In construction or renovation, underpinning is the process of strengthening the foundation of an existing building or other structure. Underpinning may be necessary for a variety of reasons:

  • The original foundation isn't strong or stable enough.
  • The usage of the structure has changed.
  • The properties of the soil supporting the foundation may have changed (possibly through subsidence) or were mischaracterized during design.
  • The construction of nearby structures necessitates the excavation of soil supporting existing foundations.
  • To increase the depth or load capacity of existing foundations to support the addition of another storey to the building (above or below grade).
  • It is more economical, due to land price or otherwise, to work on the present structure's foundation than to build a new one.
  • Earthquake, flood, drought or other natural causes have caused the structure to move, requiring stabilisation of foundation soils and/or footings.

Underpinning may be accomplished by extending the foundation in depth or breadth so it either rests on a more supportive soil stratum or distributes its load across a greater area. Use of micropiles[1] and jet grouting are common methods in underpinning. An alternative to underpinning is the strengthening of the soil by the introduction of a grout, including expanding urethane-based engineered structural resins.

Underpinning may be necessary where P class (problem) soils in certain areas of the site are encountered.

Through semantic change the word underpinning has evolved to encompass all abstract concepts that serve as a foundation.

Mass Concrete Underpinning

'Traditional underpinning,' the mass concrete underpinning method is nearly 100 years in age, and the protocol has not changed. This underpinning method strengthens an existing structure's foundation by digging boxes by hand underneath and sequentially pouring concrete in a strategic order. The result is a foundation built underneath the existing foundation. This underpinning method is generally applied when the existing foundation is at a shallow depth, but works well up to fifty feet (fifteen meters) deep. The method has not changed since its inception with its use of utilitarian tools such as shovels and post hole diggers. Heavy machinery is not employed in this method due to the small size of the boxes being dug. There are several advantages to using this method of underpinning, including the simplicity of the engineering, the low cost of labor, and the continuity of the structure's use during construction.

Beam and base underpinning

The beam and base method of underpinning is a more technically advanced adaptation of traditional mass concrete underpinning. A reinforced concrete beam is constructed below, above or in replacement of the existing footing. The beam then transfers the load of the building to mass concrete bases, which are constructed at designed strategic locations. Base sizes and depths are dependent upon the prevailing ground conditions. Beam design is dependent upon the configuration of the building and the applied loads. Anti-heave precautions are often incorporated in schemes where potential expansion of clay soils may occur.

Mini-piled underpinning

Mini-piles have the greatest use where ground conditions are variable, where access is restrictive, where environmental pollution aspects are significant, and where structural movements in service must be minimal. Mini-piled underpinning is generally used when the loads from the foundations need to be transferred to stable soils at considerable depths - usually in excess of 5 m (16 ft). Mini-piles may either be augured or driven steel cased, and are normally between 150 mm (5.9 in) and 300 mm (12 in) in diameter. Structural engineers will use rigs which are specifically designed to operate in environments with restricted headroom and limited space, and can gain access through a regular domestic doorway. They are capable of constructing piles to depths of up to 15 m (49 ft). The technique of minipiling was first applied in Italy in 1952, and has gone through many different names, reflecting worldwide acceptance and expiration of the original patents.[2]
The relatively small diameter of mini-piles is distinctive of this type of underpinning and generally uses anchoring or tie backs into an existing structure or rock. Conventional drilling and grouting methods are used for this method of underpinning. These mini-piles have a high slenderness ratio, feature substantial steel reinforcing elements and can sustain axial loading in both senses.[2] The working loads of mini-piles can sustain up to 1,000 kN (100 long tons-force; 110 short tons-force) loads.
In comparison to Mass Concrete Underpinning, the engineering aspect of mini-piles is somewhat more involved, including rudimentary engineering mechanics such as statics and strength of materials. These mini-piles must be designed to work in tension and compression, depending on the orientation and application of the design. In detail, attention with design must be paid analytically to settlement, bursting, buckling, cracking, and interface consideration, whereas, from a practical viewpoint, corrosion resistance, and compatibility with the existing ground and structure must be regarded.

Mini-piled underpinning schemes

Mini-piled underpinning schemes include pile and beam, cantilever pile-caps and piled raft systems. Cantilevered pile-caps are usually used to avoid disturbing the inside of a building, and require the construction of tension and compression piles to each cap. These are normally linked by a beam. The pile and beam system usually involves constructing pairs of piles on either side of the wall and linking them with a pile cap to support the wall. The pile caps are usually linked by reinforced concrete beams to support the entire length of the wall. Piled raft underpinning systems are commonly used when an entire building needs to be underpinned. The internal floors are completely removed, a grid of piles is installed, and a reinforced concrete raft is then constructed over the complete floor level, picking up and fully supporting all external and internal walls.

Underpinning by expanding resin injection

A mix of structural resins and hardener is injected into foundation ground beneath footings. On entering the ground the resin and hardener mix and expansion occurs due to a chemical reaction. The expanding structural resin mix fills any voids and crevices, compacts any weak soil and then, if the injection is continued, the structure above may be raised and re-levelled. This relatively new method of underpinning has been in existence for approximately 30 years, and because it does not involve any construction or excavation set-up, is known to be a clean, fast and non-disruptive underpinning method.



Sketch of a cast in situ RC cantilever needle beam on micro piers or piles. Access to inside not needed.


Sketch of a standard needle beam on micro piers or piles. Inside access needed.


Sketch of concrete pier underpinning with the possibility of raising foundations.


Sketch showing the traditional method of needling a wall to reduce the weight on the foundations during underpinning work.


Underpinning the foundations of a railway bridge using a timber box crib to support the bridge. A completed concrete pad underpinning can be seen at the bottom right.]

Jet grouting (2011) A

Drilling machines using jet grouting

Jet-grouting (2011) B

Close to the drilling head


  1. ^ "International Society for Micropiles". International Society for Micropiles. Retrieved 16 December 2012.
  2. ^ a b "We Fix Foundation - Foundation & Structural Repair Company/Contractor". We Fix Foundation. Retrieved 2017-09-18.

External links

Australian soccer league system

The Australian football league system is the league structure for association football clubs in Australia. The league system in Australia since 1977 has involved one top divisional league controlled by Football Federation Australia and many leagues run within each state below. The National Soccer League stood from 1977–2004 as the top nationwide tier above the current state-based league systems, in 2005, the A-League was established as its successor. The introduction of the National Premier Leagues in 2013 introduced a direct second tier of football in Australia, underpinning the A-League. The National Premier Leagues incorporated the existing state leagues as divisions with a nationwide end of season finals series. In 2013, the National Premier Leagues rebranded 5 of the 9 top state leagues, and the remainder – with the exception of the Northern Territory – joined in 2014. There is no promotion and relegation to and from the top-tier A-League, and promotion and relegation at other levels varies between different state systems.

The National Youth League, which runs in conjunction with the A-League as a national youth developmental and reserve league, is not included in the table. The women's football league system in Australia is similar to that of the men's, with the W-League the top nationwide league and below that state-based leagues run by the FFA Member Federations. Women's football in Australia is growing in popularity as clubs at grassroots level are getting in more players at a young age.

A proposed national second tier league competition with the working title Australian Championship has been proposed.

Bachelor of Medical Sciences

A Bachelor of Medical Sciences (BMedSci, BMedSc, BMSc, BSc(Med) degree or Bachelor of Medical Sciences

is an undergraduate academic degree awarded after three or four years of degree level study in disciplines underpinning medicine, typically involving biochemistry, cell biology, physiology, pharmacology and other related disciplines, leading to an in depth understanding of human biology and associated research skills such as study design, statistics and laboratory techniques. It is an equivalent level qualification to the more commonly awarded Bachelor of Science (BSc). Graduates may enter a diverse range of roles including post-graduate study, academia, the biotechnology industry, the pharmaceutical industry, consultancy roles, or unrelated disciplines which make use of the broad range of transferable skills gained through this degree.

Chrysler K platform

The K-car platform was a key automotive design platform introduced by Chrysler Corporation in the early 1980s—featuring a transverse engine, front-wheel drive, independent front and semi-independent rear suspension configuration—a stark departure from the company's previous reliance on solid axle, rear-drive configurations. Derived from Chrysler's L-cars, the Plymouth Horizon and Dodge Omni, the platform was developed just as the company faltered in the market, at first underpinning a modest range of compact/mid-size sedans and wagons—and eventually underpinning nearly fifty different models, including all-wheel drive variants—and playing a vital role in the company's subsequent resurgence.

Component (UML)

A component in the Unified Modeling Language "represents a modular part of a system, that encapsulates its content and whose manifestation is replaceable within its environment. A component defines its behavior in terms of provided and required interfaces".A component may be replaced by another if and only if their provided and required interfaces are identical. This idea is the underpinning for the plug-and-play capability of component-based systems and promotes software reuse.As can be seen from the above definition, UML places no restriction on the granularity of a component. Thus, a component may be as small as a figures-to-words converter, or as large as an entire document management system.

Larger pieces of a system's functionality may be assembled by reusing components as parts in an encompassing component or assembly of components, and wiring together their required and provided interfaces." Such assemblies are illustrated by means of component diagrams.

Cultural history of Poland

The term cultural history refers both to an academic discipline and to its subject matter. Cultural history of Poland often combines the approaches of anthropology and history to look at cultural traditions of Poland as well as interpretations of historical experience. It examines the records and narrative descriptions of past knowledge, customs, and arts of the Polish nation. Its subject matter encompasses the continuum of events leading from the Middle Ages to the present.

The cultural history of Poland is closely associated with the field of Polish studies, interpreting the historical records with regard not only to its painting, sculpture and architecture, but also, the economic basis underpinning the Polish society by denoting the various distinctive ways of cohabitation by an entire group of people. Cultural history of Poland involves the aggregate of past cultural activity, such as ritual, ideas, sciences, social movements and the interaction of cultural themes with the sense of identity.

The cultural history of Poland can be divided into the following periods:

Middle Ages






Young Poland


World War II

People's Republic of Poland


Dance theory

Dance theory is the philosophy underpinning contemporary dance, including formal ideologies, aesthetic concepts, and technical attributes. It is a fairly new field of study, developing largely in the 20th Century. It can be considered a branch of expression theory and is closely related to music theory and specifically musicality. While musicality deals with finding a particular matching pair of dance and music that fit each other in various respects, dance theory is a broad term encompassing the origins, styles, genre, footwork, artistic expression, etc. of dance.

Three broad categories of dance theory, as you may find them described in universities or dance institutes, are philosophy (concerning the aesthetic meanings behind dance, or semiotics), choreology (movement analysis and description), sociology (regarding the role of dance in society and culture).Dance theory deals with anatomical movements (such as foot-work, etc.), as well as partner interactions, and their associations to each other and to music as art. It explores the communicative, physical, mental, emotional, and artistic aspects of dance as a medium of human expression and interaction. In doing so the various nuances between the dance genres and styles are analyzed with respect to their social settings and cultures.

As dance is a ubiquitous element of culture, dance theory attempts to determine the instinctual nature of dance, and what makes various movements appear natural or forced.

it is possible through understanding including the writing and drawing of dances within a sphere to understand that all dance is based on natural body movements that is the moving of joints limbs and legs and fingers, dance theory is based on these founding principles that is the sphere and lines of the body to derive and show and demonstrate how dance is done which movements to do by which movement at which speed so hypothetically it is possible to draw and work out a dance by using sphere lines and arrows etc to build up a dance and a routine starting with examples and extenuating etc many dance books state how this is done.

Economy of Louisville, Kentucky

Louisville, Kentucky, today is home to dozens of companies and organizations across several industrial classifications. However, the underpinning of the economy of Louisville since it earliest days has been the shipping and cargo industries.

FA Women's National League

The FA Women's National League is a Football Association-branded league and is run by an elected management committee. It sits at step 3 and 4 of the Women's Pyramid of Football pyramid in England, supporting and underpinning the Women's Super League (WSL) and the Women's Championship.

Fabric computing

Fabric computing or unified computing involves constructing a computing fabric consisting of interconnected nodes that look like a "weave" or a "fabric" when viewed/envisaged collectively from a distance.Usually the phrase refers to a consolidated high-performance computing system consisting of loosely coupled storage, networking and parallel processing functions linked by high bandwidth interconnects (such as 10 Gigabit Ethernet and InfiniBand) but the term has also been used to describe platforms such as the Azure Services Platform and grid computing in general (where the common theme is interconnected nodes that appear as a single logical unit).The fundamental components of fabrics are "nodes" (processor(s), memory, and/or peripherals) and "links" (functional connections between nodes). While the term "fabric" has also been used in association with storage area networks and with switched fabric networking, the introduction of compute resources provides a complete "unified" computing system. Other terms used to describe such fabrics include "unified fabric", "data center fabric" and "unified data center fabric".Ian Foster, director of the Computation Institute at the Argonne National Laboratory and University of Chicago suggested in 2007 that "grid computing 'fabrics'" were "poised to become the underpinning for next-generation enterprise IT architectures and be used by a much greater part of many organizations".As of 2015 IBM, TIBCO, Brocade, Cisco, HP, Unisys, Egenera, Avaya and Xsigo Systems manufacture computing-fabric equipment.

Identity-based security

Identity-based security is an approach to control access to a digital product or service based on the authenticated identity of an individual. This allows organizations to grant access to specific users to access a variety of digital services using the same credentials, ensuring the accurate match between what users are entitled to and what they actually receive, while also permitting other access constraints such as company, device, location and application type (attributes). Underpinning the identity-based security approach is the Identity-Based Access Control (IBAC), (or identity-based licensing) concept.

NIST defines identity-based security policies as policies "based on the identities and/or attributes of the object (system resource) being accessed and of the subject (user, group of users, process, or device) requesting access."Some of the advantages of the identity-based security approach include the ability to exercise very fine-grained control over who is allowed to use which services and which functions those users can perform, and that it is device-agnostic, offering the possibility to enforce access control policy across a variety of devices, such as smartphones, tablets, and PCs.

K. P. Nirmal Kumar

K. P. Nirmal Kumar (കെ.പി. നിർമൽ കുമാർ; born 1947) is a Malayalam-language writer from Kerala, India. He is reckoned among the few front-ranking fiction writers in Malayalam who have contemporary vision.He entered the literary field with the publication of the story Irumbinte Sangeetham in Mathrubhumi Weekly. His first collection Jalam won the Kerala Sahitya Akademi Award in the year 1971. His next works Oru Sangham Abhayarthikal and Krishna Gandhaka Jwalakal were published by Current Books. He also translated Kamala Das's Summer In Calcutta into Malayalam. His next work Chelakkarayude Atheetha Swapnangal was published only in 1995 by Mulberry Publications, after a gap of nearly two decades. His novel Janamejayante Jignasa (Janamejaya's Curiosity) was published in 2010 and looks at some of the episodes in the Mahabharata and at the emotional underpinning of the characters. His latest work, Innathe Athithi Atheethasakthi, follows an unconventional method to depict Mahabharatha and focuses on themes of sex, power and invasions in the epic. A graduate in commerce, Nirmal Kumar worked in the Kanjirappally branch of the Bank of Baroda and retired as the Senior Manager. He lives in Peringode, Palakkad district.

Lev Kuleshov

Lev Vladimirovich Kuleshov (Russian: Лев Влади́мирович Кулешо́в; 13 January [O.S. 1 January] 1899 – 29 March 1970) was a Russian and Soviet filmmaker and film theorist, one of the founders of the world's first film school, the Moscow Film School. He was given the title People's Artist of the RSFSR in 1969. He was intimately involved in development of the style of film making known as Soviet montage, especially its psychological underpinning, including the use of editing and the cut to emotionally influence the audience, a principle known as the Kuleshov effect. He also developed the theory of creative geography, which is the use of the action around a cut to connect otherwise disparate settings into a cohesive narrative.

Manager of managers fund

A "manager of managers fund" (MoM fund) is an investment fund that uses an investment strategy of directly selecting different investment managers and gives them mandate to make investment decisions. This is different from the traditional mutual fund where only one manager invests the fund capital in stock, bond (finance) or other investment vehicles. MoM fund is one type of multi-manager investment. The other type is fund of funds.

The assumption underpinning MoM is that diversification and balance can be achieved more readily by having a group of specialists, instead of one individual, investing the fund's capital. This means that the role of the manager of managers is to assemble a group of investment experts, closely monitor their performance, and alter the composition of the team to adapt to market conditions or fund performance. For example, the manager of a large pension fund would appoint different investment managers for different asset classes such as equities (stocks), bonds, and commodities. The performance of those managers will then be measured against their respective benchmarks, replacing as necessary to maintain the fund’s overall performance and risk control measures.


Methodology is the systematic, theoretical analysis of the methods applied to a field of study. It comprises the theoretical analysis of the body of methods and principles associated with a branch of knowledge. Typically, it encompasses concepts such as paradigm, theoretical model, phases and quantitative or qualitative techniques.A methodology does not set out to provide solutions—it is therefore, not the same as a method. Instead, a methodology offers the theoretical underpinning for understanding which method, set of methods, or best practices can be applied to a specific case, for example, to calculate a specific result.

It has been defined also as follows:

"the analysis of the principles of methods, rules, and postulates employed by a discipline";

"the systematic study of methods that are, can be, or have been applied within a discipline";

"the study or description of methods".

Parenting plan

A parenting plan is a child custody plan that is negotiated by parents, and which may be included in a marital separation agreement or final decree of divorce. Especially when a separation is acrimonious to begin with, specific agreements about who will discharge these responsibilities and when and how they are to be discharged can reduce the need for litigation. Avoiding litigation spares parties not only the financial and emotional costs of litigation but the uncertainty of how favorable or unfavorable a court's after-the-fact decision will be. Moreover, the agreement itself can authorize the employment of dispute-resolution methods, such as arbitration and mediation, that may be less costly than litigation.

Public policy doctrine

In private international law, the public policy doctrine or ordre public (French: lit. "public order") concerns the body of principles that underpin the operation of legal systems in each state. This addresses the social, moral and economic values that tie a society together: values that vary in different cultures and change over time. Law regulates behaviour either to reinforce existing social expectations or to encourage constructive change, and laws are most likely to be effective when they are consistent with the most generally accepted societal norms and reflect the collective morality of the society.

In performing this function, Cappalli has suggested that the critical values of any legal system include impartiality, neutrality, certainty, equality, openness, flexibility, and growth. This assumes that a state's courts function as dispute resolution systems, which avoid the violence that often otherwise accompanies private resolution of disputes. That is, citizens have to be encouraged to use the court system to resolve their disputes. The more certain and predictable the outcome of a court action, the less incentive there is to go to court where a loss is probable. But certainty must be subject to the needs of individual justice, hence the development of equity.

A judge should always consider the underlying policies to determine whether a rule should be applied to a specific factual dispute. If laws are applied too strictly and mechanically, the law cannot keep pace with social innovation. Similarly, if there is an entirely new situation, a return to the policies forming the basic assumptions underpinning potentially relevant rules of law identifies the best guidelines for resolving the immediate dispute. Over time, these policies evolve, becoming more clearly defined and more deeply embedded in the legal system.

Quartier Latin, Montreal

The Quartier Latin is an area in the Ville-Marie borough of Montreal, surrounding UQAM and lower Saint-Denis Street, between downtown and the Gay Village. It is known for its theatres, artistic atmosphere, cafés, and boutiques.

It owes its name, a reference to the Quartier Latin in Paris, to the presence of the École Polytechnique de Montréal and the nascent Université de Montréal in the 1920s. In the 1940s the university moved out and headed for a new campus on the north slopes of Mount Royal, far from the downtown borough. In the late 1960s UQAM was born and established itself in the Ville-Marie borough, giving a modern underpinning to the name. A large junior college, the CEGEP du Vieux-Montreal also moved in at about the same period.

The Grande Bibliothèque du Québec was opened in the area in 2005, joining the Cinémathèque québécoise as a key cultural attraction. The National Film Board of Canada's CinéRobotheque facility was based here until April 2012, when it was closed as part of cuts imposed by the 2012 Canadian federal budget.This area falls within the boundaries of the new Quartier des Spectacles entertainment district, now being developed.

Serum chloride

Chloride is an anion in the human body needed for metabolism (the process of turning food into energy). It also helps keep the body's acid-base balance. The amount of serum chloride is carefully controlled by the kidneys.Chloride ions have important physiological roles. For instance, in the central nervous system, the inhibitory action of glycine and some of the action of GABA relies on the entry of Cl− into specific neurons. Also, the chloride-bicarbonate exchanger biological transport protein relies on the chloride ion to increase the blood's capacity of carbon dioxide, in the form of the bicarbonate ion; this is the mechanism underpinning the chloride shift occurring as the blood passes through oxygen-consuming capillary beds.

The normal blood reference range of chloride for adults in most labs is 96 to 106 milliequivalents (mEq) per liter. The normal range may vary slightly from lab to lab. Normal ranges are usually shown next to results in the lab report. A diagnostic test may use a chloridometer to determine the serum chloride level.

The North American Dietary Reference Intake recommends a daily intake of between 2300 and 3600 mg/day for 25-year-old males.

Web science

Web science is an emerging interdisciplinary field concerned with the study of large-scale socio-technical systems, particularly the World Wide Web. It considers the relationship between people and technology, the ways that society and technology co-constitute one another and the impact of this co-constitution on broader society. Web Science combines research from disciplines as diverse as sociology, computer science, economics, and mathematics.An earlier definition was given by American computer scientist Ben Shneiderman: "Web Science" is processing the information available on the web in similar terms to those applied to natural environment.The Web Science Institute describes Web Science as focusing "the analytical power of researchers from disciplines as diverse as mathematics, sociology, economics, psychology, law and computer science to understand and explain the Web. It is necessarily interdisciplinary – as much about social and organizational behaviour as about the underpinning technology."

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