Ungual

An ungual (from Latin unguis, i.e. nail) is a highly modified distal toe bone which ends in a hoof, claw, or nail. Elephants and other ungulates have ungual phalanges, as did the sauropods and horned dinosaurs. A claw is a highly modified ungual phalanx.

As an adjective, ungual means related to nail, as in periungual (around the nail).[1]

References

  1. ^ medical-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com

External links

Acro–dermato–ungual–lacrimal–tooth syndrome

Acro–dermato–ungual–lacrimal–tooth (ADULT) syndrome is a rare genetic disease. ADULT syndrome is an autosomal dominant form of ectodermal dysplasia, a group of disorders that affects the hair, teeth, nails, sweat glands, and extremities. The syndrome arises from a mutation in the TP63 gene. This disease was previously thought to be a form of ectrodactyly–ectodermal dysplasia–cleft syndrome (EEC), but was classified as a different disease in 1993 by Propping and Zerres.

Algoasaurus

Algoasaurus (; "Algoa Bay reptile") is a genus of sauropod dinosaur from the Tithonian-early Valanginian-age Late Jurassic-Early Cretaceous Upper Kirkwood Formation of Cape Province, South Africa. It was a neosauropod; although it has often been assigned to the Titanosauridae, there is no evidence for this, and recent reviews have considered it to be an indeterminate sauropod.The type species, A. bauri, was named by Robert Broom in 1904 from a back vertebra, femur and an ungual phalanx. The fossils were recovered in 1903 from a quarry by workmen who did not recognize them as dinosaur specimens, so many of the bones were made into bricks and thus destroyed. The animal may have been around 9 m (30 ft) long when it died.

Alierasaurus

Alierasaurus is an extinct genus of caseid synapsid that lived during the Permian in what is now Sardinia. It is represented by a single species, the type species Alierasaurus ronchii. Known from a very large partial skeleton found within the Cala del Vino Formation, Alierasaurus is one of the largest known caseids. It closely resembles Cotylorhynchus, another giant caseid from the Middle Permian San Angelo Formation in Texas. In fact, the only anatomical features that differ between Alierasaurus and Cotylorhynchus are found in the bones of the feet; Aleirasaurus has a longer and thinner fourth metatarsal and it has ungual bones at the tips of the toes that are pointed and claw-like rather than flattened as in other caseids. Aleirasaurus and Cotylorhynchus both have very wide, barrel-shaped rib cages indicating that they were herbivores that fed primarily on high-fiber plant material.

Brasilotitan

Brasilotitan is a genus of titanosaurian sauropod dinosaur from the Late Cretaceous (Turonian - Santonian) Adamantina Formation of Brazil. The type species is Brasilotitan nemophagus.

Chaetomium globosum

Chaetomium globosum is a well-known mesophilic member of the Chaetomiaceae family of molds. It is a saprophytic fungus that primarily resides on plants, soil, straw, and dung. Endophytic C. globosum assists in cellulose decomposition of plant cells. They are found in habitats ranging from forest plants to mountain soils across various biomes. C. globosum colonies can also be found indoors and on wooden products.C. globosum are human allergens and opportunistic agents of ungual mycosis and neurological infections. However such illnesses occur at low rates.

Conkling Cavern

Conkling Cavern is a paleontological and archaeological site located in Doña Ana County, New Mexico. It was excavated in the late 1920s under the direction of Chester Stock. Unfortunately, Stock never published the fossil fauna from the excavations. Instead, R. P. Conkling, who had drawn scientific attention to the site, published very preliminary lists of mammals identified by Stock and birds identified by Howard. Several authors have done research on portions of the recovered fossil fauna. Excavated before modern dating techniques were developed, little is known about the chronology except some apparently is Holocene and much is Pleistocene in age.

The site is located on the east side of Bishop's Cap, an outlier of the Organ Mountains. The entrance to the cavern is essentially vertical. The cave was described by Conkling as having been filled originally to 8 feet below the entrance. A vertical section of the cave is pictured in the Conkling paper from a photograph of an exhibit that had been displayed at the Natural History Museum of Los Angeles County.

The Conkling Cavern material was deposited at that museum. Some additional material has since been recovered from spoil from the original excavations and is housed in the Paleobiology Collection, UTEP Biodiversity Collections, Department of Biological Sciences, and Centennial Museum and Chihuahuan Desert Gardens, University of Texas at El Paso. The faunal list includes identifications from all known collections.

Fragments of two humans were recovered, including parts of two skulls. One of these was at a depth of about 12 feet and the other at about 26 feet, about 26 inches beneath a layer of consolidated sandstone. The upper skull part was close to the ungual phalanges of a sloth. Gnawed human bones were found deeper in what was thought to be a dire wolf den.

Names have been changed to the current nomenclature. Keep in mind that identifications are tentative and some may be Holocene rather than Pleistocene.

Dischidodactylus

Mount Duida frogs (Dischidodactylus), is a genus of craugastorid frogs endemic to the tepuis of southern Venezuela. The scientific name is derived from the Greek dischidos, meaning divided, and dactylos, meaning finger or toe, in reference to the divided ungual flap (see below).

Eremoryzomys

Eremoryzomys polius, also known as the gray rice rat or the Marañon oryzomys, is a rodent species in the tribe Oryzomyini of the family Cricetidae. Discovered in 1912 and first described in 1913 by Wilfred Osgood, it was originally placed in Oryzomys and named Oryzomys polius. In 2006, a cladistic analysis found that it was not closely related to Oryzomys in the strict sense or to any other oryzomyine then known, so that it is now placed in its own genus, Eremoryzomys. The Brazilian genus Drymoreomys, named in 2011, is probably the closest relative of Eremoryzomys. Eremoryzomys has a limited distribution in the dry upper valley of the Marañón River in central Peru, but may yet contain more than one species.

A large, long-tailed rice rat, with head and body length of 138 to 164 mm (5.4 to 6.5 in), E. polius has gray fur and short ears. There are well-developed ungual tufts of hair on the hindfeet. Females have eight mammae. The rostrum (front part of the skull) is long and robust and the braincase is rounded. The bony palate is relatively short. The IUCN assesses the conservation status of the species as "Data Deficient"; it is poorly known but may be threatened by habitat destruction.

Giant-cell fibroma

Giant-cell fibroma is a type of fibroma not associated with trauma or irritation. It can occur at any age and on a mucous membrane surface. The most common oral locations are on the gingiva of the mandible, tongue, and palate. It is a localized reactive proliferation of fibrous connective tissue.

Giant-cell fibroma (GCF) is a benign non-neoplastic lesion first described by Weathers and Callihan (1974). It occurs in the first three decades of life and predominates in females (Houston, 1982; Bakos, 1992). Clinically, the GCF presents as an asymptomatic, papillary and pedunculated lesion. The most predominant location is the mandibular gingiva (Houston, 1982; Bakos, 1992). Histologically, the GCF is distinctive, consisting of fibrous connective tissue without inflammation and covered with stratified squamous hyperplastic epithelium. The most characteristic histological feature is the presence of large spindle-shaped and stellate-shaped mononuclear cells and multinucleated cells. These cells occur in a variety of lesions, such as the fibrous papule of the nose, ungual fibroma, acral fibrokeratoma, acral angiofibroma and desmoplastic fibroblastoma (Swan, 1988; Pitt et al., 1993; Karabela-Bouropoulou et al., 1999; Jang et al., 1999).

Despite many studies, the nature of the stellated multinucleate and mononuclear cell is not clear (Weathers and Campbell, 1974; Regezi et al., 1987; Odell et al., 1994; Magnusson and Rasmusson, 1995).

Masiakasaurus

Masiakasaurus is a genus of small predatory theropod dinosaurs from the Late Cretaceous of Madagascar. In Malagasy, masiaka means "vicious"; thus, the genus name means "vicious lizard". The type species, Masiakasaurus knopfleri, was named after the musician Mark Knopfler, whose music inspired the expedition crew. It was named in 2001 by Scott D. Sampson, Matthew Carrano, and Catherine A. Forster. Unlike most theropods, the front teeth of M. knopfleri projected forward instead of straight down. This unique dentition suggests that they had a specialized diet, perhaps including fish and other small prey. Other bones of the skeleton indicate that Masiakasaurus were bipedal, with much shorter forelimbs than hindlimbs. M. knopfleri reached an estimated adult body length of around 2 metres (6 ft 7 in).Masiakasaurus lived around 70 million years ago, along with animals such as Majungasaurus, Rapetosaurus, and Rahonavis. Masiakasaurus was a member of the group Noasauridae, small predatory ceratosaurs found primarily in South America.

Odonto–tricho–ungual–digital–palmar syndrome

Odonto–tricho-ungual–digital–palmar syndrome is an autosomal dominant skin condition with salient clinical features of natal teeth, trichodystrophy, prominent interdigital folds, simian-like hands with transverse palmar creases, and ungual digital dystrophy.

Oryzomys

Oryzomys is a genus of semiaquatic rodents in the tribe Oryzomyini living in southern North America and far northern South America. It includes eight species, two of which—the marsh rice rat (O. palustris) of the United States and O. couesi of Mexico and Central America—are widespread; the six others have more restricted distributions. The species have had eventful taxonomic histories, and most species were at one time included in the marsh rice rat; additional species may be recognized in the future. The name Oryzomys was established in 1857 by Spencer Fullerton Baird for the marsh rice rat and was soon applied to over a hundred species of American rodents. Subsequently, the genus gradually became more narrowly defined until its current contents were established in 2006, when ten new genera were established for species previously placed in Oryzomys.

Species of Oryzomys are medium-sized rats with long, coarse fur. The upperparts are gray to reddish and the underparts white to buff. The animals have broad feet with reduced or absent ungual tufts of hair around the claws and, in at least some species, with webbing between the toes. The rostrum (front part of the skull) is broad and the braincase is high. Both the marsh rice rat and O. couesi have 56 chromosomes, lack a gall bladder, and have a complex penis (as is characteristic of the Sigmodontinae) with some traits that are rare among oryzomyines; these characteristics are unknown in the other species of this genus.

The habitat includes various kinds of wetlands, such as lakes, marshes, and rivers. Oryzomys species swim well, are active during the night, and eat both plant and animal food. They build woven nests of vegetation. After a gestation period of 21 to 28 days, about four young are born. Species of Oryzomys are infected by numerous parasites and carry at least three hantaviruses, one of which (Bayou virus) also infects humans. Two, maybe three, species have gone extinct over the last two centuries and at least one other is endangered, but the widespread marsh rice rat and O. couesi are not threatened.

Phalanx bone

The phalanges (singular: phalanx ) are digital bones in the hands and feet of most vertebrates. In primates, the thumbs and big toes have two phalanges while the other digits have three phalanges. The phalanges are classed as long bones.

Protohadros

Protohadros (meaning "first hadrosaur") is a genus of herbivorous ornithischian dinosaur from the Late Cretaceous (Cenomanian stage), 95 million years ago.

Gary Byrd, a part-time palaeontologist, discovered some remains of this euornithopod (ribs and an ungual) during early 1994 at Flower Mound, Denton County, north-central Texas, which was apart of the Appalachian continent at the time. He informed professional palaeontologist Yuong-Nam Lee of the find, who arranged for the entire preserved fossil to be excavated. It was first reported upon in 1996 by Jason Head of the Dedman College of Humanities and Sciences, Southern Methodist University. The type species Protohadros byrdi was described and named by Head in 1998. The genus name is derived from Greek πρῶτος, protos, "first", en ἁδρός, hadros, "thick", a reference to the fact that Head considered the species the oldest known hadrosaur. The specific name honours Byrd.The holotype, specimen SMU 74582, of Protohadros, was found in the Woodbine Formation, which dates to the middle Cenomanian. It consists of a partial skull, pieces of ribs, a hand ungual and a neural arch. In 1997 Lee named possible tracks of Protohadros as the ichnospecies Caririchnium protohadrosaurichnos.Due to the paucity of the remains much of the reconstruction of this dinosaur is speculative. The skull is about seventy centimetres long. From this Head estimated the length of the type specimen of Protohadros at seven to eight metres. He pointed out that this specimen was that of a subadult and that fully-grown individuals could have been longer. Protohadros had a massive, very deep set of lower jaws, and the snout was strongly turned down at the front, which according to Head suggested a habit of grazing on low-growing plants, rather than browsing from bushes or overhanging branches. Its diet would then have consisted of the swamp plants which grew in the delta streams in its habitat, scooped up by the broad, down-turned mouth. In some respects Protohadros was intermediate in morphology to more derived hadrosaurids. Like these it did have pleurokinesis, a cranial joint system that produced the food-grinding action, but only partially in that the quadrate at the back of the skull was still relatively immobile.

Protohadros' rear legs were probably longer than the front pair, and it could move on all fours or walk and run on its hind legs only.

Protohadros was first described as the most basal member of the Hadrosauridae, hence its generic name. However, scientific opinion has since changed and it is now regarded as a non-hadrosaurid iguanodontian, a basal member of the Hadrosauroidea, though one closely related to the Hadrosauridae. The dinosaur's discovery conflicted with the idea that hadrosaurids evolved in Asia, but its reassessment as a less-derived iguanodontian has rendered this discrepancy less problematic.

Sinornis

Sinornis is a genus of enantiornithean birds from the Lower Cretaceous Jiufotang Formation of the People's Republic of China.

When it was described in 1992, this 120 million-year-old sparrow-sized skeleton represented a new avian sharing "primitive" features with Archaeopteryx as well as showing traits of modern birds. Its basal features include, but are not limited to, a flexible manus with unguals, a footed pubis, and stomach ribs. Sinornis is known only from the type species, Sinornis santensis. The generic name comes from the Latin Sino~, 'China' and the Greek ornis, 'bird'. The specific name santensis refers to the provenance from Chaoyang county in Liaoning Province as Santa, meaning "Three Temples", is a traditional name of the county.

Sinotyrannus

Sinotyrannus (meaning "Chinese tyrant") is a genus of large basal proceratosaurid dinosaur, a relative of tyrannosaurids which flourished in North America and Asia during the Jurassic and early Cretaceous periods. Sinotyrannus is known from a single incomplete fossil specimen including a partial skull, from the Early Cretaceous Jiufotang Formation of Liaoning, China. Though it is not much younger than primitive tyrannosauroids such as Dilong, it is similar in size to later forms such as Tyrannosaurus. It was much larger than contemporary tyrannosauroids; reaching a total estimated length of 9–10 m (30–33 ft), it is the largest known theropod from the Jiufotang Formation. The type species is S. kazuoensis, described by Ji et al., in 2009.

Therizinosauridae

Therizinosauridae ("reaper lizards") is a family of theropod dinosaurs whose fossil remains have been dated to the Mid-to-Late Cretaceous period (100 to 70 mya). Even though representative fossils have only been found throughout China, Mongolia, and the United States, the range of Therizinosauridae was believed to have spanned much of the supercontinent of Laurasia at its height.Therizinosauridae was named after the large, claw-bearing ungual found on the manus of members in the group. This feature has led to little insight about the ecology of the family, and the purpose of the claw remains unknown. Other notable aspects of the physiology of these animals include a modified pelvis, robust hind-limbs, and a highly derived, nearly avian inner-ear. Moreover, the larger superfamily of Therizinosauroidea is believed to be the earliest group in which simple feathers have been documented.Research into therizinosaurids has also focused on uncovering more about the unique ecology and paleobiology of the family. A fair portion of modern research has concentrated on the feeding-patterns of these reptiles, as they are considered to be the best regarded candidate for the emergence of herbivory within Theropoda. While many closely related taxa are carnivorous, it is thought that the members of Therizinosauroidea, including Therizinosauridae, diverged and adopted either an herbivorous or omnivorous lifestyle.The current scientific consensus is that therizinosaurids evolved from small, bird-like maniraptorans, and thus they fall within the coelurosaurian clade called Maniraptora. Most studies have concluded that within Maniraptora, Therizinosaurians were the first of five major groups to diverge.

Ungual tuft

In mammals, ungual tufts are tufts of hairs at the base of claws of the fore- and hindfeet. Their presence has been used as a character in cladistic studies of Cricetidae.Oryzomyini ("rice rats") normally have ungual tufts, but they may be reduced or absent in semiaquatic species (adapted to life in the water). Lundomys molitor, Nectomys apicalis, the marsh rice rat (Oryzomys palustris), and species of Holochilus lack ungual tufts on their forefeet. On the hindfeet, most species have well-developed ungual tufts only on the second to fifth toes, but Sooretamys angouya and Eremoryzomys polius also have thick tufts on the first toe. Pseudoryzomys simplex, Mindomys hammondi, Nectomys squamipes, Sigmodontomys alfari, Oryzomys couesi, the marsh rice rat, and species of Melanomys have sparse ungual tufts only, and Lundomys molitor, Nectomys apicalis, Sigmodontomys aphrastus, and species of Holochilus have very reduced tufts or lack them entirely.Among other South American cricetids, Abrothrix lanosus has white ungual tufts that are shorter than the claws. Akodon paranaensis has long ungual tufts. Calomys cerqueirai has silvery tufts on the second through fifth digits of the forefeet and all digits of the hindfeet. Abrawayaomys has long, dense ungual tufts. The Tylomyinae are characterized by the presence of ungual tufts on their hindfeet.White ungual tufts are also present in the Philippine murine genus Batomys. B. hamiguitan and B. russatus have short tips, not extending to the tips of the claws, but those of B. granti and B. salomonseni have tufts longer than the claws. The Malagasy Monticolomys has long ungual tufts, extending beyond the claws, whereas the related Macrotarsomys has shorter tufts. The Brazilian spiny rat Phyllomys sulinus has long, light gray ungual tufts.The tenrec Microgale jobihely has long, dark brown ungual tufts. The opossum Monodelphis handleyi has short ungual tufts.

Xilousuchus

Xilousuchus is an extinct genus of poposauroid from lower Triassic (Olenekian stage) deposits of Fugu County of northeastern Shanxi Province, China. It is known from the holotype, IVPP V 6026, a single well-preserved partial skeleton including the skull. It was found from the Heshanggou Formation of the Ordos Basin, Hazhen commune. It was first named by Xiao-Chun Wu in 1981 and the type species is Xilousuchus sapingensis. Wu (1981) referred Xilousuchus to the Proterosuchia. Gower and Sennikov (1996) found it to be an erythrosuchian based strictly on the braincase. A more detailed re-description of the genus was provided by Nesbitt et al. (2010) and found poposauroid affinities. In his massive revision of archosaurs which included a large cladistic analysis, Sterling J. Nesbitt (2011) found Xilousuchus to be a poposauroid which is most closely related to Arizonasaurus. Xilousuchus is the oldest archosaur to date, although Ctenosauriscus and Vytshegdosuchus might be even older by less than one million year. Since Xilousuchus is a suchian archosaur, its early age suggests that most of the major groups of archosaurs (ornithodirans, ornithosuchids, aetosaurs, and paracrocodylomorphs) developed by the Early Triassic, soon after the appearance of the first archosaur.

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