Unfederated Malay States

The term Unfederated Malay States (Malay: Negeri-negeri Melayu Tidak Bersekutu) was the collective name given to five British protected states in the Malay peninsula in the first half of the twentieth century. These states were Johor, Kedah, Kelantan, Perlis, and Terengganu. In contrast with the four adjoining Federated Malay States of Selangor, Perak, Pahang, and Negri Sembilan, the five Unfederated Malay States lacked common institutions, and did not form a single state in international law; they were in fact standalone British protectorates.

In 1946 the British colony of the Straits Settlements was dissolved. Penang and Malacca which had formed a part of the Straits Settlements were then grouped with the Unfederated Malay States and the Federated Malay States to form the Malayan Union. In 1948, the Malayan Union was reconstituted as a federation of eleven states known as the Federation of Malaya. Nine of the states of the new Federation of Malaya continued as British Protected States, while two of them, Penang and Malacca remained as British colonies. The Federation of Malaya gained full independence from the UK in August 1957.

Unfederated Malay States

Negeri-negeri Melayu Tidak Bersekutu
Japanese Occupation: 1942–45
Malaya in 1922:   Unfederated Malay States   Federated Malay States   Straits Settlements
Malaya in 1922:
  Unfederated Malay States
  Federated Malay States
  Straits Settlements
StatusProtectorate of British Empire
Common languages
• 1826–30
George IV
• 1830–37
William IV
• 1837–1901
• 1901–10
Edward VII
• 1910–36
George V
• 1936
Edward VIII
• 1936–42; 1945–46
George VI
Historical eraBritish Empire
• Established
• Disestablished
Today part ofMalaysia


Johor accepted a treaty of protection with the United Kingdom in 1885, and eventually succumbed to British pressure to accept a resident "Advisor" in 1914. Unlike the other Malay states under British protection, however, Johor remained outside of the Federated Malay States (formed in 1895).

Under the Bangkok Treaty of 1909, Siam transferred its rights over some of the northern Malay states (Kelantan, Terengganu, Kedah, and Perlis) to the United Kingdom.[1] These states then became British Protected States. With the assistance of Japan, they temporarily returned to Thai jurisdiction for the latter part of the Second World War.

Administration and language

The chief officer of the British colonial administration was the "Advisor". In contrast with the Federated Malay States, the Unfederated Malay States enjoyed greater autonomy. The de facto official language of the Unfederated Malay States was Malay (written with the Jawi script).

Malaysia tree diagram
Evolution of Malaysia


  1. ^ John Haywood (2002). Historical Atlas of the 19th Century World 1783 – 1914. Barnes and Noble. p. 22. ISBN 0-7607-3203-5.
Abdul Hamid Halim of Kedah

Paduka Sri Sultan Abdul Hamid Halim Shah ibni Almarhum Sultan Ahmad Tajuddin Mukarram Shah, (4 June 1864 – 13 May 1943) was the 26th Sultan of Kedah. He reigned from 1881 to 1943. He was the son of Sultan Ahmad Tajuddin Mukarram Shah and Wan Hajar.

During his reign, the Sultan had asked for a $2,500,000 loan from Siam during a state financial crisis in 1905. The loan was extended with the proviso that a Financial Advisor from the court of Siam be accepted and a State Council be created to assist the Sultan in the administration of all public affairs. This resulted in the promulgation of a new constitution on 29 July 1905. The state council were run by his brothers followed by their sons. The formation of the State Council thus curbed the Sultan's administrative powers.

His reign marked the transition from Siamese suzerainty over Kedah to the British Protectorate of Unfederated Malay States following the Anglo-Siamese Treaty of 1909.

The Sultan had several wives and partners; Che Manjelara, Che Sofiah, Sharifah Fatimah Binti Syed Idrus, Sharifah Seha Binti Syed Hussein, Che Spachendra, Sharifah Mariam and Che Laraseh. The Sultan's seventh son and twentieth child with Makche Manjelara, Tunku Abdul Rahman, who would later become the first Prime Minister of Malaysia. The Sultan was succeeded by another son, Sultan Badlishah.

Anglo-Siamese Treaty of 1909

The Anglo-Siamese Treaty of 1909 or Bangkok Treaty of 1909 was a treaty between the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland and the Kingdom of Siam signed on 10 March 1909, in Bangkok. Ratifications were exchanged in London on 9 July 1909, and the treaty established the modern Malaysia–Thailand border. The area around modern Pattani, Narathiwat, southernmost Songkhla, Satun, and Yala remained under Thai control, where decades later the South Thailand insurgency would erupt. Thailand relinquished its claims to sovereignty over Kedah (Thai: ไทรบุรี, romanized: Saiburi), Kelantan (กลันตัน, Kalantan), Perlis (ปะลิส, Palit) and Terengganu (ตรังกานู, Trangkanu) which entered the British sphere of influence as protectorates. These four states, along with Johor, later became known as the Unfederated Malay States.

Barcelona Convention and Statute on Freedom of Transit

The Barcelona Convention and Statute on Freedom of Transit is an International treaty signed in Barcelona on 20 April 1921; the treaty ensures freedom of transit for various commercial goods across national boundaries. It was registered in League of Nations Treaty Series on 8 October 1921. It went into effect on 31 October 1922. the convention is still in force at present.

Barcelona Convention and Statute on the Regime of Navigable Waterways of International Concern

The Barcelona Convention and Statute on the Regime of Navigable Waterways of International Concern is a multilateral treaty that was concluded at Barcelona on 20 April 1921. Its purpose is to ensure freedom of navigation in waterways (i.e. ports, rivers and artificial canals) which bear international significance. It was registered in League of Nations Treaty Series on 8 October 1921. It went into effect on 31 October 1922. The convention is still in force.

British Malaya

The term "British Malaya" () loosely describes a set of states on the Malay Peninsula and the island of Singapore that were brought under British control between the 18th and the 20th centuries. Unlike the term "British India", which excludes the Indian princely states, British Malaya is often used to refer to the Malay States under indirect British rule as well as the Straits Settlements that were under the sovereignty of the British Crown.

Before the formation of Malayan Union in 1946, the territories were not placed under a single unified administration, with the exception during the immediate post-war period when a British military became the temporary administrator of Malaya. Instead, British Malaya comprised the Straits Settlements, the Federated Malay States, and the Unfederated Malay States. Under British rule, Malaya was one of the most profitable territories of the Empire, being the world's largest producer of tin and later rubber. Japan ruled a part of Malaya as a single unit from Singapore during the Second World War.The Malayan Union was later dissolved and replaced by the Federation of Malaya in 1948, which became fully independent on 31 August 1957. On 16 September 1963, the federation, along with North Borneo (Sabah), Sarawak, and Singapore, formed into a larger federation of Malaysia.

Burney Treaty

The treaty between Kingdom of Siam and the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland commonly known as the Burney Treaty was signed at Bangkok on 20 June 1826 by Henry Burney, an agent of British East India Company, for the United Kingdom, and King Rama III for Siam. It followed an earlier treaty of 24 February 1826, in which Siam became an ally of Britain against the Kingdom of Ava (Burma), with which Britain was at war. A Siamese army was raised and equipped, but took no serious part in the war due to ill-feeling and suspicion arising from the Siamese invasion of Kedah in 1821.

In 1822, John Crawfurd undertook a mission to the court of King Rama II to determine Siam's position on the Malay states. The treaty acknowledged Siamese claims over the five northern Malay states of Kedah, Kelantan, Perlis, Terengganu—the future Unfederated Malay States—and Patani. The treaty further guaranteed British possession of Penang and their rights to trade in Kelantan and Terengganu without Siamese interference. The five Malay states were not represented in the treaty negotiation. In 1909 the parties of the agreement signed a new treaty that superseded that of 1826 and transferred four of the five Malay states from Siamese to British control, Patani remaining under Siamese rule.As the Burney Treaty did not adequately address commerce, it was a subject of the Bowring Treaty, signed by King Mongkut (Rama IV) on 18 April 1855, that liberalized trade rules and regulations.

Coat of arms of Malaysia

The coat of arms of Malaysia (Malay: Jata Negara) is a coat of arms comprising a shield or escutcheon, two tigers for supporters, a crescent and fourteen-pointed star for a crest and a motto. As the Malaysian coat of arms descended from that of the Federated Malay States under British colonial rule, it resembles European heraldic designs.

Convention and Statute on the International Régime of Maritime Ports

The Convention and Statute on the International Régime of Maritime Ports is a 1923 League of Nations multilateral treaty whereby port states agree to treat ships equally, regardless of the nationality of the ship.

The Convention was concluded in Geneva on 9 December 1923 and entered into force on 26 July 1926. The states that ratify the Convention agree to allow all ships the freedom to access maritime ports and to not discriminate against ships based on the maritime flag the ship flies. The Convention remains in force and forms of the basis of the expectation at international law of equal treatment in maritime ports.

The Convention was most recently ratified in 2001, by Saint Vincent and the Grenadines. Thailand ratified the Convention in 1925 but denounced it in 1973.

Convention for Limiting the Manufacture and Regulating the Distribution of Narcotic Drugs

The Convention for Limiting the Manufacture and Regulating the Distribution of Narcotic Drugs was a drug control treaty promulgated in Geneva on 13 July 1931 that entered into force on 9 July 1933.

Federated Malay States

The Federated Malay States (FMS) was a federation of four protected states in the Malay Peninsula—Selangor, Perak, Negeri Sembilan and Pahang—established by the British government in 1895, which lasted until 1946, when they, together with two of the former Straits Settlements (Malacca and Penang) and the Unfederated Malay States, formed the Malayan Union. Two years later, the Union became the Federation of Malaya and finally Malaysia in 1963 with the inclusion of North Borneo (present-day Sabah), Sarawak and Singapore.

The United Kingdom was responsible for foreign affairs and defence of the federation, whilst the states continued to be responsible for their domestic policies. Even so, the British Resident General would give advice on domestic issues, and the states were bound by treaty to follow that advice. The federation had Kuala Lumpur, which was then part of Selangor, as its capital. The first FMS Resident-General was Frank Swettenham.

The federation, along with the other Malay states and British possessions of the peninsula, was overrun and occupied by the Japanese during World War II. After the liberation of Malaya following the Japanese surrender, the federation was not restored, but the federal form of government was retained as the principal model for consolidating the separate States as an independent Federation of Malaya and the Federation's later evolution into Malaysia.

History of Kedah

Kedah, also written as Queda, and known in the early days as Qalha, Kalah Bar, Kalah or Kalaha by the Arabs and Persians, Cheh-Cha, Ka-Cha by the Chinese and Kedaram, Kidaram, Kalagam and Kataha by the Tamils, is an early kingdom on the Malay Peninsula and an important early trade centre. Early west-coast trade centres are few in number as they were overshadowed by Kedah. Her nearness to the entrances to the Straits of Malacca — and more importantly — being on latitude 6° north of the equator, the same as Ceylon to the south of India, meant that ships sailing the Bay of Bengal in a sea lane heading due east or west between the two were in little danger of becoming lost. The early transpeninsular routeway is part of the sea trade route of the Spice Route for Arab, Persian, Tamil Nadu and India-to-China traders, as the route through the Straits does not seem to have been in general use. Early sea traders from the west, upon reaching the coast, engaged porters to transport goods by raft, elephant and man-carry along the rivers (Kelantan River, Pattani River, Pahang River, Muda River, Bernam River, Muar River, and others) to the opposite coast. The Sungai Muda in particular favoured the development of Kedah.

After the 7th century, Srivijaya subjugated Kedah, but due to her fame, Indian sources continue to depict Kedah. Early Kedah also supplied its own tin, and jungle products such as rattan, resin, honey, beeswax, elephants, ivory, areca nuts, sepang wood and black woods, as well as profiting from tax collections.

The early history of Kedah can be traced from various sources, from the prehistoric period to the archaeological site of Bujang Valley, the earlymMaritime trade of India, Persia, and the Arabs to the written works of early Chinese pilgrims and early Chinese records, the Hikayat Merong Mahawangsa (known as Kedah Annals) to Al-Tarikh Salasilah Negeri Kedah.

International Convention concerning the Use of Broadcasting in the Cause of Peace

The International Convention concerning the Use of Broadcasting in the Cause of Peace is a 1936 League of Nations treaty whereby states agreed to prohibit the use of broadcasting for propaganda or the spreading of false news. It was the first international treaty to bind states to "restrict expression which constituted a threat to international peace and security".

International Opium Convention

The International Opium Convention, signed at The Hague on January 23, 1912 during the First International Opium Conference, was the first international drug control treaty. It was registered in League of Nations Treaty Series on January 23, 1922. The United States convened a 13-nation conference of the International Opium Commission in 1909 in Shanghai, China in response to increasing criticism of the opium trade. The treaty was signed by Germany, the United States, China, France, the United Kingdom, Italy, Japan, the Netherlands, Persia, Portugal, Russia, and Siam. The Convention provided, "The contracting Powers shall use their best endeavours to control, or to cause to be controlled, all persons manufacturing, importing, selling, distributing, and exporting morphine, cocaine, and their respective salts, as well as the buildings in which these persons carry such an industry or trade."

The Convention was implemented in 1915 by the United States, Netherlands, China, Honduras, and Norway. It went into force globally in 1919, when it was incorporated into the Treaty of Versailles.

The primary objective of the convention was to introduce restrictions on exports as opposed to imposing prohibition or criminalising the use and cultivation of opium, coca, and cannabis. That explains the withdrawal of the United States and China, which were gravitating towards prohibitionist approaches, as well as the beginning of negotiations leading to the 1925 International Opium Convention in Geneva.A revised International Opium Convention International Convention relating to Dangerous Drugs was signed at Geneva on February 19, 1925, which went into effect on September 25, 1938, and was registered in League of Nations Treaty Series on the same day. It introduced a statistical control system to be supervised by a Permanent Central Opium Board, a body of the League of Nations. Egypt, with support from

China and United States, recommended that a prohibition on hashish be added to the Convention, and a sub-committee proposed the following text:

The use of Indian hemp and the preparations derived therefrom may only be authorized for medical and scientific purposes. The raw resin (charas), however, which is extracted from the female tops of the cannabis sativa L, together with the various preparations (hashish, chira, esrar, diamba, etc.) of which it forms the basis, not being at present utilized for medical purposes and only being susceptible of utilisation for harmful purposes, in the same manner as other narcotics, may not be produced, sold, traded in, etc., under any circumstances whatsoever.

India and other countries objected to this language, citing social and religious customs and the prevalence of wild-growing cannabis plants that would make it difficult to enforce. Accordingly, this provision never made it into the final treaty. A compromise was made that banned exportation of Indian hemp to countries that have prohibited its use, and requiring importing countries to issue certificates approving the importation and stating that the shipment was required "exclusively for medical or scientific purposes." It also required Parties to "exercise an effective control of such a nature as to prevent the illicit international traffic in Indian hemp and especially in the resin." These restrictions still left considerable leeway for countries to allow production, internal trade, and use of cannabis for recreational purposes.The Convention was superseded by the 1961 Single Convention on Narcotic Drugs.


Kelantan (Malay pronunciation: [kəˈlantan]; Jawi: کلنتن; RTGS: Kalantan, Kelantanese: Kelate) is a state of Malaysia. The capital and royal seat is Kota Bharu. The honorific of the state is Darul Naim (Jawi: دار النعيم, "The Blissful Abode"). Kelantan is positioned in the north-east of Peninsular Malaysia. It is bordered by Narathiwat Province of Thailand to the north, Terengganu to the south-east, Perak to the west and Pahang to the south. To the north-east of Kelantan is the South China Sea.

Kelantan is located in the north-eastern corner of the peninsula. Kelantan, which is said to translate as the "Land of Lightning" (see alternate theories below), is an agrarian state with green paddy fields, rustic fishing villages and casuarina-lined beaches. Kelantan is home to some of the most ancient archaeological discoveries in Malaysia, including several prehistoric aboriginal settlements.

Due to Kelantan's relative isolation and largely rural lifestyle, Kelantanese culture differs somewhat from Malay culture in the rest of the peninsula; this is reflected in the cuisine, arts and the unique Kelantanese Malay language, which is unintelligible even for some speakers of standard Malay.

List of High Commissioners of the United Kingdom to Malaya

In 1896, the post of High Commissioner for the Federated Malay States was created; the High Commissioner represented the British Government in the Federated Malay States, a federation of four British protected states in Malaya. The High Commissioner's official residence was King's House (now part of a hotel, Carcosa Seri Negara), located inside the Perdana Lake Gardens in Kuala Lumpur, then the capital of the Federated Malay States. King's House served as an important place for royal dignitaries and distinguished guests.

The Governor of the Straits Settlements had always been ex-officio the High Commissioner for the Federated Malay States; the Governor's official residence was in Singapore, the capital of the Straits Settlements, and was known as Government House (now Istana, the official residence of the President of Singapore).

In each of the five protected states of Perlis, Kedah, Kelantan, Trengganu, and Johore (usually collectively referred to as the 'Unfederated Malay States'), the British government is represented by an Adviser: the Adviser to the Government of Perlis; the Adviser to the Sultan of Kedah; the Adviser to the Government of Kelantan; the Adviser, Trengganu; and the General Adviser to the Government of Johore.

The Straits Settlements was dissolved in 1946. Singapore became a Crown colony in her own right. The rest of the Straits Settlements (i.e. Penang and Malacca) was merged with the Federated Malay States, Perlis, Kedah, Kelantan, Trengganu, and Johore to form the Malayan Union, another Crown colony. The native rulers in the Federated Malay States, Perlis, Kedah, Kelantan, Trengganu, and Johore ceded their power to the United Kingdom, thus turning these territories into British colonies. The new Crown colony of the Malayan Union was headed by a Governor – the Governor of the Malayan Union.

In 1948, the British government returned power to the native rulers of the former protected states, and the Malayan Union was transformed into the Federation of Malaya – a federation of protected states and Crown colonies (Penang and Malacca had remained Crown colonies throughout the Malayan Union era). The Federation of Malaya was headed by the High Commissioner for Malaya.

When Malaya gained independence from the United Kingdom, the position of the High Commissioner for Malaya as the de facto head of state was replaced by the Paramount Ruler, or the Yang Di-Pertuan Agong, of Malaya, appointed by the rulers of the nine Malay states. The title 'High Commissioner' became that of the senior British diplomat in the independent Malaya (and later in Malaysia), as is normal in Commonwealth countries.

Malayan Union

The Malayan Union was a union of the Malay states and the Straits Settlements of Penang and Malacca. It was the successor to British Malaya and was conceived to unify the Malay Peninsula under a single government to simplify administration. Following opposition by the ethnic Malays, the union was reorganized as the Federation of Malaya in 1948.


A remisier (also known as a Commissioned Dealer's Representative) is an agent of a stockbroking company and receives a commission for each transaction handled (as compared with a paid dealer's representative, who is a direct employee of a stockbroking company and whose remuneration structure is based on a fixed monthly salary). Although the origin of the word is French ("remisier" means "an intermediary"), and although remisiers are still a feature of the Paris Bourse, the term is now most commonly used in the context of the Kuala Lumpur Stock Exchange (or Bursa Malaysia) and the Singapore Stock Exchange.Historically, remisiers first appeared in the region during the colonial period in Malaya (the collective name comprising the Crown Colonies of Malacca, Penang and Singapore; the Federated Malay States; and the Unfederated Malay States), where they dealt primarily in rubber and tin-related companies that were listed on the London Stock Exchange, on behalf of Malaya-based clients. From the point of view of the stockbroking companies, the use of remisiers allowed them to generate additional trading volumes and revenues without the need to incur a fixed cost base or the need to build a customer base directly. From the point of view of the remisier, the additional financial burden of having to bear – or recompense to the stockbroking company - his or her own operational costs (in today's context, this may include the rental of office space and ancillary costs, telecommunications costs, and computer hardware and software costs) is outweighed by the potential for substantial commission income through his or her 40% share of the trading commission. In addition, a remisier remains the gatekeeper for his or her own client relationships.

The relationship between remisiers and their stockbroking company were originally based on loose arrangements which varied substantially, both within the industry at large and also within each firm. As the Malaysian and Singaporean stock markets evolved, the respective regulatory bodies implemented the introduction of standard remisiers' agreements governing the relationship between all remisiers and member companies in the stockbroking industry (under these standard agreements, the remisier is regarded as an agent of the stockbroking company to trade in securities in the name of the company. This relationship was not made explicit in the previous arrangements between remisiers and stockbrokers). In regulatory terms, both remisiers and dealer's representatives are covered by the same licence (a dealer's representative's licence) to enable them to interact with clients and trade shares.

The remisier is responsible for any losses which may be incurred by the stockbroking company arising from any securities transaction dealt through him or her. Each remisier has to post a deposit with the stockbroking company to cover clients' losses in the event of default; this security deposit is segregated from other assets that are kept by the stockbroking company on behalf of the clients. The stockbroking company is required to take all relevant and reasonable action against clients for the recovery of indebtedness which should be reimbursed to the remisier in the event that the remisier's security deposit has been utilised towards the satisfaction of indebtedness.

Remisiers play an important role on the KLSE and SES, not only in terms of increasing distribution and providing additional liquidity to the market, but also through their role in educating and advising retail investors and the public at large.

States of Malaya

States of Malaya may refer to:

The Malayan Union, a British colony consisting of all states in Malaya except the settlements of Malacca, Dinding, Penang and Singapore which were part of the British colony of the Straits Settlements

The Federation of Malaya, the successor state to the Malayan Union and the Straits Settlements

The Malay states, divided into the Federated Malay States and the Unfederated Malay States

Straits dollar

The Straits dollar was the currency of the Straits Settlements from 1898 until 1939. At the same time, it was also used in the Federated Malay States, the Unfederated Malay States, Kingdom of Sarawak, Brunei, and British North Borneo.


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