Unified Task Force

The Unified Task Force (UNITAF) was a United States-led, United Nations-sanctioned multinational force which operated in Somalia from 5 December 1992 until 4 May 1993. A United States initiative (code-named Operation Restore Hope), UNITAF was charged with carrying out United Nations Security Council Resolution 794 to create a protected environment for conducting humanitarian operations in the southern half of the country.

After the killing of 24 Pakistani peacekeepers in early June,[3] the Security Council changed UNOSOM II's mandate issuing the Resolution 837, which established that UNOSOM troops could use "all necessary measures" to guarantee the delivery of humanitarian aid in accordance to Chapter VII of the United Nations Charter.[4]

Background

Faced with a humanitarian disaster in Somalia, exacerbated by a complete breakdown in civil order, the United Nations had created the UNOSOM I mission in April 1992. However, the complete intransigence of the local faction leaders operating in Somalia and their rivalries with each other meant that UNOSOM I could not be performed. The mission never reached its mandated strength.[5]

Over the final quarter of 1992, the situation in Somalia continued to worsen. Factions were splintering into smaller factions, and then splintered again. Agreements for food distribution with one party were worthless when the stores had to be shipped through the territory of another. Some elements were actively opposing the UNOSOM intervention. Troops were shot at, aid ships attacked and prevented from docking, cargo aircraft were fired upon and aid agencies, public and private, were subject to threats, looting and extortion.[5] By November, General Mohamed Farrah Aidid had grown confident enough to defy the Security Council formally and demand the withdrawal of peacekeepers, as well as declaring hostile intent against any further UN deployments.[6]

In the face of mounting public pressure and frustration, UN Secretary-General Boutros Boutros-Ghali presented several options to the Security Council. Diplomatic avenues having proved largely fruitless, he recommended that a significant show of force was required to bring the armed groups to heel. Chapter VII of the Charter of the United Nations allows for "action by air, sea or land forces as may be necessary to maintain or restore international peace and security." Boutros-Ghali believed the time had come for employing this clause and moving on from peacekeeping.[7]

However, Boutros-Ghali felt that such action would be difficult to apply under the mandate for UNOSOM. Moreover, he realised that solving Somalia’s problems would require such a large deployment that the UN Secretariat did not have the skills to command and control it. Accordingly, he recommended that a large intervention force be constituted under the command of member states but authorised by the Security Council to carry out operations in Somalia. The goal of this deployment was "to prepare the way for a return to peacekeeping and post-conflict peace-building".[5]

Following this recommendation, on 3 December 1992 the Security Council unanimously adopted Resolution 794, authorizing the use of "all necessary means to establish as soon as possible a secure environment for humanitarian relief operations in Somalia". The Security Council urged the Secretary-General and member states to make arrangements for "the unified command and control" of the military forces that would be involved.[8]

UNITAF has been considered part of a larger state building initiative in Somalia, serving as the military arm to secure the distribution of humanitarian aid. However, UNITAF cannot be considered a state building initiative due to its ‘specific, limited and palliative aims, which it nonetheless exercised forcefully’. The primary objective of UNITAF was security rather than larger institution building initiatives.[9]

Composition

UN forces in Somalia.JPEG
Indian Army T-72 tanks
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Turkish Army briefing

The vast bulk of UNITAF's total personnel strength was provided by the United States (some 25,000 out of a total of 37,000 personnel). Other countries that contributed to UNITAF were Australia, Bangladesh, Belgium, Botswana, Canada, Egypt, Ethiopia, France, Germany, Greece, India, Ireland, Italy, Kuwait, Morocco, New Zealand, Nigeria, Norway, Pakistan, Saudi Arabia, Spain, Sweden, Tunisia, Turkey, United Arab Emirates, the United Kingdom and Zimbabwe.[4]

The U.S. Central Command (USCINCCENT) established Joint Task Force (JTF) Somalia to perform Operation Restore Hope. The I Marine Expeditionary Force (I MEF) staff made up the core of the JTF headquarters. (The name of this command started as CJTF Somalia but changed to United Task Force-UNITAF). The CJTF commanded Marine forces from I MEF (referred to as MARFOR) and Army forces from the 10th Mountain Division (referred to as ARFOR), as well as Air Force and Navy personnel and units.[10] There were also special operations forces components, in addition to the forces provided by countries contributing to the US-led, combined coalition.

The national contingents were co-ordinated and overseen by U.S. Central Command, however, the relationship between CentCom and the contributing nations varied. There were a few confrontations over the methods and mandates employed by some contingents. For example, the Italian contingent was accused of bribing local militias to maintain peace, whilst the French Foreign Legion troops were accused of over-vigorous use of force in disarming militiamen.[11] The Canadian contingent of the operation was known by the Canadian operation name Operation Deliverance.

United States

GWB choc chip camo
President George H. W. Bush and General Thomas Mikolajcik in Somalia

Prior to Resolution 794, the United States had approached the UN and offered a significant troop contribution to Somalia, with the caveat that these personnel would not be commanded by the UN. Resolution 794 did not specifically identify the U.S. as being responsible for the future task force, but mentioned "the offer by a Member State described in the Secretary-General's letter to the Council of 29 November 1992 (S/24868) concerning the establishment of an operation to create such a secure environment".[12] Resolution 794 was unanimously adopted by the United Nations Security Council on 3 December 1992, and they welcomed the United States offer to help create a secure environment for humanitarian efforts in Somalia.[13] President George H. W. Bush responded to this by initiating Operation Restore Hope on 4 December 1992, under which the United States would assume command in accordance with Resolution 794.[14]

Larry Freedman, a CIA paramilitary officer from the Special Activities Division, became the first U.S. casualty of the conflict in Somalia when his vehicle struck an anti-tank mine. He had been inserted prior to official U.S. presence on a special reconnaissance mission, serving as a liaison between the U.S. Embassy and the arriving military forces while providing intelligence for both. Freedman was a former Army Delta Force operator and Special Forces soldier and had served in every conflict that the United States was involved in both officially and unofficially since Vietnam. Freedman was awarded the Intelligence Star for extraordinary heroism.[15]

DN-SD-98-00366.jpeg
Marines offloading a Landing Craft Air Cushion at Mogadishu airport

The first Marines of UNITAF landed on the beaches of Somalia on 9 December 1992 amid a media circus. The press "seemed to know the exact time and place of the Marines' arrival" and waited on the airport runway and beaches to capture the moment.[16]

Critics of U.S. involvement argued that the U.S. government was intervening so as to gain control of oil concessions for American companies,[17] with a survey of Northeast Africa by the World Bank and UN ranking Somalia second only to Sudan as the top prospective producer.[18] However, no American and UN troops were deployed in proximity to the major oil exploration areas in the northeastern part of the country or the autonomous Somaliland region in the northwest. The intervention happened twenty-two months after the fall of Barre's regime.[19] Other critics explain the intervention as the administration's way to maintain the size and expenditures of the post-Cold War military establishment, to deflect criticism for the president's failure to act in Bosnia, or to leave office on a high note.[19]

Operation

US Marine Cadillac Gage LAV and a Fiat-OTO Melara 6614 APC.JPEG
U.S. and Italian light armor

The operation began on 6 December 1992, when Navy SEALs and special warfare combatant-craft crewmen from Naval Special Warfare Task Unit TRIPOLI began conducting reconnaissance operations in the vicinity of the airport and harbor. These operations lasted three days. In the early hours of 8 December 1992, elements of the 4th Psychological Operations Group attached to the 15th Marine Expeditionary Unit (MEU) conducted leaflet drops over the capital city of Mogadishu.[20][21] Early on 9 December, the MEU performed an unopposed amphibious assault into the city of Mogadishu from USS Tripoli, USS Juneau, and USS Rushmore.[22][23]:16

The MEU's ground combat element, 2nd Battalion 9th Marines (2/9), performed simultaneous raids on the Port of Mogadishu and Mogadishu International Airport, establishing a foothold for additional incoming troops. Echo and Golf Company assaulted the airport by helicopter and Amphibious Assault Vehicles, while Fox Company secured the port with an economy of force rubber boat raid. The 1st Marine Division's Air Contingency Battalion (ACB), 1st Battalion, 7th Marines and 3rd Battalion 11th Marines (3/11 is an Artillery Unit but operated as a Provisional Infantry Battalion while in Somalia), arrived soon after the airport was secured. Elements of BLT 2/9 India Co, 2nd Battalion, 9th Marines and 1/7 went on to secure the airport in Baidoa and the city of Bardera while Golf Company 2/9 and elements of the Belgian Special Forces conducted an amphibious landing at the port city of Kismayo. Air support was provided by the combined helicopter units of HMLA-267, HMH-363, HMH-466, HMM-164 and HC-11 DET 10.

Concurrently, various Somali factions returned to the negotiating table in an attempt to end the civil war. This effort was known as the Conference on National Reconciliation in Somalia and it resulted in the Addis Ababa Agreement signed on 27 March 1993. The conference, however, had little result as the civil war continued afterwards.

Results

German UN Soldiers during UNOSOM II 1993
German Paratrooper Battalion 261 armored personnel carrier

As UNITAF's mandate was to protect the delivery of food and other humanitarian aid, the operation was regarded as a success.[24] United Nations Secretary-General Boutros Boutros-Ghali determined that the presence of UNITAF troops had a "positive impact on the security situation in Somalia and on the effective delivery of humanitarian assistance."[25] An estimated 100,000 lives were saved as a result of outside assistance.[26]

One day prior to the signing of the Addis Ababa Agreement, the United Nations Security Council passed Resolution 814, which marked the transfer of power from UNITAF to UNOSOM II, a United Nations led force. The major change in policy that the transition from UNITAF to UNOSOM II entailed is that the new mandate included the responsibility of nation-building on the multinational force.[27] On 3 May 1993, UNOSOM II officially assumed command, and on 4 May 1993 it assumed responsibility for the operations.

Operation Continue Hope provided support of UNOSOM II to establish a secure environment for humanitarian relief operations by providing personnel, logistical, communications, intelligence support, a quick reaction force, and other elements as required. Over 60 Army aircraft and approximately 1,000 aviation personnel operated in Somalia from 1992 to 1994.

Crucially however, no disarmament of the rivaling factions within Somalia was undertaken.[28] This meant that the situation stayed stable only for the time UNITAF's overwhelming presence was deterring the fighting. Therefore, the mandate to create a "secure environment" was not achieved in a durable fashion. On a sad note, the Canadian Airborne Regiment was disbanded due to its disgraceful conduct at UNITAF following the Somalia Affair probe.

Transition

SomaliaUNSOMII
UNOSOM II area of operations.

UNITAF was only intended as a transitional body. Once a secure environment had been restored, the suspended UNOSOM mission would be revived, albeit in a much more robust form. On 3 March 1993, the Secretary-General submitted to the Security Council his recommendations for effecting the transition from UNITAF to UNOSOM II. He noted that despite the size of the UNITAF mission, a secure environment was not yet established and there was still no effective functioning government or local security/police force.[29]

The Secretary-General concluded therefore, that, should the Security Council determine that the time had come for the transition from UNITAF to UNOSOM II, the latter should be endowed with enforcement powers under Chapter VII of the United Nations Charter to establish a secure environment throughout Somalia.[5] UNOSOM II would therefore seek to complete the task begun by UNITAF for the restoration of peace and stability in Somalia. The new mandate would also empower UNOSOM II to assist the Somali people in rebuilding their economic, political and social life, through achieving national reconciliation so as to recreate a democratic Somali State.

UNOSOM II was established by the Security Council in Resolution 814 on 26 March 1993 and formally took over operations in Somalia when UNITAF was dissolved on 4 May 1993.

References

Footnotes

  1. ^ "United Nations Operation in Somalia UNSOM 1992". Australian War Memorial. Retrieved 31 May 2009.
  2. ^ "American War and Military Operations Casualties: Lists and Statistics" (PDF). Fas.org. Retrieved 4 October 2018.
  3. ^ Poole, Walter S. (2005). The Effort to Save Somalia (PDF). Washington: Joint History Office Office of the Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff.
  4. ^ a b "United Nations Operation In Somalia I – (Unosom I)". Un.org. Retrieved 29 January 2012.
  5. ^ a b c d "UNITED NATIONS OPERATION IN SOMALIA I, UN Dept of Peacekeeping". Un.org. Retrieved 29 January 2012.
  6. ^ United Nations, 1992, Letter dated 92/11/24 from the Secretary-General addressed to the President of the Security Council.
  7. ^ United Nations, 1992, Letter dated 92/11/29 from the Secretary-General addressed to the President of the Security Council, page 6.
  8. ^ United Nations, Security Council resolution 794 (1992), 24 April 1992, para. 3
  9. ^ Caplan, Richard (2012). Exit Strategies and State Building. New York: Oxford University Press. p. 86. ISBN 9780199760121.
  10. ^ Relations with Humanitarian Relief Organizations: Observations from Restore Hope, Center for Naval Analysis
  11. ^ Patman, R.G., 2001, ‘Beyond ‘the Mogadishu Line’: Some Australian Lessons for Managing Intra-State Conflicts’, Small Wars and Insurgencies, Vol, 12, No. 1, p. 69
  12. ^ "Security Council resolutions – 1992". Un.org. Retrieved 29 January 2012.
  13. ^ Security Council Resolution 794
  14. ^ Bush, George H., Address to the Nation on the Situation in Somalia, 4/12/92 On 23 December 1992,
  15. ^ Michael Robert Patterson. "Lawrence N. Freedman, Sergeant Major, United States Army". Arlingtoncemetery.net. Retrieved 29 January 2012.
  16. ^ Johnston, Dr. Philip (1994). Somalia Diary: The President of CARE Tells One Country's Story of Hope. Atlanta, Georgia: Longstreet Press. p. 73. ISBN 1-56352-188-1.
  17. ^ Fineman, Mark (18 January 1993). "Column One; The Oil Factor In Somalia;Four American Petroleum Giants Had Agreements With The African Nation Before Its Civil War Began. They Could Reap Big Rewards If Peace Is Restored". Los Angeles Times: 1. Archived from the original on 24 February 2012.
  18. ^ Reuters 2 (21 May 2008). "Canada's Africa Oil Starts Somalia Seismic Survey". Theepochtimes.com. Archived from the original on 11 May 2011. Retrieved 27 June 2010.
  19. ^ a b Adam, Dr. Hussein M. (2008). From Tyranny to Anarchy: The Somali Experience. Trenton, NJ: The Red Sea Press, Inc. pp. 156–160. ISBN 1-56902-288-7.
  20. ^ Friedman, Herbert A. "United States PSYOP in Somalia". Psywarrior. Retrieved 2 December 2012.
  21. ^ Borchini, Charles P. (Lt. Col.); Borstelmann, Mari (October 1994). "PSYOP in Somalia: The Voice of Hope" (PDF). Special Warfare. United States Army. Retrieved 2 December 2012.
  22. ^ Buer, Eric F. (Maj.) (2002). "A Comparative Analysis of Offensive Air Support" (PDF). United States Marine Corps Command and Staff College. p. 23.
  23. ^ Mroczkowski, Dennis P. (Col.) (2005). Restoring Hope: In Somalia with the Unified Task Force 1992–1993. United States Marines Corp. Retrieved 2 December 2012.
  24. ^ "Operation Restore Hope". Globalsecurity.org. Retrieved 2 December 2007.
  25. ^ "United Nations Operation in Somalia I". Retrieved 2 December 2007.
  26. ^ "Somalia and the Future of Humanitarian Intervention". Foreign Affairs.
  27. ^ "United Nations Operation in Somalia 2". Un.org. Retrieved 2 December 2007.
  28. ^ Norrie MacQueen (2006). Peacekeeping and the International System. Routledge.
  29. ^ UNITED NATIONS OPERATION IN SOMALIA I, UN Dept of Peacekeeping

Bibliography

External links

1990 Chemical Weapons Accord

On June 1, 1990, Presidents George H.W. Bush and Mikhail Gorbachev signed the bilateral U.S.–Soviet Chemical Weapons Accord; officially known as the "Agreement on Destruction and Non-production of Chemical Weapons and on Measures to Facilitate the Multilateral Convention on Banning Chemical Weapons". This pact was signed during a summit meeting in Washington D.C.

Black Hawk Down (book)

Black Hawk Down: A Story of Modern War is a 1999 book by journalist Mark Bowden. It documents efforts by the Unified Task Force to capture Somali faction leader Mohamed Farrah Aidid in 1993, and the resulting battle in Mogadishu between United States forces and Aidid's militia. One of the key events is the downing of two United States UH-60 Black Hawk helicopters, from which the book derives its title, and the attempt to rescue their crews. United States forces included Army Rangers, 160th Special Operations Aviation Regiment, 10th Mountain Division, Delta Force and Navy SEALs, with United Nations peacekeeping forces also involved.

The raid became the most intense close combat in U.S. military history since the Vietnam War. Although the particular mission to apprehend Aidid was officially codenamed Gothic Serpent, the media colloquially termed it the Battle of Mogadishu as well as the Battle of the Black Sea.

Embassy of the United States, Mogadishu

The Embassy of the United States of America to Somalia is a diplomatic mission of the United States in Mogadishu, Somalia from 1960 to 1991. In 1957, the US opened a consulate-general in Mogadishu—the capital of the Trust Territory of Somalia, a UN trusteeship under Italian administration. The consulate was upgraded to embassy status in July 1960, when the US recognized Somalia's independence and appointed an ambassador. The embassy served to counter Soviet influence during the Cold War and also served as a base for the United States Agency for International Development, which had a large presence in the country. In 1989, the embassy moved from a dilapidated building in central Mogadishu to a new compound on the outskirts of the city.

Violence quickly enveloped the city in late December 1990, during the Somali Civil War, and on 1 January 1991, the ambassador contacted the State Department to request the closure and evacuation of the embassy. Approval was given the following day, but violence and the collapse of the central government prevented the US, and several other countries, from airlifting their diplomats and civilians through Mogadishu International Airport. The USS Guam and USS Trenton, which were stationed off the coast of Oman, were dispatched to airlift staff from the embassy; American civilians and many foreign diplomats also gathered at the embassy, seeking evacuation. The embassy closed on January 5, 1991 and 281 American and foreign diplomats and civilians were airlifted by helicopter from the embassy compound to Guam and Trenton.

In December 1992, the embassy compound was reoccupied and repaired to serve as a headquarters for US personnel within the Unified Task Force and, following the transition to UN control, a base for UNOSOM. The US worked with various parties in Somalia to establish peace and formally recognized the newly established Federal Government of Somalia in January 2013. In May 2015, US Secretary of State John Kerry visited Somalia and stated that the US plans to reopen its embassy soon; the Somali government presented him with the real estate deed for land reserved for the new US embassy compound in Mogadishu. The move came three months after President Obama nominated Katherine Dhanani to the post of US ambassador to Somalia, who would have been the first US ambassador to Somalia since 1991, but she withdrew three months later.In December 2018, the United States established a permanent diplomatic mission in Mogadishu.

Helsinki Summit (1990)

The Helsinki Summit comprised a meeting between US President George H. W. Bush and Soviet General Secretary Mikhail Gorbachev, taking place on September 9, 1990, just a few weeks before the reunification of Germany as their third meeting following a meeting that included Ronald Reagan, in New York in December 1988. Furthermore, the collapse of communism and the pending reunification of Germany necessitated a second summit meeting of the Commission on Security and Cooperation in Europe in order to formally end the Cold War.

List of Canadian peacekeeping missions

Canada's role in the development of peacekeeping during the 20th century led to the establishment of Canada as a prominent world power. Canada's commitment to multilateralism has been closely related to peacekeeping efforts. Canadian Nobel Peace Prize laureate Lester B. Pearson considered to be the father of modern United Nations Peacekeeping. Prior to Canada's role in the Suez Canal Crisis, Canada was viewed by many as insignificant in issues of the world's traditional powers. Canada's successful role in the conflict gave Canada credibility and established it as a nation fighting for the common good of all the world's nations and not just their allies. Since 1995, however, Canadian direct participation in United Nations peacekeeping efforts has greatly declined. That number decreased largely because Canada began to direct its participation to UN-sanctioned military operations through NATO, rather than through the UN. In July 2006, for instance, Canada ranked 51st on the list of UN peacekeepers, contributing 130 peacekeepers out of a total UN deployment of over 70,000; whereas in November 1990 Canada had 1,002 troops out of a total UN deployment of 10,304.

Below is a list of major peacekeeping missions undertaken by Canada from 1956 to present.

Military history of Italy

The military history of Italy chronicles a vast time period, lasting from the overthrow of Tarquinius Superbus in 509 BC, through the Roman Empire, Italian unification, and into the modern day. The Italian peninsula has been a centre of military conflict throughout European history: because of this, Italy has a long military tradition. Today Italy is the 8th country by Military Strength Index.

Mohamed Farrah Aidid

Mohamed Farrah Hassan Aidid (Somali: Maxamed Faarax Xasan Caydiid, Arabic: محمد فرح حسن عيديد‎; December 15, 1934 – August 1, 1996) was a Somali military commander and political leader. A former general and diplomat, he was the chairman of the United Somali Congress (USC) and later led the Somali National Alliance (SNA). Along with other armed opposition groups, they drove out President Mohamed Siad Barre's socialist regime from Somalia's capital Mogadishu during the Somali Civil War that broke out in the early 1990s.

In 1992, Aidid attacked United Nations troops in the nation. He was one of the main targets of the Unified Task Force. After eventually forcing UN forces to withdraw in 1995, Aidid became President of Somalia until he was killed the following year.

Operation Provide Relief

Operation Provide Relief was part of a United Nations-endorsed initiative called the Unified Task Force (UNITAF) to secure and facilitate the delivery of humanitarian relief during the Somali Civil War. This effort was assisted by the UNOSOM I mission, in light of a severe food crisis initiated and exacerbated by ongoing factional fighting. The operation was spearheaded by the United States and other troop-contributing Western nations. However, most of the relief supplies were looted by militants shortly upon arrival. This prompted the UN to pass Resolution 794, which paved the way for the more robust, multinational Operation Restore Hope.

Operation Solace

Operation Solace was the Australian Defence Force's main contribution to the Unified Task Force (UNITAF) which was a United States led, United Nations sanctioned, multinational force which operated in the Republic of Somalia from 9 December 1992 to 4 May 1993. Codenamed Operation Restore Hope, UNITAF was charged with carrying out United Nations Security Council Resolution 794: to create a protected environment for conducting humanitarian operations in the southern half of the Republic of Somalia.

Operation Solace centred on the deployment of the 1st Battalion, Royal Australian Regiment (1RAR) battalion group to Baidoa in south-central Somalia. The 1 RAR battalion group replaced the 3rd Battalion, 9th United States Marine Regiment in Baidoa on 19 January 1993. The Battalion group was successful in improving the security situation and earned the respect of the non-government aid organisations operating in the region. The 1 RAR battalion group left Somalia on 21 May 1993.

The main Australian units deployed to Somalia during Operation Solace were:

1st Battalion, Royal Australian Regiment battalion group

HMAS Tobruk

HMAS Jervis Bay

Sunped

Sunped is a village in Faridabad district of Haryana in India. Rahul Gandhi National Congress leader visited the village.

Fatehpur Billoch is a nearby village.

Location- SUNPED is a village in Ballabhgarh Tehsil of Haryana having majority of Rajput. It is 8 KM from Ballabhgarh and 6 KM from FATEHPUR BILLOCH.West Yamuna canal flows on its North West.During Mughal period this region came under the rule of Billoch Tribe.

History-According to traditional narrators/ historical accounts of Badvaji/Raiji ( inhabitant of Badwa ji ka vaas, Tehsil Lalsonth, Rajasthan ), after the death of great Hindu Ruler Prithviraj Chauhan-III in 1192 AD in the Battle of Tarain (Haryana)[8] , two brothers Raju Rawat and Phool Singh Rawat ( Manvi Kashyap Gotra of CHAUHAN dynasty) of Ajmer (Rajasthan) came to have holy bath in GarhGanga place in Uttarpradesh. PhoolSingh Rawat settled in Bulandshahar District of Uttar Pradesh. RajuRawat while passing through Ballabgarh region , overthrown the Abbu Khan Meo and captured his mudfort at Deeg village in Ballabhgarh(Haryana). He has seven son from two wives. These seven son settled in 12 different villages which are now known as 'RAWATO KA BARAH".

Village Sunped was established by SONAK RAWAT.

Title of Rawat-The Battle of Khanwa was fought near the village of Khanwa, in Bharatpur District of Rajasthan, on March 16, 1527. It was fought between the invading forces of the first Mughal Emperor Babur and the Rajput forces led by Rana Sanga of Mewar, after the Battle of Panipat. During this battle, one Rajput soldier saved the life of Rana Sanga and sacrificed himself. After the battle , Rana Sanga bestowed the title of Rawat on the saviors of his life.

SHAURYA GATHA-Brave VIKRAM Singh was born on 15 July 1943 in Sunped. He was recruited in Kumaun Regiment of Indian Army on 15 July 1963.During Indo-Pak war of 1965 his regiment was in Ranikhet (now in Uttranchal state of India). His regiment reached upto Lahore. On 22 September 1965 he got martyrdom. Then Prime Minister Sh. Lal Bahadur Shastri send a condolence letter to his wife Smt. Birmati , this letter is still with her.Chaudhary Dulichand ji Zaildar-Aryasamaji, born in 1889 AD, died in 1969 AD, worked with Swami Shradhananad ji ( founder of Gurukul Kangri Haridwar, Gurukul Indraprastha etc.)in the field of Shuddhi. He was among 32 such persons who did honorary social work in 1929.He participtated in Hindi Raksha Movement and also in cow protection movement. A Signalman who participated in Operation Restore Hope-

Sh. Samay Singh Rawat -He remained in Somalia from Dec.1992 to May 1993. He worked as a signalman in Indian Army contingent part of Unified task force of United Nations.

United Nations Operation in Somalia I

United Nations Operation in Somalia I (UNOSOM I) was the first part of a United Nations (UN) sponsored effort to provide, facilitate, and secure humanitarian relief in Somalia, as well as to monitor the first UN-brokered ceasefire of the Somali Civil War conflict in the early 1990s.

The operation was established in April 1992 and ran until its duties were assumed by the Unified Task Force (UNITAF) mission in December 1992. Following the dissolution of UNITAF in May 1993, the subsequent UN mission in Somalia was known as UNOSOM II.

United Nations Operation in Somalia II

United Nations Operation in Somalia II (UNOSOM II) was the second phase of the United Nations intervention in Somalia, from March 1993 until March 1995, after the country had become involved in civil war in 1991.

UNOSOM II carried on from the United States-controlled (UN-sanctioned) Unified Task Force (UNITAF). It had been active for a transition period when United Nations Operation in Somalia I (UNOSOM I) mission proved to be ineffectual. All three of these interventions were intended to establish a secure enough environment for humanitarian operations to be carried out, because there was effectively no central government and the country was increasingly subject to factional violence and was suffering from famine, in part due to the warfare and social disruption.

The UNOSOM II intervention was associated with the Battle of Mogadishu and related events in which eighteen American soldiers were killed. These events were the basis for the book Black Hawk Down: A Story of Modern War (1999), and its adaptation as a film of the same name.

United Nations Security Council Resolution 794

United Nations Security Council resolution 794, adopted unanimously on 3 December 1992, after reaffirming resolutions 733 (1992), 746 (1992), 751 (1992), 767 (1992) and 775 (1992), the Council "[expressed] grave alarm" regarding the situation in Somalia and authorised the creation of the Unified Task Force (UNITAF) to create a "secure environment for humanitarian relief operations in Somalia" in order to provide "essential for the survival of the civilian population". The current resolution determined that "the magnitude of human tragedy caused by the conflict in Somalia, further exacerbated by the obstacles being created to the distribution of humanitarian assistance [constitutes] a threat to international peace and security".The Council once again, strongly condemned violations of international humanitarian law and demanded the cessation of all hostilities from all parties involved, urging them to co-operate with the Special Representative of the Secretary-General Boutros Boutros-Ghali and military, including allowing access by military personnel and humanitarian organisations to the affected population and to ensure their safety. It also authorised a further deployment of 3,500 personnel of the United Nations Operation in Somalia I (UNISOM I) created in Resolution 775 to Somalia and informing it should proceed at the discretion of the Secretary-General.

The resolution went on to endorse a recommendation by the Secretary-General that action should be taken under Chapter VII of the United Nations Charter and welcomed offers by Member States concerning the creation of an operation to create a secure environment for humanitarian operations, that later became known as UNITAF. At the time of his report, disarmament and the problem of security was not resolved. The Council authorised such action to be taken by Member States, and appointed an ad hoc commission composed of members of the Security Council to report on the implementation of the current resolution.

Acting under Chapter VII and Chapter VIII, the Council urged states and agencies to ensure strict implementation of the arms embargo against Somalia imposed in Resolution 733. Resolution 794 ended by requiring states participating in UNITAF and the Secretary-General to report regularly on the progress they are making in Somalia so that arrangements can be handed back over to UNISOM II.

Within days of passing the current resolution, on 9 December 1992, the first UNITAF troops arrived in the Somali capital, Mogadishu. It was the first Security Council resolution that authorised the use of force under Chapter VII to deliver humanitarian aid that was being obstructed by warlords, and the fourth major military engagement since the Cold War, following the invasion of Kuwait, the deployment of peacekeepers in Cambodia and a further deployment of peacekeepers in Yugoslavia.

United Nations Security Council Resolution 814

United Nations Security Council resolution 814, adopted unanimously on 26 March 1993, after reaffirming resolutions 733 (1992), 746 (1992), 751 (1992), 767 (1992), 775 (1992) and 794 (1993) on the ongoing civil war in Somalia, the Council, acting under Chapter VII of the United Nations Charter, authorised an extension of the United Nations Operation in Somalia II (UNOSOM II) until 31 October 1993.

The resolution began by indicating its appreciation to the Secretary-General Boutros Boutros-Ghali for convening the Conference on National Reconciliation for Somalia in which some progress was made and that a wide range of Somali people were represented. It also welcomed the convening of the Third United Nations Coordination Meeting for Humanitarian Assistance for Somalia in Addis Ababa from 11 to 13 March 1993. The Council then requested the Secretary-General, through his Special Representative, to:

(a) assist in the provision of relief to Somalia in accordance with the rehabilitation programme drawn up by the Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs;

(b) assist in the repatriation of refugees and displaced persons within the country;

(c) promote political reconciliation, including the re-establishment of national and regional institutions and civil administrations through broad participation of all sectors of Somali society;

(d) facilitate the re-establishment of the Somali police and restoration of law and order, including investigations into violations of international humanitarian law;

(e) assist in demining and in the development of public information services;

(f) create conditions under which Somali civil society may have a role at every level in the process of political reconciliation.The Council then extended and strengthened the mandate of UNOSOM II under Chapter VII, emphasising the need for disarmament and the need to support the Unified Task Force (UNITAF). It demanded Somali parties fulfil their obligations to the agreements they signed and ensure the safety of United Nations personnel and those of international organisations, as well as requesting the Secretary-General to enforce from inside Somalia the arms embargo imposed in Resolution 733 alongside Member States.

The resolution then requested the Secretary-General to provide security during the repatriation of refugees and the assisted resettlement of displaced persons, reiterating its call for all Somali parties to cease and desist from violations of international humanitarian law. It also directed Boutros-Ghali to direct the Force Commander of UNOSOM II to organize a prompt, smooth and phased transition from UNITAF to UNOSOM II, and to maintain the fund for receiving contributions to UNOSOM II.Resolution 814 concluded by welcoming the efforts United Nations agencies, intergovernmental and non-governmental organizations and the International Committee of the Red Cross in Somalia; requests the Secretary-General to seek further financing for institutions in Somalia and for him to keep the Council fully informed on the situation in the country.

United Nations Security Council Resolution 837

United Nations Security Council resolution 837, adopted unanimously on 6 June 1993, after reaffirming resolutions 733 (1992), 746 (1992), 751 (1992), 767 (1992), 775 (1992), 794 (1992) and 814 (1993), the Council condemned the attacks on the United Nations Operation in Somalia II (UNOSOM II) in which 24 Pakistani troops deployed in the Unified Task Force were killed and 56 injured, including 1 Italian and 3 American soldiers.Acting under Chapter VII of the United Nations Charter, the Council re-emphasised the importance of the early implementation of the disarmament of all Somali parties, factions and movements, as well as neutralizing radio broadcasting systems that contributed to attacks towards United Nations forces. It also demanded that all parties in Somalia comply with the commitments they had undertaken in the agreements they concluded at the informal Preparatory Meeting on Somali Political Reconciliation in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, reaffirming that the UN Secretary-General Boutros Boutros-Ghali is authorised to take action against those responsible for the armed attacks against UNOSOM II to establish its authority throughout Somalia.The Council concluded by encouraging the deployment of all UNOSOM II contingents to meet the full requirements of 28,000 men; urging Member States to contribute equipment to the Operation; and for the Secretary-General to report back on the situation within seven days of the adoption of the current resolution.

It was on this resolution that the decision was made to arrest General Mohamed Farrah Aidid who was responsible for the attack, although he was not captured.

United Nations Security Council Resolution 954

United Nations Security Council resolution 954, adopted unanimously on 4 November 1994, after recalling Resolution 733 (1992) and all relevant resolutions on the situation in Somalia and a recent Security Council mission to the country, the Council noted the lack of progress in the peace process and decided, under Chapter VII of the United Nations Charter, to extend the mandate of the United Nations Operation in Somalia II for a final time, until 31 March 1995.The Security Council appreciated the efforts of the mission sent to convey the views of the Council to the Somali parties, and commended the work of thousands of personnel involved in the Unified Task Force (UNITAF), UNOSOM II and humanitarian efforts. It noted that hundreds of thousands of lives had been saved from starvation. At the same time the Council acknowledged that the lack of co-operation between the Somali parties and factions undermined the United Nations objectives in Somalia and therefore the continuation of UNOSOM II beyond the end of March 1995 was not justified. There were guarantees from the Somali parties that they would co-operate and not interfere with the withdrawal of UNOSOM II. The United Nations would continue mediation in Somalia, in co-operation with the Organisation of African Unity, Arab League and Organisation of the Islamic Conference and the provision of humanitarian aid would also be sustained.

By extending UNOSOM II's mandate for a final time, its main objective was to facilitate political reconciliation. All Somali factions were urged to negotiate and establish a transitional government of national unity. The parties also had to guarantee the safety of UNOSOM II and humanitarian personnel, authorising UNOSOM II to take action in order to protect its withdrawal. All Member States were called upon to continue to support the Somali peace process and to strictly observe the arms embargo on the country imposed in Resolution 733. Finally, the Secretary-General Boutros Boutros-Ghali was requested to report to the Council on the developments in all areas of Somalia before 31 March 1995, and to recommend suggestions on the role that the United Nations could play in Somalia after that date.

The last UNOSOM troops withdrew from Somalia on 3 March 1995. It marked the first time that the United Nations left a country without completing its aims.

United Somali Congress

The United Somali Congress (USC) was one of the major rebel organizations in Somalia. Formed in 1987, it played a key role in the ouster of the government of Siad Barre in 1991, and became a target of the Unified Task Force campaign in 1993. Following infighting, the USC later splintered into smaller groups. By 2004, with the establishment of a Transitional National Government (TNG), a process of disarmament was put in motion and some moderate ex-USC leaders were incorporated into the new interim administration.

War in Somalia

War in Somalia can refer to:

Somali Civil War (1991–present)War in Somalia (1992–1993) U.N. Unified Task Force

Somali Civil War (2006–2009)

Somali Civil War (2009–present)

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