Undergraduate education is education conducted after secondary education and prior to post-graduate education. It typically includes all the academic programs up to the level of a bachelor's degree. For example, in the United States, an entry level university student is known as an undergraduate, while students of higher degrees are known as graduates. In some other educational systems, undergraduate education is post-secondary education up to the level of a master's degree; this is the case for some science courses in Britain and some medicine courses in Europe.
In Nigeria, undergraduate degrees (excluding Medicine, Medical Laboratory Science, Nursing, Engineering, Law and Architecture) are four-year-based courses. Medicine (MBBS) and Architecture normally take six years to complete studies while Medical Laboratory Science, Nursing, Law and Engineering courses take five years to complete studies, usually, all six years are take to improve their chances.
The South African system usually has a three-year undergraduate bachelor's degree, with two or three majors. (There are exceptions, such as the medical qualification (MBChB), which is six years.) A fourth year, known as an Honours year, is considered a post-graduate degree. It is usually course-driven, although may include a project or thesis.
Brazil follows the major traits of the continental European system; free public schools are available from kindergarten up to postgraduation, both as a right established in Article 6, caput of the Brazilian Constitution and as a duty of the State in Article 208, Items I, IV and V, of the Brazilian Constitution. Students choose their specific course of studies before joining the university. Admission to university is obtained by means of a competitive entrance exam known as Vestibular (a concept somewhat similar to the Baccalauréat in France). There's a new system, adopted by most federal universities, that uses the high school national examination (ENEM) result as part or a replacement of the Vestibular grade. Depending on the chosen course, upon graduating the student shall be granted: a technologist diploma, 3 years to complete, a bachelor's degree's diploma, which usually takes 4 or, in the case of Law, Veterinary, Geology and Engineering, 5 years to complete; or a professional diploma, which normally require 5 or, in the case of medicine, 6 years to complete.
In the United States of America undergraduate refers to those who are studying for a bachelor's degree. The most common method consists of study leading to a Bachelor of Arts (B.A.), a Bachelor of Science (B.S.), or sometimes another bachelor's degree such as Bachelor of Fine Arts (B.F.A.), Bachelor of Music (B. Mus.), Bachelor of Social Work (B.S.W.), Bachelor of Engineering (B.Eng.), Bachelor of Science in Public Affairs (B.S.P.A), Bachelor of Science in Nursing (B.S.N.), or Bachelor of Philosophy (B.Phil.) Five-Year Professional Architecture programs offer the Bachelor of Architecture Degree (B.Arch.) or sometimes Master of Architecture degree (M.Arch.).
Unlike in the British model, degrees in law and medicine are not offered at the undergraduate level and are completed as professional study after earning a bachelor's degree. Neither field specifies or prefers any undergraduate major, though medical schools have set prerequisite courses that must be taken before enrollment.
Students can also choose to attend a community college prior to further study at another college or university. In most states, community colleges are operated either by a division of the state university or by local special districts subject to guidance from a state agency. Community colleges award associate degrees of different types, some intended to prepare students to transfer to universities (e.g. Associate of Arts (AA), Associate of Science (AS)), and others intended to provide vocational skills and training for students wishing to enter into or advance in a profession. Those seeking to continue their education may transfer to a university after applying through a similar admissions process as those applying directly to the four-year institution called articulation. Some community colleges have automatic enrollment agreements with a local college or university, where the community college provides the first two years of study and the university provides the remaining years of study, sometimes all on one campus. The community colleges award associate degrees, while universities and colleges award the bachelor's. However, some community colleges, such as Brazosport College in Lake Jackson, Texas offer bachelor's degrees along with associate degrees. Conversely, some universities such as the University of Delaware also award associate degrees.
In Hong Kong, the English system is followed. Students sit for the Certificate of Education examinations at around sixteen years of age, and the Advanced-level, or A-level examinations at around eighteen, then follow by three years of undergraduate education, except for a few specific fields, such as medicine, nursing and law. This is due to be changed, with five-year secondary education and two-year matriculation examination combined and shortened to six years matriculation, and undergraduate education lengthened to four years. Students may be able to receive general education in their first years in universities, more akin to the North American system. The first batch of students under the new system will enter universities in 2012.
In India the Graduation system is classified into two parts: Undergraduation (UG) and Postgraduation (PG). It takes three or four years to complete an "undergraduate" degree. The three-year undergraduate programs are mostly in the fields of arts, commerce, science etc., and the four-year programs are mostly in the fields of technology, engineering, pharmaceutical sciences, agriculture etc. However, for medicine, law and architecture, the period has been five years. The possessor of the first UG is referred to as graduate and that of the PG degree as post-graduate. Other than UG and PG there are various 1 to 2 year diploma courses available.
In Pakistan, it generally requires four years to complete a Bachelor's degree in Arts, Sciences, Dentistry, Engineering or Business Administration such as BA, BS, BDS, BE/BS/BSc Engineering or BBA and five years for bachelor's degrees in Medicine (MBBS), Physiotherapy (DPT), Pharmacy (Pharm.D) and Architecture (B.Arch) after successfully completing 12 years of schooling. 4 years bachelor's degree is offered in various universities of Pakistan such as COMSATS Institute of Information Technology (CIIT), University of Engineering and Technology, Lahore (UET Lahore), University of Engineering and Technology, Taxila (UET Taxila), National University of Sciences and Technology (NUST), Lahore University of Management Sciences (LUMS) and National University of Computer and Emerging Sciences (NU).
The modern educational system comprises the following five stages: The Primary school lasting five years for children 5–10 years old in grades one to five; a Middle school of three years for children 10 to 13 years old, covering grades six through eight; a two-year secondary, or Matriculation consists of grades nine and ten, for children 13 to 15 years old; a two-year higher secondary, or Intermediate college, leading to an F.A. in arts or F.Sc. in science; and a fifth stage covering college and university programs leading to baccalaureate, professional, master's and doctorate degrees. The pre-primary or preparatory classes, called kachi (literally, unripe) or Nursery school, were formally integrated into the education system in 1988.
Students in England, Wales and Northern Ireland may usually enter university from the age of eighteen, often having studied A-levels and thus having had thirteen to fifteen years of schooling. Occasionally students who finish A Level or equivalent qualifications early (after skipping a year in school on the grounds of academic giftedness) may enter below this age but large universities are now setting minimum age limits of 16 or 17 after a number of well publicised "child prodigies" were found to be emotionally and mentally unprepared for university life.
For their first degree, most students read for the degree of bachelor, which usually takes three years, however in the sciences and engineering integrated courses covering both undergraduate level and advanced degree level leading to the degree of master, usually taking four years and including a research project or dissertation are popular. Given the integrated nature of these programs someone who gains a master's degree via an integrated program is not usually admitted to the degree of bachelor.
Master's degrees conferred after extended programs are not to be conflated with the degree of Master of Arts conferred at Oxbridge and Dublin, which is not a substantive qualification, but reflects the ancient practice of those three universities of promoting Bachelors of Arts to Masters of Arts (and thus full membership of the University) six or seven years after matriculation.
Honours degrees and integrated master's degrees are awarded with 1st, upper 2nd, lower 2nd or 3rd class honours. If a student passes the course but fails to do so sufficiently well for third class honours to be awarded he will be awarded with an ordinary degree. It is possible to use the abbreviation "Hons" after the degree postnominals to indicate that the degree has been passed with honours and is not an ordinary degree.
Many universities offer sandwich courses or an extramural year, which offer work placements for a short period of time in a relevant industry before students complete their studies. Taking a sandwich course may make the course last a year longer than it would otherwise.
With very few exceptions, nearly all universities with the power to award degrees are heavily state financed. However, they also rely on tuition fees set by the government at a maximum index-linked level, repayable after graduation contingent on attaining a certain level of income, and with the state paying all fees for students from the poorest backgrounds. UK students are generally entitled to student loans for maintenance with repayment contingent on income. Unlike in other European countries, the British government does not own the universities' assets and university staff are not civil servants. United Kingdom universities are therefore better described as autonomous, intellectually-independent institutions with public funding, rather than public universities per se. The crown does not control syllabi, with the exception of teacher training. The crown restricts the power to award degrees to those with a royal charter, in the case of traditional universities, or authorization from the Secretary of State for Universities, in the case of modern universities. Universities accredited in foreign countries, such as Richmond University are, however, free to operate.
In many countries, the English distinction between a bachelor's and master's degree is being introduced by the Bologna process. Under the new Bologna reform, universities in Europe are introducing the Bachelor level (BA or BS) degree, often by dividing a 5-year Master-level program into two parts (3-year Bachelor's + 2-year Master's), where students are not obligated to continue with the second Master's-degree part. These new bachelor's degrees are similar in structure to British bachelor's degrees.
If there is a separate undergraduate degree, higher degrees (License, Master, Doctorat) can be gained after completing the undergraduate degree. In the traditional German system, there were no undergraduate degrees in some fields, such as engineering: students continued to Master's level education without any administrative breakpoints, and employers would not consider half-finished master's degrees.
The Bachelor's phase in The Netherlands can be fulfilled either at university or at the University of Applied Sciences. Except for some specific exceptions, only at universities students are able to graduate for their masters or be promoted. These two institutions differ from each other in the level students learn abstract concepts. Whereas theories are created at the university, at the University of Applied Sciences theories are taught to be applied correctly.
Students in Scotland usually enter university in the year they turn eighteen (with many still being seventeen upon starting), hence courses take an extra year compared to England, Wales and Northern Ireland.
At the older universities the degree of Master of Arts is conferred in the arts subjects after four years while the newer universities instead confer the degree of Bachelor of Arts. The degree of Master of Arts conferred by the Ancient Scottish Universities is equivalent to the degree of Bachelor of Arts at other universities and does not require the level of study necessitated for the other degrees of master awarded by these universities. The degree instead reflects the ancient traditions of these universities.
In the sciences, students usually read for the degree of bachelor, which usually takes four years. However, as with the rest of the UK, integrated master's degrees are popular in science and engineering, although in Scotland they last for five years. Degree classification is same as that of the rest of UK
In many other, particularly continental European systems, an "undergraduate" degree in the American sense does not exist. Because students are expected to have received a sound general education at the secondary level, in a school such as a gymnasium or lycee, students in Europe enroll in a specific course of studies they wish to pursue upon entry into a University. In the US, students only specialize in a "major" during the last years of college. Specializing in a field of study upon entry into a university means most students graduate after four to five years of study. The fields available include those only taught as graduate degrees in the US, such as law or medicine.
In the traditional German system, there is a vocational degree (Diploma FH) that is similar in length, and is also considered an academic degree. Though it is designed as a specialist degree, in contrast to the Diplom degree at University, which claims to be more generalist. Germany itself, however, is currently abolishing the legal distinction between Fachhochschule and University. They are both translated as university and they both provide bologna-compliant and equivalent postgraduate degrees.
Not obligatory and sometimes applied at Universities in the Netherlands are the propaedeutic exams. The entire curriculum of the first two semesters of the bachelor's programme is part of the propaedeutic exams. In most bachelor's studies, students are required to obtain their propaedeutic certificate within three semesters after starting the course. A propaedeutic certificate also counts as a requirement for participating in a university level bachelor's study. The propaedeutic exams have the purpose of assessing whether a student has the appropriate capacities in order to complete the course.
At some Swedish universities (such as the Royal Institute of Technology), PhD courses are sometimes referred to as "graduate courses", whereas courses for other students (up to master level) sometimes are referred to as "undergraduate courses". The system at many Finnish universities is similar.
In the French system, the first degree of tertiary education was reached two years after the baccalauréat. Amongst these degrees the university-delivered DEUG has disappeared, whereas Diplôme universitaire de technologie, Brevet de Technicien Supérieur or classe préparatoire aux grandes écoles still exist. According to the Bologna process, this two-year curriculum will be replaced by the three-year licence, yet existing.
The University of Cambridge Department of Engineering is the largest department at the University of Cambridge and one of the leading centres of engineering in the world. The department's aim is to address the world's most pressing challenges with science and technology. To achieve this aim, the department collaborates with other disciplines, institutions, companies and entrepreneurs and adopts an integrated approach to research and teaching.The main site is situated at Trumpington Street, to the south of the city centre of Cambridge. The department is the primary centre for engineering teaching and research activities in Cambridge. The department is currently headed by Professor Richard Prager.Diane F. Halpern
Diane F. Halpern is an American psychologist and former president of the American Psychological Association (APA). She is Dean of Social Science at the Minerva Schools at KGI (Keck Graduate Institute) and also the McElwee Family Professor of Psychology at Claremont McKenna College. She is also past-president of the Western Psychological Association, The Society for the Teaching of Psychology, and the Division of General Psychology.
Halpern served on boards and panels at the APA including the Board of Educational Affairs, the Council of Representatives, the Committee on International Relations in Psychology, the Committee on Learning Outcomes, and Teachers of Psychology in Secondary Schools. She chaired the Panel on Public Policy and APA's National Conference on Undergraduate Education that resulted in the publication Undergraduate Education in Psychology: A Blueprint for the Future of the Discipline.
Along with Keith Millis (Northern Illinois University) and Arthur C. Graesser (University of Memphis), Halpern developed Operation ARA, a computerized game that teaches scientific reasoning. She also developed the Halpern Critical Thinking Assessment (Schuhfried Publishers) that uses multiple response formats which allow test-takers to demonstrate their ability to think about everyday topics using both constructed response and recognition formats.
Halpern received her B.A. from University of Pennsylvania and an M.A. from Temple University. She then received an M.A., from University of Cincinnati, followed by a Ph.D. from that institution in 1979. After teaching for many years at the California State University, San Bernardino, she is currently Professor of Psychology at Claremont McKenna College.
In 1995, Halpern was part of an 11-member APA task force led by Ulric Neisser which published Intelligence: Knowns and Unknowns, a report written in response to The Bell Curve. She has also written on cognitive differences between men and women. She suggests a biopsychosocial model offers superior insight into cognitive sex differences than a simple nature-vs-nurture dichotomy. Another topic of her research is risks associated with left-handedness. Halpern has also written in opposition of single-sex schooling, noting that it "lacks scientific support and may exaggerate sexism and gender stereotyping."Halpern has won awards for her teaching and research, including:
2013 James McKeen Cattell Award from the Association for Psychological Science (APS) (highest award given by APS)
2013 American Psychological Foundation Arthur W. Staats Award
2009 George A. Miller Award for the outstanding journal article in psychology
2004 Honorary Doctorate of Humane Letters (Ph.D.) Mount St. Mary’s College (Los Angeles)
2002 Outstanding Professor Award from the Western Psychological Association
1999 American Psychological Foundation (APF) Charles L. Brewer Distinguished Teaching Award
1996 Distinguished Career Award for Contributions to Education given by the American Psychological Association
1996 California State University's State-Wide Outstanding Professor Award
1996 Outstanding Alumna Award from the University of Cincinnati
1996 Silver Medal Award from the Council for the Advancement and Support of Education
Wang Family Excellence Award
G. Stanley Hall Lecture Award from the American Psychological Association.Faculty of Education, University of Cambridge
The Faculty of Education is the School of Education located in Cambridge, UK. It is part of the School of Humanities and Social Sciences at the University of Cambridge. Established in 2001.
Courses at the school include undergraduate programme, masters and doctoral programmes, initial teacher education and training and professional development studies:
Master of Education (part-time)
PhD (full and part-time)
Undergraduate Education BA
Postgraduate Professional Development, including an accredited Counselling Programme
Postgraduate Certificate in Education (PGCE)
Students at the University of Cambridge Faculty of Education also join one of the Cambridge Colleges.
The Faculty is situated on Hills Road, near Homerton College.Konan University
Konan University (甲南大学, Kōnan Daigaku) is a university on the slopes of Mount Rokkō in Higashinada-ku, Kobe, Japan. A private university with approximately 10,000 students, it offers a wide variety of programs to Japanese students, as well as an international exchange program through the Konan International Exchange Centre.Minor
Minor may refer to:
Minor (law), a person under the age of majority (often 18 or 21 years)
Academic minor, a secondary field of study in undergraduate educationNingbo Institute of Technology, Zhejiang University
Ningbo Institute of Technology (Traditional Chinese: 浙江大學寧波理工學院, Simplified Chinese: 浙江大学宁波理工学院), is a technical college affiliated to the Zhejiang University.
It is located in the newly founded Ningbo Higher Education District (寧波高等教育園區/宁波高等教育园区), Ningbo City, Zhejiang Province, People's Republic of China. It owns the Yongjiang Campus. It was founded in June 2001, and mainly focuses on undergraduate education following the course of Zhejiang University.Philip Showalter Hench
Philip Showalter Hench (February 28, 1896 – March 30, 1965) was an American physician. Hench, along with his Mayo Clinic co-worker Edward Calvin Kendall and Swiss chemist Tadeus Reichstein was awarded the Nobel Prize for Physiology or Medicine in 1950 for the discovery of the hormone cortisone, and its application for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis. The Nobel Committee bestowed the award for the trio's "discoveries relating to the hormones of the adrenal cortex, their structure and biological effects."Hench received his undergraduate education at Lafayette College in Easton, Pennsylvania, and received his medical training at the United States Army Medical Corps and the University of Pittsburgh. He began working at Mayo Clinic in 1923, later serving as the head of the Department of Rheumatology. In addition to the Nobel Prize, Hench received many other awards and honors throughout his career. He also had a lifelong interest in the history and discovery of yellow fever.Polish Air Force University
The Polish Air Force University (Polish: Wyższa Szkoła Oficerska Sił Powietrznych (1994-2018); Lotnicza Akademia Wojskowa (since 2018)) is located in Deblin, eastern Poland. The Air Force University is an accredited university for the undergraduate education of officers for the Polish Air Force. It was established in the interwar period in 1927. In 2009 academy started civilian program with four faculties: airplane pilot, aircraft maintenance, air traffic control and national security. In 2011 Department of National Safety and Logistics was created, giving the full range of aviation faculties to choose.Prague Conservatory
The Prague Conservatory or Prague Conservatoire (Czech: Pražská konzervatoř) is a music school in Prague, Czech Republic, founded in 1808. Currently, Prague Conservatory offers four or six year study courses, which can be compared to the level of high school diploma in other countries. Graduates of Prague Conservatory can continue their training by enrolling in an institution that offers undergraduate education.Pravets
Pravets or Pravetz (Bulgarian: Правец, also transliterated as Pravec) is a town in Pravets Municipality in central western Bulgaria, located approximately 60 kilometres (37 mi) from the capital Sofia. Pravets is home town of Pravetz computers, "Pravetz" is also a surname.
Pravets has a population of 4,512 people. Mountains surround it, which allows for a mild climate with rare winds. In the outskirts there is a small lake used for fishing and recreation. The town is the birthplace of Bulgaria's longtime communist President Todor Zhivkov. Likely for this reason was the first microprocessor factory in Bulgaria established in Pravets. These computers, which were also the first in Bulgaria, were named Pravets-82, being itself a direct clone of 6502-CPU-based Apple ][ computer.
Today, the town is most famous for its Computers and technology systems high school and the RIU golf resort complex. There is also a language high school by the name of Aleko Konstantinov. It prepares many students who continue their undergraduate education in Bulgaria, England, the USA, Germany, and France. The Professional Computing and Technology Systems high school is one of two technical schools in Bulgaria, which prepares students for the Technical University in Sofia, Bulgaria and allows for direct admission to the University to its top students.
During the school year, the town is filled with students from different towns and villages.Pre-medical
Pre-medical (often referred to as pre-med) is an educational track that undergraduate students in the United States and Canada pursue prior to becoming medical students. It involves activities that prepare a student for medical school, such as pre-med coursework, volunteer activities, clinical experience, research, and the application process. Some pre-med programs providing broad preparation are referred to as “pre-professional” and may simultaneously prepare students for entry into a variety of first professional degree or graduate school programs that require similar prerequisites (such as medical, veterinary, or pharmacy schools).President's Scholar
A President's Scholar is a recipient of the academic scholarship annually awarded by the Singaporean government to pursue undergraduate education at a university. The scholarship is considered to be the most prestigious public undergraduate scholarship in Singapore awarded to students of Singaporean nationality.
All recipients have legal obligation to serve a bond (in the form of a public service career) for a stipulated period of time, usually about 4 to 6 years, after completing his or her studies in university.
Shortlisted candidates are interviewed by a selection committee chaired by the Chairman of the Public Service Commission (PSC) of Singapore.
A President's Scholarship by itself does not award any money or lead to any particular career in public service. As such, it is generally paired with another PSC Scholarship, which could be either of the following:
Singapore Armed Forces Overseas Scholarship (SAFOS)
Singapore Police Force Overseas Scholarship (SPFOS)
Overseas Merit Scholarship (OMS)Rajamangala University of Technology Thanyaburi
Rajamangala University of Technology Thanyaburi (abbreviated as RMUTT; Thai: มหาวิทยาลัยเทคโนโลยีราชมงคลธัญบุรี) has been established in the Rajamangala University of Technology Act on 18 January 2005 by including two units together ('Rajamangala Institute of Technology Campus and Pathum Thani Undergraduate education in the field).Rutgers University College
University College is an undergraduate constituent college of Rutgers University established in 1934 to serve adult, part-time and non-traditional students. This division is offered at campuses in the cities of Newark and Camden.
University College in Rutgers–New Brunswick was eliminated in 2007, along with the other undergraduate liberal arts colleges (Rutgers, Douglass, Livingston Colleges, and the liberal arts aspect of Cook College) which were combined into a School of Arts and Sciences in an effort to consolidate undergraduate education, and have one common, consistent policy for admissions, curriculum and graduation requirements for all liberal arts undergraduates.Saitama University
Saitama University (埼玉大学 Saitama Daigaku abbreviated 埼大 Saidai) is a Japanese national university located in a suburban area of Sakura-ku, Saitama City capital of Saitama Prefecture in Tokyo Metropolitan Area.
The University has five faculties (schools) for undergraduate education -Liberal Arts, Education, Economics, Science, and Engineering- and four graduate schools -Cultural Science, Education, Economic Science, and Science and Engineering-, all offering programs leading to doctorates as well as master's degrees. The total enrollment in the university is more than 8,500 with more than 500 overseas students pursuing undergraduate and postgraduate studies .Sunbeam College for Women
Sunbeam College for Women is a women's degree college in Bhagawanpur, Varanasi, India. The college imparts undergraduate education.Undergraduate degree
An undergraduate degree (also called first degree, bachelor's degree or simply degree) is a colloquial term for an academic degree taken by a person who has completed undergraduate courses. It is also an oxymoron, since one cannot hold a degree as an undergraduate. In the United States, it is usually offered at an institution of higher education, such as a college or university. The most common type of these undergraduate degrees are associate's degree and bachelor's degree. Bachelor's degree typically takes at least three or four years to complete. These degrees can be categorised as basic degrees.United States service academies
The United States service academies, also known as the United States military academies, are federal academies for the undergraduate education and training of commissioned officers for the United States Armed Forces.
There are five U.S. service academies:
The United States Military Academy (USMA) in West Point, New York, founded in 1802
The United States Naval Academy (USNA) in Annapolis, Maryland, founded in 1845
The United States Air Force Academy (USAFA) in Colorado Springs, Colorado, founded in 1954.
The United States Coast Guard Academy (USCGA) in New London, Connecticut, founded in 1876
The United States Merchant Marine Academy (USMMA) in Kings Point, New York, founded in 1943Weiser Hall
Weiser Hall, formerly the David M. Dennison Building, is a building located on the University of Michigan campus in Ann Arbor, Michigan.
The building is located at 500 Church Street. It was built in 1963 by Albert Kahn Associates, and stands twelve stories in height. It is a brick building with a modern style. Twelve floors are above-ground, and there is one basement floor. The high-rise is used mainly for undergraduate education, particularly physics and mathematics. The low-rise section contains a number of large lecture halls; the two sections are connected by a breezeway on the second floor. The building is also home to the astronomy and astrophysics department.
In 2015, Dennison was renamed to Weiser Hall.
Levels of academic degree
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