Uniforms and insignia of the Sturmabteilung

The uniforms and insignia of the Sturmabteilung (SA) were Nazi Party paramilitary ranks and uniforms used by SA stormtroopers from 1921 until the fall of Nazi Germany in 1945. The titles and phrases used by the SA were the basis for paramilitary titles used by several other Nazi paramilitary groups, among them the Schutzstaffel (SS). Early SS ranks were identical to the SA, since the SS was originally considered a sub-organization of the Sturmabteilung.

Origins of SA titles (1921–1923)

The brown shirted stormtroopers of the Sturmabteilung gradually come into being within the Nazi Party beginning in 1920. By this time, Adolf Hitler had assumed the title of Führer of the Nazi Party, replacing Anton Drexler who had been known as the more democratically elected Party Chairman. Hitler began to fashion the Nazi Party on fascist paramilitary lines and, to that end, the early Nazis of the 1920s would typically wear some sort of paramilitary uniform at party meetings and rallies. The most common of these were World War I uniforms with full medals. Also common were uniforms of the Freikorps as well as uniforms of veteran groups such as the Stahlhelm. Nazi Party members would also mix components from all three types of uniforms with little to no standardization except a swastika armband worn on the left arm.

By 1921, the Nazi Party had taken its "Sports Detachment", consisting mostly of burly bodyguards Hitler used for his own protection, and had formed the Nazi stormtroopers, or the "Storm Detachment", which was shortened to be known as the SA. It was at this point that the very first SA titles came into being, although there were no established uniforms or insignia except a swastika armband worn on a paramilitary uniform. At the start of the group's existence, the SA had four primary titles:

In 1923, the SA was disbanded after the failed Munich Beer Hall Putsch. The group was refounded two years later in 1925.

Early SA rank insignia (1924–1929)

From 1923 to 1925, the SA did not officially exist since Adolf Hitler had been imprisoned for his actions in the Munich Putsch and the Nazi Party banned in Germany. Underground cells of SA men did continue to meet in secret, including one run by an SA leader named Gerhard Roßbach. It was Roßbach who effectively invented the "Nazi brownshirt" uniform since, in 1924, Roßbach located a large store of military surplus brown denim shirts in Austria originally intended for tropical uniforms.[1]

In 1925, the SA was re-founded as part of the new Nazi Party which Hitler had put together following his release from prison. The reborn SA then received its first formal uniform regulations and also began using the first recognizable system of rank insignia.

Along with a brown shirt uniform, SA members would wear swastika armbands with a kepi cap. Originally, the SA used its pre-1923 rank titles, but this changed in 1926 when local SA units began to be grouped into larger regiment sized formations known as Standarten. Each SA regiment was commanded by a senior SA officer called a Standartenführer. At the same time, to differentiate from the SA rank and file, senior SA officers began to wear oak leaves on their collars to signify their authority. Under this system, a Standartenführer wore one oak leaf, an Oberführer two, and the Supreme SA Commander wore three. The lower ranks of SA-Führer and SA-Mann still wore no insignia.

In 1927, the officer rank of SA-Führer became known by the title of "Sturmführer" and a higher officer rank known as "Sturmbannführer" was created to be held by battalion formation commanders directly subordinate to the Standartenführer. In 1928, an expansion of SA enlisted ranks was required in response to the growing rank and file membership of the SA troopers. These new titles and ranks were denoted by an insignia system which consisted of silver pips pinned to a wearer's collar. The pip system was adopted from the Stahlhelm veteran's group which was closely connected to the SA both in dual membership and ideological design.

SAUnitInsignia
An SA unit insignia patch

A further change in 1928 was the creation of the rank of Gruppenführer. This rank used the three leaf collar insignia previously reserved for the Supreme SA Commander and the rank was held by the senior most SA commanders in Germany who led division sized formations of several SA-Standarten. By this time, the SA had also begun to use unit insignia for its junior members which consisted of a numbered collar patch, showing both battalion and regiment affiliation, worn opposite the badge of rank. This unit insignia patch was worn by those holding the rank of Sturmbannführer and below; the higher officer ranks wore oak leaf insignia on both collars.

By the close of the 1920s, the SA rank system had solidified into the following titles:

EarlySAPips
The original pip system used by the SA in the 1920s.
SA Rank Army Equivalent
Gruppenführer General
Untergruppenführer
Oberführer Brigadier
Standartenführer Colonel
Sturmbannführer Major
Sturmhauptführer Captain
Sturmführer Lieutenant
Truppführer Sergeant
Scharführer Corporal
Mann Private

SA uniforms under Ernst Röhm (1930–1933)

The next major change in SA uniforms and insignia occurred in 1930 when Ernst Röhm was appointed as Chief of Staff of the SA. Röhm's appointment was as the result of Adolf Hitler personally assuming command of the SA as the Oberster SA-Führer. Hitler would hold this title until the fall of Nazi Germany in 1945 and, after 1930, it was the SA Chief of Staff who was the effective leader of the organization.

Röhm undertook several changes to the SA uniform and insignia design, the first being to invent several new ranks in order for the SA rank system to mirror that of the professional military. The rank expansion took place gradually between 1930 and 1932, with the final addition being the creation of a rank of SA-Obergruppenführer which Röhm appointed to himself as well as senior SA-generals of the SA command staff. The new ranks used the same collar pip and oak leaf system as before, but with the addition of corded shoulder boards worn on the right shoulder for the officers. Further, the officers wore right shoulder cord of either gold or silver. In contrast, the enlisted men wore piping cords shaped as shoulder straps on the right shoulder.[2]

SpecialSAinsignia
Ernst Röhm's special insignia as SA Chief of Staff, used between 1933 and 1934. The insignia was abolished after the Night of the Long Knives.

In 1933, when Adolf Hitler became Chancellor of Germany, Röhm made his title of SA-Chief of Staff into an actual rank. The insignia for Ernst Röhm’s new rank (known as Stabschef) consisted of a wreathed star which was designed after that of a Bolivian General, due to Röhm’s previous military experience as a military adviser in Bolivia.

Ranks and insignia

This table contains the final ranks and insignia of the Sturmabteilung (short SA), which were in use from 1942-1945 in comparison to the German Army.

Flag of NATO.svg
rank
Rank insignia[3] Designation
German / (English)
Equivalent to the Wehrmacht/ Heer[4]
(English)
Collar badge Shoulder strap
None Oberster Führer der SA
(Supreme leader of the SA)
Reichsmarschall
(Marshal of the Empire)
Luftwaffe epaulette Reichsmarschall
OF-10 No equivalent Generalfeldmarschall
(General field marshal)
Wehrmacht GenFeldmarschall 1942h1
OF-9 SA-Stabschef.svg None.svg Stabschef
(Chief of Staff)
Generaloberst
(Colonel general)
Generaloberst (Wehrmacht) 8
OF-8 SA-Obergruppenführer None.svg SA-Obergruppenführer
(SA-Senior group leader)
General der Waffengattung
(General of the branch)
General (Wehrmacht) 1
OF-7 None.svg SA-Gruppenführer
(SA-Group leader)
Generalleutnant
(Lieutenant general)
Generalleutnant (Wehrmacht)
OF-6 None.svg SA-Brigadeführer
(SA-Brigadier leader)
Generalmajor
(Major general)
Generalmajor (Wehrmacht)
OF-5 None.svg None.svg SA-Oberführer
(SA-Senior leader)
No equivalent
None.svg None.svg SA-Standartenführer
(SA-Standard leader (regiment sized unit))
Oberst
(Colonel)
Oberst Epaulette
OF-4 SA-Obersturmbannführer.svg SA-Obersturmbannführer
(SA-Senior storm unit leader (battalion sized unit))
Oberstleutnant
(Lieutenant colonel)
Oberstleutnant Epaulette
OF-3 SA-Sturmbannführer.svg SA-Sturmbannführer
(SA-Storm unit leader)
Major
(Major)
Major Epaulette
OF-2 SA-Hauptsturmführer.svg None.svg SA-Hauptsturmführer
(SA-Chief storm leader (company sized sub unit))
Hauptmann/Rittmeister
(Captain (OF-2))
Hauptmann Epaulette
OF-1a SA-Obersturmführer.svg SA-Obersturmführer
(SA-Senior storm leader)
Oberleutnant
(First lieutenant)
Oberleutnant Epaulette
OF-1b SA-Sturmführer.svg SA-Sturmführer
(SA-Storm leader)
Leutnant
(Second lieutenant)
Leutnant Epaulette
OR-8 SA-Haupttruppführer.svg None.svg SA-Haupttruppführer
(SA-Chief troop leader (platoon sized unit))
Stabsfeldwebel
Heer-Stabsfeldwebel h
OR-7 SA-Obertruppführer.svg SA-Obertruppführer
(SA-Senior troop leader (platoon sized unit))
Oberfeldwebel
(Oberfähnrich OA/ Offiziersanwärter)
Heer-Oberfeldwebel h
OR-6 SA-Truppführer.svg SA-Truppführer
(SA-Troop leader (platoon sized unit))
Feldwebel
(Fähnrich OA/ Offiziersanwärter)
Heer-Feldwebel h
OR-5 SA-Oberscharführer.svg SA-Oberscharführer
(SA-Senior squad leader)
Unterfeldwebel
Heer-Unterfeldwebel h
SA-Scharführer.svg SA-Scharführer
(SA-Squad leader))
Unteroffizier
(Fahnenjunker / Offiziersanwärter)
Heer-Unteroffizier h
OR-3 No equivalent Stabsgefreiter Mannschaften Epaulette 1940
Rank insignia of Stabsgefreiter of the Wehrmacht.svg
SA-Rottenführer.svg None.svg SA-Rottenführer
(SA-Team leader (Fire team sized unit))
Obergefreiter Mannschaften Epaulette 1940

Rank insignia of Obergefreiter (over 6 years of service) of the Wehrmacht.svg Rank insignia of Obergefreiter (under 6 years of service) of the Wehrmacht.svg

OR-2 SA-Sturmmann.svg SA-Sturmmann
(SA-Storm man/Storm trooper)
Gefreiter Mannschaften Epaulette 1940
Rank insignia of Gefreiter of the Wehrmacht.svg
OR-1 No equivalent Ober… e.g. Oberschütze, Obergrenadier, Oberfunker, Oberkanonier, … etc. Mannschaften Epaulette 1940
Rank insignia of Oberschütze of the Wehrmacht.svg
SA-Mann.svg None.svg SA-Mann
(SA-Man/SA-Trooper)
Soldat, Schütze, Grenadier, Funker, Kanonier, … etc. Mannschaften Epaulette 1940
Volunteer (SA-Anwärter (en: SA-Aspirant/Candidate)) to the service of the Sturmabteilung (SA) Conscript or military volunteer who enlists and may become an NCO or Officer of the Wehrmacht
Remarks

Right collar patch contains the number and type of unit (ascending up to “Obersturmbannführer” (OF4) in SA and SS, and “Oberstaffelfuehrer” (OF4) in NSMC): … Left collar patch contain the rank insignias (from ascending “Standartenfuehrer” (OF5) both sides).

It was also during the 1930s that the SA began using uniform colors to denote an SA member's Gruppen (Division) to which the SA member belonged. The unit color was worn on the front of the kepi cap as well as rank and unit collar patches. The color system would eventually expand to cover these SA divisions:

SATrooperinRed
Drawing of an SA trooper wearing red unit colors, indicating assignment to an SA Group Staff
  •          Red and Gold: SA Chief of Staff
  •          Red and White: SA Supreme Command
  •      Red: SA Group Staff
  •      Yellow: Schlesien Group
  •      Green: Thüringen Group
  •      Blue: Hesse Group
  •      Brown: Westmark Group
  •      Light Blue: Hochland Group
  •      Orange: Südwest Group
  •      Pink: Alpenland Group
  •          Light Blue (Gold Pip): Sudeten Group
  •      Black: Berlin-Brandenburg Group

Prior to 1932, when the Schutzstaffel wore the same uniform as the SA, black uniform colors also indicated membership in the SS; however, SS men wore all-black kepis and neckties, and (from 1929) black breeches and boots.

Final pattern SA uniforms (1934–1945)

SAranks1944
Final SA rank insignia pattern (1934–1945)

A slight alteration to the rank and insignia system of the SA occurred in July 1934 after the Night of the Long Knives. Victor Lutze did away with Röhm's special insignia for the rank of Stabschef and instead adopted a collar patch in much the same design as that of Reichsführer-SS, a rank which Heinrich Himmler now held.

Special uniforms

Even before the fall of Ernst Röhm, the SA had adopted a more formal appearance to its uniforms in an effort to make the group appear as an actual military formation rather than a group of street fighters. To this end, the SA had created a formal "office" type uniform which consisted of a brown coat worn over the basic brown shirt uniform.

Special uniforms also existed for corps of the SA, such as the motorized SA, the SA Alpine troops, and the SA-Marine, considered an auxiliary of the Kriegsmarine. It was the SA-Marine that expanded its uniforms almost to a level unto themselves, with special nautical insignia which no other unit of the SA displayed.

See also

References

  1. ^ Toland, John (1976). Adolf Hitler. New York: Doubleday & Company. ISBN 0-385-03724-4.
  2. ^ Angolia 1985, pp. 136-137, 148-149.
  3. ^ Verlag Moritz Ruhl 1936, Table 20.
  4. ^ CIA 1999, p. 29.

Bibliography

  • Angolia, John R. (1985). Cloth Insignia of the NSDAP and SA. R. James Bender Publishing. ISBN 0-912138-33-5.
  • Bedurftig, Friedemann, and Zenter, Christian. The Encyclopedia of the Third Reich. 1985.
  • CIA (24 August 1999). "Records Integration Title Book" (PDF). Retrieved 11 December 2018.
  • Hayes, A. SS Uniforms, Insignia and Accoutrements. Schiffer Publishing, Ltd. 2000. ISBN 978-0-7643-0046-2
  • Verlag Moritz Ruhl (1936). Deutche Uniformen (in German). Leipzig: Verlag Moritz Ruhl.
List of senior officers of the Sturmabteilung

This article lists the individuals who have been identified as senior officers of the Sturmabteilung (SA), a paramilitary wing of the Nazi Party (NSDAP), between the years of 1920 and 1945.

The supreme commander of the entire SA was Oberster SA-Führer, literally "Supreme SA Leader", a titular position, while Stabschef, literally "Chief of Staff", oversaw the day-to-day operations of the group.

Nazi Germany paramilitary ranks

National Socialist paramilitary ranks were pseudo-military titles which were used by the Nazis, represented by the Nazi Party, the National Socialist German Workers' Party (Nationalsozialistische Deutsche Arbeiterpartei; NSDAP), between the years of 1920 and 1945. Since the Nazi Party was by its very nature a paramilitary organization, by the time of the Second World War, several systems of paramilitary ranks had come into existence for both the Nazi Party itself and the various Nazi paramilitary organizations.

The following articles provide information regarding the various paramilitary rank systems used by the Nazi Party:

Ranks and insignia of the Nazi Party

Uniforms and insignia of the Schutzstaffel

Uniforms and insignia of the Sturmabteilung

Ranks and insignia of the Hitler Youth

Ranks and insignia of the National Socialist Flyers Corps

Ranks and insignia of the National Socialist Motor Corps

Ranks and insignia of the VolkssturmAfter the Nazi Party came to power in Germany, a number of Nazi state controlled and/or sponsored organizations developed Nazi style ranks, insignia, and titles. Such various ranks and insignia were:

Ranks and insignia of the Ordnungspolizei

Ranks and insignia of the Reichsarbeitsdienst

Ranks and insignia of the Reichsluftschutzbund

Ranks and insignia of the Reichsbahn

Ranks and insignia of Organisation TodtThe Nazi use of paramilitary ranks even extended as far as inmates of concentration camps. By 1936, a system of Nazi concentration camp badges had been developed along paramilitary lines.

Sturmabteilung

The Sturmabteilung (SA; German pronunciation: [ˈʃtʊɐ̯mʔapˌtaɪlʊŋ] (listen)), literally Storm Detachment, was the Nazi Party's original paramilitary. It played a significant role in Adolf Hitler's rise to power in the 1920s and 1930s. Its primary purposes were providing protection for Nazi rallies and assemblies, disrupting the meetings of opposing parties, fighting against the paramilitary units of the opposing parties, especially the Red Front Fighters League (Rotfrontkämpferbund) of the Communist Party of Germany (KPD), and intimidating Romani, trade unionists, and, especially, Jews – for instance, during the Nazi boycott of Jewish businesses.

The SA were also called the "Brownshirts" (Braunhemden) from the color of their uniform shirts, similar to Benito Mussolini's blackshirts. The SA developed pseudo-military titles for its members, with ranks that were later adopted by several other Nazi Party groups, chief amongst them the Schutzstaffel (SS), which originated as a branch of the SA before being separated. Brown-colored shirts were chosen as the SA uniform because a large number of them were cheaply available after World War I, having originally been ordered during the war for colonial troops posted to Germany's former African colonies.The SA became disempowered after Adolf Hitler ordered the "blood purge" of 1934. This event became known as the Night of the Long Knives (die Nacht der langen Messer). The SA continued to exist, but was effectively superseded by the SS, although it was not formally dissolved until after Nazi Germany's final capitulation to the Allies in 1945.

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