In archeology, a uniface is a specific type of stone tool that has been flaked on one surface only. There are two general classes of uniface tools: modified flakes—and formalized tools, which display deliberate, systematic modification of the marginal edges, evidently formed for a specific purpose.

Modified flakes

While many worked stone tools can be technically designated as "modified flakes," for lithic analysis purposes a modified flake is usually defined as a lithic flake with one or more edges that were altered either through opportunistic use or through nonsystematic retouching; it is often difficult to identify the process that produced the observed edge. Opportunistic use occurs when a sharp flake is used as-is, without edge-modification. Nonsystematic retouching occurs when pressure flaking is used to remove a few trimming flakes from the edge, in no discernible or extensive pattern.

Formalized uniface tools

Some unifaces are characterized by systematic edge retouch, which was used to thin, straighten, sharpen, and smooth an artifact's edge, and were usually created with a specific purpose in mind. These formalized unifaces were often intended for woodworking, cutting, chopping, or hide-working purposes, and generally fall into easily classifiable types. While the following discussion does not cover some specialized types of unifaces, it does include the most common types.

Scrapers are unifacial tools that were used either for hideworking or woodworking. Whereas this term is often used for any unifacially flaked tool that defies classification, most lithic analysts maintain that the only true scrapers are defined on the base of use-wear, and are usually worked at their distal ends—i.e., "end scrapers." Other scrapers include the so-called "side scrapers." Most scrapers are either oval or blade-like in shape. The working edges of scrapers tend to be convex, and many have trimmed and dulled lateral edges to facilitate hafting. One important variety of scraper is the thumbnail scraper, a scraper shaped much like its namesake. This scraper type is common at Paleo-Indian sites.

Gouges (or adzes) may be either bifacial or unifacial, and are defined as tools with chisel-like working edges that were used for woodworking purposes; they may also have been used to remove marrow from bones. Gouges are generally triangular in shape, with the working edge—characteristically steep-angled—appearing at the wide base of the triangle. The opposite edge, at the point of the triangle, was the hafted end; the tool itself was generally hafted at right angles to the handle.

Denticulate tools display edges that are worked into a multiply notched shape, much like the toothed edge of a saw. Indeed, these tools might have been used as saws, more likely for meat processing than for wood. It is possible, however, that some or all of these notches were used for smoothing wooden shafts or for similar purposes.

Banknotes of the Venezuelan venezolano

Banknotes of the Venezuelan venezolano circulated between 1872 and 1879.

Bare Island projectile point

The Bare Island projectile point is a stone projectile point of prehistoric indigenous peoples of North America. It was named by Fred Kinsey in 1959 for examples recovered at the Kent-Halley site on Bare Island in Pennsylvania.

Celt (tool)

In archaeology, a celt is a long, thin, prehistoric, stone or bronze tool similar to an adze, a hoe or axe-like tool.

Cumberland point

A Cumberland point is a lithic projectile point, attached to a spear and used as a hunting tool. These sturdy points were intended for use as thrusting weapons and employed by various mid-Paleo-Indians (c. 11,000 BP) in the Southeastern US in the killing of large game mammals.

Grattoir de côté

A Grattoir de côté (translates from French as Side Scraper) is an archaeological term for a ridged variety of steep-scrapers distinguished by a working edge on one side. They were found at various archaeological sites in Lebanon including Ain Cheikh and Jdeideh II and are suggested to date to Upper Paleolithic stages three or four (Antelian).

Grinding slab

In archaeology, a grinding slab is a ground stone artifact generally used to grind plant materials into usable size, though some slabs were used to shape other ground stone artifacts. Some grinding stones are portable; others are not and, in fact, may be part of a stone outcropping.

Grinding slabs used for plant processing typically acted as a coarse surface against which plant materials were ground using a portable hand stone, or mano ("hand" in Spanish). Variant grinding slabs are referred to as metates or querns, and have a ground-out bowl. Like all ground stone artifacts, grinding slabs are made of large-grained materials such as granite, basalt, or similar tool stones.

Lamoka projectile point

Lamoka projectile points are stone projectile points manufactured by Native Americans what is now the northeastern United States, generally in the time interval of 3500-2500 B.C. They predate the invention of the bow and arrow, and are therefore not true "arrowheads", but rather atlatl dart points. They derive their name from the specimens found at the Lamoka site in Schuyler County, New York.

List of programming languages

The aim of this list of programming languages is to include all notable programming languages in existence, both those in current use and historical ones, in alphabetical order. Dialects of BASIC, esoteric programming languages, and markup languages are not included.


Compuware OptimalJ was a model-driven development environment for Java.

OptimalJ was first released in 2001 and was then based on Sun Microsystems' open source NetBeans IDE. Since 2006 OptimalJ is based on the open source Eclipse IDE. OptimalJ was developed out of Compuware's Amsterdam offices by many of the development team responsible for the Uniface development suite.

OptimalJ is available in two editions:

The Professional Edition is focused on simplifying Java EE development, by providing the capability to model a Java EE application, and then generate the application's code from the model via implementation patterns. First, a platform-independent model is made, which is then transformed via technology patterns to a platform-specific model.

The Architecture Edition provides capabilities for metamodeling and for writing implementation and technology patterns, which can be used to extend the Professional Edition. Metamodels and patterns are bundled into software factories.OptimalJ was generally regarded as a technically superior but relatively expensive development environment. Compuware found it difficult to gain market share amongst the Java development community with the Optimal suite of products.

Due to internal restructurings, Compuware decided in 2008 to discontinue OptimalJ.

Pesse canoe

The Pesse canoe is believed to be the world's oldest known boat, and certainly the oldest known canoe. Carbon dating indicates that the boat was constructed during the early mesolithic period between 8040 BCE and 7510 BCE. It is now in the Drents Museum in Assen, Netherlands.

Plano point

In archeology, Plano point is flaked stone projectile points and tools created by the various Plano cultures of the North American Great Plains between 9000 BC and 6000 BC for hunting, and possibly to kill other humans.

They are bifacially worked and have been divided into numerous sub-groups based on variations in size, shape and function including Alberta points, Cody points, Frederick points, Eden points and Scottsbluff points. Plano points do not include the hollowing or 'fluting' found in Clovis and Folsom points.


In archeology, a racloir, also known as racloirs sur talon (French for scraper on the platform), is a certain type of flint tool made by prehistoric peoples.

It is a type of side scraper distinctive of Mousterian assemblages. It is created from a flint flake and looks like a large scraper. As well as being used for scraping hides and bark, it may also have been used as a knife. Racloirs are most associated with the Neanderthal Mousterian industry. These racloirs are retouched along the ridge between the striking platform and the dorsal face. They have shaped edges and are modified by abrupt flaking from the dorsal face.

Scintilla (software)

Scintilla is a free open source library that provides a text editing component function, with an emphasis on advanced features for source code editing.


A spokeshave is a tool used to shape and smooth woods in woodworking jobs such as making wheel cart wheel spokes, chair legs, paddles, bows, and arrows. Historically, a spokeshave was made with a wooden body and metal cutting blade. With industrialization metal bodies displaced wood in mass-produced tools.

Tool stone

In archaeology, a tool stone is a type of stone that is used to manufacture stone tools,

or stones used as the raw material for tools.Generally speaking, tools that require a sharp edge are made using cryptocrystalline materials that fracture in an easily controlled conchoidal manner.

Cryptocrystalline tool stones include flint and chert, which are fine-grained sedimentary materials; rhyolite and felsite, which are igneous flowstones; and obsidian, a form of natural glass created by igneous processes. These materials fracture in a predictable fashion, and are easily resharpened. For more information on this subject, see lithic reduction.

Large-grained materials, such as basalt, granite, and sandstone, may also be used as tool stones, but for a very different purpose: they are ideal for ground stone artifacts. Whereas cryptocrystalline materials are most useful for killing and processing animals, large-grained materials are usually used for processing plant matter. Their rough faces often make excellent surfaces for grinding plant seeds. With much effort, some large-grained stones may be ground down into awls, adzes, and axes.

Uniface (company)

Uniface is a privately held software development company, located in Amsterdam, Netherlands. It develops the Uniface programming language. The company has around 70 employees and 1600 customers. Telmex, Kawasaki, Airbus or FedEx are Uniface’s customers. Uniface was bought by Compuware on 1994. After 20 years the company has been sold to Marlin Equity Partners. The company has offices in Amsterdam, Sydney, Vienna, Brussels, Sao Paulo, Montreal, Paris, Munich, Dublin, Tokyo, Barcelona, Maidenhead and Detroit.

Uniface (numismatics)

A uniface is a reference to a one-sided Coin or Banknote, usually issued in low denomination, in times of war or in the early evolution of coins and banknotes; other examples are made as trial strikes of dies.

Uniface (programming language)

Uniface is a development and deployment platform for enterprise applications that can run in a large range of runtime environments, including mobile, mainframe, web, Service-oriented architecture (SOA), Windows, Java EE and .NET. Uniface is a model-driven, Rapid Application Development (RAD) environment used to create mission-critical applications.

Uniface applications are database- and platform-independent. Uniface provides an integration framework that enables Uniface applications to integrate with all major DBMS products such as Oracle, Microsoft SQL Server, MySQL and IBM DB2. In addition, Uniface also supports file systems such as RMS (HP OpenVMS), Sequential files, operating system text files and a wide range of other technologies, such as mainframe-based products (CICS, IMS), web services, SMTP and POP email, LDAP directories, .NET, ActiveX, Component Object Model (COM), C(++) programs, and Java. Uniface operates under Microsoft Windows, Windows Mobile, various flavors of Unix and Linux, VMS, IBM iSeries, and z/OS.

Uniface can be used in complex systems that maintain critical enterprise data supporting mission-critical business processes such as point-of sale and web-based online shopping, financial transactions, salary administration, and inventory control. It is currently used by thousands of companies in more than 30 countries, with an effective installed base of millions of end-users. Uniface applications range from client/server to web, and from data entry to workflow, as well as portals that are accessed locally, via intranets and the internet.

Originally developed in the Netherlands by Inside Automation, later Uniface B.V., the product and company were acquired by Detroit-based Compuware Corp in 1994, and in 2014 was acquired by Marlin Equity Partners and is now an independent company. Uniface B.V. global headquarters are in Amsterdam.

Yubetsu technique

The Yubetsu technique (湧別技法, Yūbetsu gihō) is a special technique to make microblades, proposed by Japanese scholar Yoshizaki in 1961, based on his finds in some Upper Palaeolithic sites in Hokkaido, Japan, which date from c. 13,000 bp.

The name comes from the Yūbetsu River (湧別川, Yubetsugawa), on the right bank of which the Shirataki (白滝遺跡, Shirataki Iseki) Palaeolithic sites were discovered.

To make microblades by this technique, a large biface is made into a core which looks like a tall carinated scraper. Then one lateral edge of the bifacial core is removed, producing at first a triangular spall. After, more edge removals will produce ski spalls of parallel surfaces.

This technique was also used from Mongolia to Kamchatka Peninsula during the later Pleistocene.

This page is based on a Wikipedia article written by authors (here).
Text is available under the CC BY-SA 3.0 license; additional terms may apply.
Images, videos and audio are available under their respective licenses.