a whole was buoyed by the immigration problem, which it saw as the next big issue in British politics.
Alongside his domestic politics Mosley continued to work towards his goal of 'Europe-a-Nation' and in 1962 attended a conference in Venice where he helped to form a National Party of Europe along with Germany's Reichspartei, the Mouvement d’Action Civique and Jeune Europe' of Belgium and the Italian Social Movement (MSI). Adopting the slogan "Progress - Solidarity - Unity", the movement aimed to work closely for a closer unity of European states, although in the end little came of it as only the MSI enjoyed any success domestically. This group replaced the earlier European Social Movement in which Mosley had also been involved. The Union Movement itself did not play an active role on the European stage, although it did help to set in motion co-operation between like-minded groups across Europe, which continues to this day with the European National Front.
Mosley stood again in the 1966 election, this time in the Shoreditch and Finsbury constituency. However, capturing only 4.6% of the vote, Mosley lost interest thereafter and effectively departed the scene, despite still officially being UM leader until 1973. The increasingly marginalised UM carried on into the 1970s, still advocating Europe A Nation, but had no real influence and failed to capture support with its fairly unusual policies.
A brief revival looked possible after the UM was renamed the Action Party in 1973, under which name it fought six seats at the Greater London Council election. Under the leadership of Jeffrey Hamm, the party hoped for something of a revival, although it was damaged severely in 1974 when leading member Keith Thompson and his followers split to form the League of Saint George, a non-party movement which they claimed was the true continuation of Mosley's ideas. With a sizeable chunk of its membership long since lost to the National Front, the Action Party gave up electoral politics and, in 1978, became the Action Society, which acted as a publishing house rather than a political party. The group continued until Hamm's death in 1994, after which the funding of Mosley's widow Diana Mitford was withdrawn. The Action Society was quietly wound up, representing the end of the Union Movement as a presence in British politics.
|Election year||# of seats
|# of total votes||% of overall vote||# of seats won||Rank|
The 1980s ITV television series Shine on Harvey Moon features members of Mosley's Union Movement. It was created by the writers Laurence Marks and Maurice Gran who would later produce the Channel 4 mini-series Mosley broadcast in 1998.
Sheffield's Municipal elections were held on 10 May 1962. One third of the council was up for election, as well as vacancies in Moor and Park. Previous to this election, there had been two by-elections in June for Hallam and Woodseats, which were safely held by the Conservatives. The election seen a record number of 84 candidates, with the Liberals contesting half of the city's wards and the Communists and the Union Movement over a third. The increased presence of the Liberals helped them to triple their vote on the previous year's, and nearly see to a gain in Hillsborough. There were, however, no seats exchanged for the second year running. Turnout was 31.8%, down slightly on the previous year.Anakpawis
Anakpawis is a party-list in the Philippines. The party-list is the electoral wing of the radical trade union movement Kilusang Mayo Uno and the peasant group Kilusang Mangbubukid ng Pilipinas.
Known for its radical pro-labor and peasant stand, Anakpawis had been known for its 125 across the board wage increase for the workers, as well as the genuine agrarian reform bill that involves direct redistribution of land to the landless peasants.
In the 2004 elections for the House of Representatives the party-list obtained 538,396 votes (4.2320% of the nationwide vote) and two seats (Crispin B. Beltran and Rafael V. Mariano). In the May 14, 2007 election, the party won 1 seat in the nationwide party-list vote.Australian labour movement
The Australian labour movement began in the early 19th century and since the late 19th century has included industrial (Australian unions) and political wings (Australian Labor Party). Trade unions in Australia may be organised (ie., formed) on the basis of craft unionism, general unionism, or industrial unionism. Almost all unions in Australia are affiliated with the Australian Council of Trade Unions (ACTU), many of which have undergone a significant process of amalgamations, especially in the late 1980s and early 1990s. The leadership and membership of unions hold and have at other times held a wide range of political views, including communist, socialist and right-wing views.
According to ABS figures, in August 2013, there were 1.7 million members of trade unions in relation to their main job (17% of all employees). A further 4% did not know whether they were trade union members or not, while 1% were trade union members not in conjunction with their main job. Of those who were a trade union member in relation to their main job, over two thirds (68%) had been members for five years or more. Trade union membership has steadily declined over recent years, with 2013 being the lowest proportion in the history of the ABS series. According to ACTU figures, the number of members of trade unions in 1983 was 2,376,900 but by 2002 it was 1,833,700, and declining.
The Australian Labor Party at both a federal and state/colony level pre-dates, among others, both the British Labour Party and the New Zealand Labour Party in party formation, government, and policy implementation. In particular, the 1910 federal election represented a number of firsts: it was Australia's first elected federal majority government; Australia's first elected Senate majority; the world's first Labour Party majority government at a national level; after the 1904 Chris Watson minority government the world's second Labour Party government at a national level; and the first time it controlled both houses of a bicameral legislature.Basawon Singh (Sinha)
Basawon Singh, also known as Basawon Sinha, (died 7 April 1989) was an Indian independence activist and a campaigner for the rights of the underprivileged, industrial labourers and agricultural workers. He spent a total of 18 and a half years in prisons in British India as a consequence of his support for independence and he was committed to democratic socialism. Along with Yogendra Shukla, he was a founder member of the Congress Socialist Party in Bihar.Bharatiya Mazdoor Sangh
The Bharatiya Mazdoor Sangh (translation: Indian Workers' Union) is one of the trade union organization in India. It was founded by Dattopant Thengadi on 23 July 1955.
The BMS itself claims to have more than 10 million members. According to provisional statistics from the Ministry of Labour, the BMS had a membership of 6,215,797 in 2002. The BMS is not affiliated to any International Trade Union Confederation. It is the labour wing of RSS.British League of Ex-Servicemen and Women
The British League of Ex-Servicemen and Women (BLESMAW) was a British ex-service organisation that became associated with far right politics during and after the Second World War.Canadian Credit Union Association
The Canadian Credit Union Association (CCUA; French: Association canadienne des coopératives financières) is the national trade association for credit unions in Canada (outside the province of Quebec). Founded in 1953, it rebranded to its current name in January 2016 to reflect its "evolving role as an association that is focused on growing a stronger... credit union industry."CCUA was founded as the Canadian Co-operative Credit Society (CCCS) to support a growing credit union system in the 1950s. It was renamed to Credit Union Central of Canada in 1993 to better reflect its relationship to its provincial member credit union centrals.Durban Moment
The Durban Moment refers to the period in the early 1970s when the South African city of Durban became the centre of a new vibrancy in the struggle against apartheid. The two central figures in this moment were Steve Biko and Richard Turner – the former was closely associated with the Black Consciousness Movement and the latter with the trade union movement. The two were in a reading group together. Both were influenced by the new left and had links to radical Christian circles.Europe a Nation
Europe a Nation was a policy developed by British Fascist politician Oswald Mosley as the cornerstone of his Union Movement. It called for the integration of Europe into a single political entity. Although the idea failed to gain widespread support for the Union Movement, it nonetheless proved highly influential on the far-right thought in Europe.European Liberation Front
The European Liberation Front (ELF) was a small neo-fascist group that split from Oswald Mosley's British Union Movement in 1948. Its founder and ideological inspiration was Francis Parker Yockey. In 1949 they issued a manifesto titled The Proclamation of London, written by Yockey. The pan-nationalist (Pan-Europeanist) and anti-American movement had little impact, and lasted until 1954.
In the 1990s, the ELF, Yockey, and his ideology, were rediscovered by the Nouvelle Résistance, Alternativa Europea, National-Bolshevik Party, National Revolutionary Faction, and others. In 1999, a manifesto of a second 'European Liberation Front' was published in Paris, but there is apparently no more active organisation of that name now. The manifesto takes its ideological inspiration from Yockey, and from Otto Strasser, who was expelled from the Nazi Party by Adolf Hitler in 1930.
Despite the pan-European style of its title, the ideology of the manifesto is ethnic and racial nationalism: the manifesto speaks of the "historical and cultural ties which exist between our respective nations" and calls for "mono-ethnic racial homelands" to preserve the "race, culture and traditions of all European peoples". European liberation, according to the manifesto, consists of "National Revolution".George G. Higgins
Msgr. George Gilmary Higgins (January 21, 1916 – May 1, 2002) was an American labor activist known as the "labor priest". He was a moving force in the Roman Catholic church's support for Cesar Chavez and his union movement.Jeffrey Hamm
Edward Jeffrey Hamm (15 September 1915 – 4 May 1992) was a leading British Fascist and supporter of Oswald Mosley. Although a minor figure in Mosley's pre-war movement he became a leading figure after the Second World War and eventually succeeded as leader of the Union Movement on Mosley's retirement.John Bean
John Edward Bean (born 7 June 1927) is a long-standing participant in the British far right, who has been active within a number of movements.Labour movement
The labour movement or labor movement consists of two main wings, the trade union movement (British English) or labor union movement (American English), also called trade unionism or labor unionism on the one hand, and the political labour movement on the other.
The trade union movement consists of the collective organisation of working people developed to represent and campaign for better working conditions and treatment from their employers and, by the implementation of labour and employment laws, from their governments. The standard unit of organisation is the trade union.The political labour movement in many countries includes a political party that represents the interests of employees, often known as a "labour party" or "workers' party". Many individuals and political groups otherwise considered to represent ruling classes may be part of and active in the labour movement.The labour movement developed in response to the depredations of industrial capitalism at about the same time as socialism. However, while the goal of the labour movement is to protect and strengthen the interests of labour within capitalism, the goal of socialism is to replace the capitalist system entirely.List of political parties in Kosovo
This article lists political parties in Kosovo.
Kosovo has a multi-party system with numerous political parties, in which no one party often has a chance of gaining power alone, and parties must work with each other to form coalition governments.Louise McCarren Herring
Louise McCarren Herring (September 20, 1909 – November 2, 1987), an Ohio native, is recognized as one of the pioneer leaders of the not-for-profit cooperative credit union movement in the United States. Herring is universally regarded in the United States credit union movement as being the “Mother of Credit Unions” for her work with the movement since its earliest days.
Herring was one the attendees at the 1934 Estes Park, Colorado meeting that established the Credit Union National Association (better known as CUNA). Also attending the Estes Park meeting were Edward Filene, Claude Clark, and Dora Maxwell. Herring’s commitment to the value of credit unions elevated her to national leader of the movement. Herring is credited with helping to establish five hundred credit unions and was an avid supporter of the dual share insurance system, helping to establish the private National Deposit Guaranty Corporation, which is now known as American Share Insurance (ASI).
Prior to her marriage, she served as the first paid Executive Secretary of the Ohio Credit Union League (now Ohio Credit Union System) which she co-founded. Herring also served as the longtime manager of KEMBA (Kroger Employees Mutual Benefit Association) Credit Union in Cincinnati.
Herring was inducted into the National Cooperative Business Association's Cooperative Hall of Fame in 1983. CUNA annually awards the Louise Herring Award for Philosophy in Action, which recognizes those credit unions which “demonstrate the exceptional effort to integrate credit union philosophy” (not for profit but for service) into the daily operations of their credit unions and recognize their commitment to superior service to their member/owners. The Ohio Credit Union System tri-annually awards the Louise McCarren Herring Lifetime Achievement Award to those individuals who have demonstrated a lifetime dedication to the advancement of the credit union movement in Ohio.
Louise McCarren Herring died in Cincinnati, Ohio in 1987.Movimiento Unión Soberanista
Movimiento Unión Soberanista (MUS) (English: Sovereign Union Movement) is a Puerto Rican political party. The party was founded in October 2010 in the city of Caguas, Puerto Rico.National Union Party (United States)
The National Union Party was the temporary name used by the Republican Party for the national ticket in the 1864 presidential election which was held during the Civil War. For the most part, state Republican parties did not change their name. The temporary name was used to attract War Democrats and border states, Unconditional Unionists and Unionist Party members who would not vote for the Republican Party. The party nominated incumbent President Abraham Lincoln and for Vice President Democrat Andrew Johnson, who were elected in an electoral landslide.Trade unions in the United Kingdom
Trade unions in the United Kingdom were first decriminalised under the recommendation of a Royal Commission in 1867, which agreed that the establishment of the organisations was to the advantage of both employers and employees. Legalised in 1871, the Trade Union Movement sought to reform socio-economic conditions for working men in British industries, and the trade unions' search for this led to the creation of a Labour Representation Committee which effectively formed the basis for today's Labour Party, which still has extensive links with the Trade Union Movement in Britain. Margaret Thatcher's governments weakened the powers of the unions in the 1980s, in particular by making it more difficult to strike legally, and some within the British trades union movement criticised Tony Blair's Labour government for not reversing some of Thatcher's changes. Most British unions are members of the TUC, the Trades Union Congress (founded in 1867), or where appropriate, the Scottish Trades Union Congress or the Irish Congress of Trade Unions, which are the country's principal national trade union centres.
Membership declined steeply in the 1980s and 1990s, falling from 13 million in 1979 to around 7.3 million in 2000. In September 2012 union membership dropped below 6 million for the first time since the 1940s.