Unalaska, Alaska

Unalaska (Aleut: Iluulux̂)[5] is the chief center of population in the Aleutian Islands. The city is in the Aleutians West Census Area, a regional component of the Unorganized Borough in the U.S. state of Alaska. Unalaska is located on Unalaska Island and neighboring Amaknak Island in the Aleutian Islands off mainland Alaska. The population was 4,376 at the 2010 census, which is 79% of the entire Aleutians West Census Area. Unalaska is the second largest city in the Unorganized Borough, behind Bethel.

The Aleut or Unangan people have lived on Unalaska Island for thousands of years.[6] The Unangan, who were the first to inhabit the island of Unalaska, named it "Ounalashka", meaning "near the peninsula". The regional native corporation has adopted this moniker, and is known as the Ounalashka Corporation.[7] The Russian fur trade reached Unalaska when Stepan Glotov and his crew arrived on August 1, 1759. Natives, Russians and their descendants comprised most of the community's population until the mid-20th century, when the involvement of the United States in World War II led to a large-scale influx of people and construction of buildings all along the strategically located Aleutians.

Almost all of the community's port facilities are on Amaknak Island, better known as Dutch Harbor or just "Dutch". It is the largest fisheries port in the U.S. by volume caught. It includes Dutch Harbor Naval Operating Base and Fort Mears, U.S. Army, a U.S. National Historic Landmark. Dutch Harbor lies within the city limits of Unalaska and is connected to Unalaska by a bridge. Amaknak Island is home to almost 59 percent of the city's population, although it has less than 3 percent of its land area.

Unalaska
Hilltop view of Unalaska in January 2006
Hilltop view of Unalaska in January 2006
Unalaska is located in Unalaska
Unalaska
Unalaska
Unalaska is located in Alaska
Unalaska
Unalaska
Coordinates: 53°53′20″N 166°31′38″W / 53.88889°N 166.52722°WCoordinates: 53°53′20″N 166°31′38″W / 53.88889°N 166.52722°W
CountryUnited States
StateAlaska
Census AreaAleutians West
IncorporatedMarch 3, 1942[1]
Government
 • MayorFrank Kelty[2]
 • State senatorLyman Hoffman (D)
 • State rep.Bryce Edgmon (D)
Area
 • Total212.68 sq mi (550.83 km2)
 • Land111.80 sq mi (289.55 km2)
 • Water100.88 sq mi (261.28 km2)
Elevation
13 ft (4 m)
Population
 • Total4,376
 • Estimate 
(2016)[4]
4,437
 • Density20.86/sq mi (8.06/km2)
Time zoneUTC−9 (Alaska (AKST))
 • Summer (DST)UTC−8 (AKDT)
ZIP code
99685
Area code907
FIPS code02-80770
GNIS feature ID1419424

History

Choris, Unalaska
The port of Unalaska in 1816.
MountMakushin
Aerial view of the Point Kadin vents, a series of post-glacial explosion pits and small cinder cones that occur along a fracture zone northwest of the summit of Makushin Volcano.

The island of Unalaska was first inhabited by the Aleut people, who named it "Ounalashka", meaning: "Near the Peninsula". They developed an intricate and complex society long before their first contact with the Russian fur traders who would document their existence.

Unalaska and Amaknak Islands contained 24 settlements with more than 1,000 Aleut inhabitants in 1759, when the first Russian group under Stepan Glotov came and started trading for three years on Umnak and Unalaska. Between 1763 and 1766, a conflict between the Russian fur traders and the Unalaska Natives occurred; the Aleuts destroyed four Russian ships and killed 175 hunters/traders. Solov'ev then returned to Unalaska and directed the massacre of many Natives. In the 1760s, Unalaska was temporarily used as a Russian fur trading post.[8] The post was permanently established in 1774,[9] and was eventually incorporated into the Russian-American Company. It was there that Captain James Cook encountered the navigator Gerasim Izmailov in 1778.

In 1788 the Spanish made contact with the Russians in Alaska for the first time. An expedition by Esteban José Martínez and Gonzalo López de Haro visited several Russian settlements. Their westernmost visit was to Unalaska. On August 5, 1788, they claimed Unalaska for Spain, calling it Puerto de Dona Marie Luisa Teresa. [10]

Alexander Andreyevich Baranov was shipwrecked here in 1790.[11]:2–5

Russian church and general view of town of Unalaska, Alaska, June 1906 (COBB 150).jpeg
Russian Orthodox church and town, June 1906

In 1825, the Russian Orthodox Church of the Holy Ascension was built in Unalaska. The founding priest, Ivan Veniaminov, later canonized as Saint Innocent of Alaska, composed the first Aleut writing system with local assistance, and translated scripture into Aleut. Between 1836 and 1840, measles, chicken-pox and whooping-cough epidemics drastically reduced the population; thus, at the end of the decade, only 200 to 400 Aleuts lived in Unalaska.

On October 18, 1867, the United States purchased Alaska, making Unalaska part of the U.S. territory.

In 1880, the Methodist Church opened a school and a clinic for orphans in Unalaska. Between 1899 and 1905, the Gold Rush brought many ships through Dutch Harbor where the North American Commercial Company had a coaling station.

Town of Unalaska, Alaska, June 1906 (COBB 151).jpeg
Unalaska, June 1906

During the first half of the century, the island was touched by numerous epidemics, first in 1900, and then in 1919 the Spanish flu touched the island: these contributed to a dramatic decrease of the population in Unalaska.

The United States started fortifying Dutch Harbor in 1940, resulting in the construction of the Dutch Harbor Naval Operating Base and Fort Mears. On June 3, 1942, the town was attacked by Japanese forces in the Battle of Dutch Harbor, part of the Aleutian Islands campaign. After the attack and the Japanese occupation of Attu, almost all of the native residents of the island were arrested. Many were held, under poor conditions, in camps in Southeast Alaska for the duration of the war; a substantial number of the internees died during the imprisonment.[12]

Beginning in the 1950s, Unalaska became a center of the Alaskan king crab fishing industry; by 1978 it was the largest fishing port in the United States. A 1982 crash in king crab harvests decimated the industry, and the mid-1980s saw a transition to bottom fishing.[13]

Recent history

Unalaska 1
Unalaska view in 1972 with the collapsed buildings of the closed naval base in the foreground

The city has struggled with problems like alcoholism and unemployment in the past and still does, although the situation has improved in recent years.[14] One example is the Elbow Room, a bar which locally, and later abroad, became infamous for its raucousness. It was closed in 2005.[14]

Since 2005, the Discovery Channel's documentary show Deadliest Catch has focused on fishermen who are based in Dutch Harbor.

Geography

Umnak Unalaska
Satellite shot of the islands of Umnak (left) and Unalaska (right).

According to the U.S. Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 212.3 square miles (549.9 km2), of which 111.0 square miles (287.5 km2) is land and 101.3 square miles (262.4 km2) of it (47.71%) is water.

Makushin Volcano (5,691 ft/1,735 m) is located on the island; it is not quite visible from within the town of Unalaska, though the steam rising from its cone is visible on the rare clear day. By climbing one of the smaller hills in the area, such as Pyramid Peak or Mount Newhall, it is possible to get a good look at the snow-covered cone.

Paleontology

A major find was announced in 2015 after scientists examined a group of giant, tusked, quadruped, marine mammal fossils. The species had been unearthed during excavation for the construction of a school. They are unique, shore dwellers belonging to the extinct order Desmostylia, and possibly related to Proboscidea or Sirenia.[15] A rendition of a group was drawn by Alaskan artist Ray Troll.[16]

Climate

As in all of the Aleutian islands in the south of Akutan Island (32 °F or 0 °C isoterm) the climate of Unalaska is a subpolar oceanic climate (Cfc), closely bordering a subarctic climate (Dfc) following the trend of warming have predominates the first one, although other climatic maps present even in group D in the Köppen Classification[17], with moderate and fairly uniform temperatures and heavy precipitation. Winters are consistently cold, but relatively mild in comparison to other parts of the state. Summers are cool, with most afternoons only reaching highs of 54 °F (12 °C) to 70 °F (21 °C). Fog is often present even when it is not raining. Summer weather is around 5 °F (2.8 °C) cooler than Southeast Alaska (Sitka), but the winter temperatures are nearly the same.

The mean annual temperature for Unalaska is about 40.9 °F (4.9 °C), being about 32.5 °F (0.3 °C) in January and about 53.3 °F (11.8 °C) in August. With about 225 rainy days a year, Unalaska is among the rainiest places in the United States. June through August are markedly the driest months of the year, with thunderstorms virtually nonexistent here. Precipitation is especially heavy from October to February, when frequent, often-intense storms from the North Pacific Ocean cross the area, bringing high to very high winds and heavy precipitation in any form, and sometimes, changing forms (rain, freezing rain, sleet, snow). On average, December is the year's wettest month. Snowfall averages over 91 inches per winter season, and can be heavy from December to March.

Climate data for Dutch Harbor, Unalaska, Alaska
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Average sea temperature °C (°F) 4
(39)
4
(39)
4
(39)
4
(39)
5
(41)
6
(43)
8
(46)
9
(48)
9
(48)
7
(45)
6
(43)
5
(41)
5.6
(42.1)
Mean daily daylight hours 8 10 12 14 16 17 16 15 13 10 9 7 12.3
Average Ultraviolet index 0 1 2 3 5 5 6 5 3 2 1 0 3
Source: weather2travel "Dutch Harbor climate guide". weather2travel. Retrieved 18 August 2017.

Demographics

Historical population
Census Pop.
1880406
1890317−21.9%
190042835.0%
1910281−34.3%
19202996.4%
1930226−24.4%
194029831.9%
1950173−41.9%
196021826.0%
197034256.9%
19801,322286.5%
19903,089133.7%
20004,28338.7%
20104,3762.2%
Est. 20164,437[4]1.4%
source:[19]

Unalaska first reported on the 1880 U.S. Census as the Aleut and Creole (Mixed Russian & Aleut) village of Iliuliuk.[20] Of its 406 residents, 230 were Aleut, 162 were Creole (Mixed Russian & Native) and 14 were White. It was the 9th largest community in Alaska.[21] In 1890, it returned as Unalaska with 317 residents. This included a majority of 165 Creoles, 84 Natives, 66 Whites and 2 Asians (the total population included adjacent Dutch Harbor, and 5 docked vessels including the steamers Arago and Dora and schooners Nellie Martin, Pearl and Matthew Turner.[22] In 1900, it reported as Unalaska again, but did not present a racial breakdown. It reported again as Iliuliuk in 1910, but has reported from 1920 onwards as Unalaska. It was formally incorporated in 1942.

In the census[23] of 2010, there were 4,376 people, 927 households, and 533 families residing in the city. There were 1106 housing units. The racial makeup of the city was 39.20% White, 6.90% Black or African American, 6.10% Native American, 32.60% Asian (28.2% Filipino, 2.7% Vietnamese, 0.6% Japanese, 0.5% Other Asian, 0.4% Korean, 0.1% Asian Indian, 0.1% Chinese),[24] 2.20% Pacific Islander, 7.40% from other races, and 5.60% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 15.20% of the population.

There were 927 households out of which 34.1% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 43.1% were married couples living together, 7.7% had a female householder with no husband present, and 42.5% were non-families. 35.3% of all households had individuals under 18 and 5.0% had someone living who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.46 and the average family size was 3.17.

In the city, the population was spread out with 15.2% under the age of 20, 6.0% from 20 to 24, 39.8% from 25 to 44, 36.3% from 45 to 64, and 2.6% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 40.7 years. For every 100 females, there were 194.8 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 218.7 males.

Economy

Dutch Harbor, Alaska
Satellite view of Dutch Harbor.

The port of Unalaska / Dutch Harbor is the main port and field base for the storied Bering Sea king crab fishery. The Dutch Harbor crabbing fleet is featured in the television show Deadliest Catch, a documentary style show on the Discovery Channel, and Dutch Harbor's facilities and local pub are featured prominently in numerous episodes.

Dutch Harbor has also been the largest fisheries port in the United States, in terms of volume of seafood caught, for nearly every year since 1981.[25][26] Until 2000, it also ranked first in terms of the dollar value of its catch; since 2000, however, the port of New Bedford, Massachusetts, has outranked Dutch Harbor in that category.[27]

A pilot project in Unalaska / Dutch Harbor, Alaska, is producing fish oil biodiesel from the local fish processing industry in conjunction with the University of Alaska Fairbanks. It is rarely economical to ship the fish oil elsewhere and Alaskan communities are heavily dependent on diesel power generation. The local factories process 3.5 million gallons[28] of fish oil annually.

Government

Local government

Unalaska has a council–manager form of government. The mayor is elected at large, and serves a three-year term; his or her powers are mostly ceremonial.

The city council is the legislative body of the city; it is made up of six members, who are elected at large by a direct vote of the city's electorate. They also serve three-year terms. The city council has for its mission to "enact the laws of the city, set the mill rate for property taxes within the city, approve the annual budget for the city, and appropriate funds to provide for city services".[29]

The incumbent mayor is Frank Kelty, who has served more terms than any other Unalaska mayor, with a total of six terms over the years.

Legislative representation

Unalaska is located in the Aleutians No. 2 voting precinct, in the 37th election district and Senate district S. The city is represented in the Alaska House of Representatives by Bryce Edgmon, a Democrat from Dillingham, and in the Alaska Senate by Lyman Hoffman, a Democrat from Bethel.

Unalaska was home to Carl Moses, who moved there from King Cove in the mid 1960s and was a business and political leader in the community for decades until shortly before his death in 2014. Moses was the longest-serving member in the history of the Alaska House, serving a total of 22 years, from 1965 to 1973 and from 1993 to 2007. He also served under three different political parties, first as a Republican, later switching to Democrat, and also served the majority of one term as a member of the Alaskan Independence Party. The only other Unalaska resident to serve in the legislature was Eric G. Sutcliffe, at the time owner of Stormy's Restaurant. Sutcliffe served a single term in the House, from 1981 to 1983.

Education

Primary and secondary education

As Unalaska is designated a first-class city and located within the Unorganized Borough, it is required under state law to operate its own schools rather than participate in a Rural Education Attendance Area. The Unalaska City School District reported an enrollment of 409 students for the 2013–2014 school year, split roughly evenly between Eagle's View Elementary School (pre-elementary through 6th grade) and Unalaska Jr/Sr High School (7th through 12th grades).

UCSD was voted one of the best 100 school districts in the United States by Offspring Magazine, a Forbes publication. It has also consistently been one of the highest scoring schools in Alaska in both the Standards-based exams and Alaska Exit Exam. In 2006, the Alaska Association of School Boards awarded the school district with the Outstanding School Board Award and Superintendent of the Year award.

Unalaska Headstart also serves the community's pre-elementary education needs.

Previously the Aleutian Region School District, which serves rural areas in the western Aleutian Islands, had its administrative headquarters in Unalaska;[30] the school board's mailing address was in Unalaska.[31]

Tertiary education

The University of Alaska Fairbanks also has a campus in Unalaska, the University of Alaska, Aleutian Pribilof campus. This college is part of the College of Rural Alaska network and offers both conventional classroom and distance classes.[32] It offers university classes, community workshops, local courses, as well as dual credit for high school students.[33]

11% of Unalaska residents age 25 and older have a bachelor's or advanced college degree.[34]

Transportation

The state of Alaska owns a 4,100 by 100 ft (1,250 by 30 m) paved runway,[35] where daily flights are scheduled. Because of the very harsh weather conditions around Unalaska Airport, about a fifth of those flights are cancelled. A seaplane base is also available. The state of Alaska changed the name of the airport in 2002 to "Tom Madsen Airport", after a bush pilot killed in an accident that year, although the FAA still uses the airport's original name.

The Alaska Marine Highway operates once every two weeks from Kodiak between April and October. Out of the ten major docks in Unalaska, three are operated by the city. A World War II sub dock was refurbished and now offers ship repair services.[36]

There are approximately seven miles (11 km) of paved road, and 38 miles (61 km) of road total in Unalaska.[32] According to traffic counts taken by the Alaska Department of Transportation and Public Facilities, the most heavily traveled roads in Unalaska are Airport Beach Road between 5th Street and East Point Road, 5th Street between Broadway Avenue and Airport Beach Road, and Broadway Avenue between 5th Street and Steward Road. These roads recorded an annual average daily traffic volume of approximately 3,000 cars.[37]

Churches

International relations

Unalaska has been twinned with Petropavlovsk-Kamchatsky, Russia since 1990.[41]

References

  1. ^ 1996 Alaska Municipal Officials Directory. Juneau: Alaska Municipal League/Alaska Department of Community and Regional Affairs. January 1996. p. 154.
  2. ^ Kraegel, Laura (November 23, 2016). "Mayor Kelty Outlines Priorities For 3-Year Term". KUCB. Alaska Public Media. Retrieved May 4, 2017.
  3. ^ "2016 U.S. Gazetteer Files". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved Jun 22, 2017.
  4. ^ a b "Population and Housing Unit Estimates". Retrieved June 9, 2017.
  5. ^ Bergsland, K. (1994). Aleut Dictionary. Fairbanks: Alaska Native Language Center. ISBN 1-55500-047-9.
  6. ^ History of Unalaska Archived September 30, 2009, at the Wayback Machine
  7. ^ "The Ounalashka Corporation". Ounalashka.com. Retrieved 2012-11-15.
  8. ^ Merriam-Webster's geographical dictionary, p. 1219
  9. ^ "Dutch Harbor Unalaska" (PDF). Afsc.noaa.gov. Retrieved 7 June 2016.
  10. ^ Inglis, Robin (2008). Historical Dictionary of the Discovery and Exploration of the Northwest Coast of America Front Cover. Maryland: Rowman and Littlefield Publishing. p. 219. ISBN 9780810855519. |access-date= requires |url= (help)
  11. ^ Khlebnikov, K.T., 1973, Baranov, Chief Manager of the Russian Colonies in America, Kingston: The Limestone Press, ISBN 0919642500
  12. ^ Cole, Terrence M. (November 1992). "Jim Crow in Alaska: The Passage of the Alaska Equal Rights Act of 1945". The Western Historical Quarterly. 23 (4): 429–449. doi:10.2307/970301. JSTOR 970301.
  13. ^ "Unalaska/Port of Dutch Harbor Convention and Visitors Bureau". Unalaska.info. Retrieved 2012-11-15.
  14. ^ a b Yardley, William (November 7, 2009). "Safe Harbor on Alaska Fishing Island, Still a Dream Away". New York Times. Retrieved April 14, 2018.
  15. ^ Giant extinct mammal identified from Unalaska fossils, Alaska Dispatch News, Mike Dunham, October 7, 2015. Retrieved 8 October 2015.
  16. ^ Photos: New species of extinct marine mammal identified from Unalaska fossils, Alaska Dispatch News, Mike Dunham, October 7, 2015. Retrieved 8 October 2015.
  17. ^ "Interactive United States Koppen-Geiger Climate Classification Map". www.plantmaps.com. Retrieved 2018-10-31.
  18. ^ "DUTCH HARBOR, ALASKA (502587)". Western Regional Climate Centre. Retrieved 2011-11-05.
  19. ^ Moffatt, Riley. Population History of Western U.S. Cities & Towns, 1850–1990. Lanham: Scarecrow, 1996, 8.
  20. ^ "Geological Survey Professional Paper". U.S. Government Printing Office. 3 April 2018. Retrieved 3 April 2018 – via Google Books.
  21. ^ http://www2.census.gov/prod2/decennial/documents/1880a_v1-17.pdf
  22. ^ "Report on Population and Resources of Alaska at the Eleventh Census, 1890". U.S. Government Printing Office. 3 April 1893. Retrieved 3 April 2018 – via Google Books.
  23. ^ "American FactFinder". United States Census Bureau. Archived from the original on 2013-09-11. Retrieved 2008-01-31.
  24. ^ Bureau, U.S. Census. "American FactFinder - Results". Archived from the original on 29 November 2014. Retrieved 7 June 2016.
  25. ^ "NOAA: Top fishing ports for 1996". Publicaffairs.noaa.gov. Retrieved 2012-11-15.
  26. ^ "NOAA: Top fishing ports for 2003". Publicaffairs.noaa.gov. Retrieved 2012-11-15.
  27. ^ "New Bedford and Dutch Harbor-Unalaska Share Nation's Top Fishing Port for 2000". archive.org. 5 April 2002. Archived from the original on 5 April 2002. Retrieved 3 April 2018.
  28. ^ O'HARRA, DOUG. "New fish oil-diesel blend could benefit rural villages - Peninsula Clarion". peninsulaclarion.com. Retrieved 3 April 2018.
  29. ^ "Government description on the official website of the City of Unalaska". Unalaska-ak.us. Archived from the original on 2011-08-19. Retrieved 2012-11-15.CS1 maint: BOT: original-url status unknown (link)
  30. ^ Fried, Neal and Brigitta Windisch-Cole. "Public School Education: A Big Industry." Alaska Economic Trends. February 1998. Start: p. 2/17. CITED: p. 7/17. "Name of District[...]Aleutian Region District School Center[...]Location of Headquarters of District Office[...]Unalaska"
  31. ^ "Alaska Education Directory, School Year 1999-2000." Alaska Department of Education. p. 3 (PDF p. 9/58). Retrieved on February 20, 2017. Available at ERIC (info in the ERIC PDF is on PDF p. 8/58).
  32. ^ a b Unalaska/Port of Dutch Harbor Convention and Visitors Bureau Archived September 18, 2009, at the Wayback Machine
  33. ^ "Aleutian-Pribilof Center - Interior Alaska Campus". Retrieved 7 June 2016.
  34. ^ "Unalaska city profile on ePodunk". US-AK: Epodunk.com. Retrieved 2012-11-15.
  35. ^ FAA Airport Master Record for DUT (Form 5010 PDF)
  36. ^ "Alaskan Division of Community and Regional Affairs". Commerce.state.ak.us. Archived from the original on 2012-07-22. Retrieved 2012-11-15.
  37. ^ Witt, Jennifer W. (2013). Yan, Edith, ed. Annual Traffic Volume Report (PDF) (Report) (2010-2011-2012 ed.). Alaska Department of Transportation & Public Facilities. pp. III-8–III-9. Archived from the original (pdf) on September 30, 2013. Retrieved November 14, 2013.
  38. ^ "Dutch Harbor Branch". maps.lds.org. Retrieved 2015-06-12.
  39. ^ "Archdiocese of Anchorage". Archdiocese of Anchorage. Retrieved 2012-11-15.
  40. ^ http://www.unalaskareformed.org/
  41. ^ "Alaska–Kamchatka Connections". Gov.state.ak.us. 1997-04-13. Archived from the original on 2012-02-20. Retrieved 2012-11-15.

External links

Aleksey Yachmenev

Aleksey Mironovich Yachmenev (1866–1937) was an Aleut chief who lived in Unalaska. Along with Leontiy Sivstov, Yachmenev accompanied Waldemar Jochelson on his 1909-1910 ethnological studies on the Aleut.

His son, John Yatchmeneff, wrote down the texts for John P. Harrington's 1941 work on the Aleut language.

Anfesia Shapsnikoff

Anfesia Shapsnikoff (October 1, 1901 – January 15, 1973) was an Aleut leader and educator born October 1, 1901, at Atka, Alaska in the Aleutian Islands. Renowned for her weaving of Aleut grass baskets, Anfesia flew to many communities throughout Alaska to teach children the lost art of Attu basket weaving.

Anna MacKinnon

Anna MacKinnon (formerly Fairclough; born November 11, 1957) is an American Republican politician who is currently a member of the Alaska Senate, representing District G since 2013. Prior to that, she served in the Alaska House of Representatives, representing the 17th district, from 2007 to 2013. In the 26th Alaska State Legislature, she was a member of the House Finance Committee, and chair of the Education & Early Development, Labor & Workforce Development and the University Of Alaska Finance Subcommittees. She also represented Eagle River and Chugiak on the Anchorage Assembly from 1999 until being elected to the House. She was elected to each of these offices by defeating an incumbent in the election; her Assembly victory was over incumbent Ted Carlson, better known as the Anchorage police officer who arrested actor Steve McQueen in 1972. Her House victory came in the 2006 primary over incumbent Pete Kott, who by that point was involved in what became known as the Alaska political corruption probe, and who was later sentenced to federal prison. The probe also saw other longtime legislators leave office. Her Senate victory in 2012 came over longtime legislator Bettye Davis, who faced not only redistricting but a primary election challenge from former House member and congressional candidate Harry Crawford, whom Davis narrowly outpolled.

Carl E. Moses

Carl Eugene Moses (July 16, 1929 – April 30, 2014) was an American businessman from Unalaska, Alaska who served in the Alaska House of Representatives from 1965 to 1973 as both a Republican and Democrat, and was elected again to the House in 1992 running on the Alaskan Independence Party ticket, later switched back to the Democrats, and served until 2007. Moses served a total of eleven full terms in the Alaska House, making him the longest-serving member in the history of that body. In the 2006 primary election, Moses was defeated for renomination by Bryce Edgmon, losing via a coin toss after the election results wound up in court and were later certified by the state of Alaska as ending in a tie vote.

Channel 4 low-power TV stations in the United States

The following low-power television stations broadcast on digital or analog channel 4 in the United States:

K04AI in Prescott, Arizona

K04BJ-D in La Pine, Oregon

K04BR in Green River, Utah

K04DD-D in Weaverville, California

K04DH-D in Gunnison, Colorado

K04DS-D in Kenai River, Alaska

K04EN in Glenns Ferry, Idaho

K04EQ in Fort Jones, etc., California

K04EZ in Big Bend, etc., California

K04FF in Forsyth, etc., Montana

K04GF-D in Wolf Point, Montana

K04GP-D in Alyeska, Alaska

K04GT-D in Bullhead City, Arizona

K04GW-D in Spearfish, South Dakota

K04HE in Yreka, etc., California

K04HF-D in Panaca, Nevada

K04HH-D in Aspen, Colorado

K04HM in St. Paul Island, Alaska

K04HN in Manila, etc., Utah

K04HV in Sand Point, Alaska

K04HX in Ridgecrest, etc., California

K04IG in Kiana, Alaska

K04IH-D in Baker, Montana

K04IK in Noorvik, Alaska

K04IR in Wainwright, Alaska

K04IT in Point Lay, Alaska

K04IU in Kaktovik, Alaska

K04IW in East Price, Utah

K04JF in Nulato, Alaska

K04JH-D in Homer, Alaska

K04JP in Williams, Oregon

K04JR in Starr Valley, Nevada

K04JW in Unalakleet, Alaska

K04JZ in Gold Hill, Oregon

K04KG in Gateway, Colorado

K04KN in King Salmon, Alaska

K04KP in Northway, Alaska

K04KQ in Klukwan, Alaska

K04KS in Barrow, Alaska

K04KU in Ruby, Alaska

K04KV in Unalaska, Alaska

K04KX in Slana, Alaska

K04LB in Pelican, Alaska

K04LE in Stebbins, Alaska

K04LJ in Atka, Alaska

K04LN in Takotna, Alaska

K04LT in Deering, Alaska

K04LU in Buckland, Alaska

K04LZ in Galena, Alaska

K04MB in Nikolai, Alaska

K04MG-D in Wedderburn, etc., Oregon

K04MK in Chefornak, Alaska

K04MM in Hyder, Alaska

K04MN in Wales, Alaska

K04MO in Hoonah, Alaska

K04MQ in Paxson, Alaska

K04MR in Gustavus, Alaska

K04MT in Newtok, Alaska

K04MV in Point Baker, Alaska

K04MW in Pitkas Point, Alaska

K04NK-D in Dolores, Colorado

K04OH in Challis, Idaho

K04OI in Pasco-Kennewick, Washington

K04OM in Collbran, Colorado

K04ON-D in Weber Canyon, Colorado

K04OO-D in Ismay Canyon, Colorado

K04OS-D in Reedsport, Oregon

K04PH in Astoria, Oregon

K04PI in Bluff & area, Utah

K04PJ-D in Hesperus, Colorado

K04QC in Palermo, California

K04QP-D in Casas Adobes, Arizona

K04QR-D in Esparto, California

K04QV-D in Thompson Falls, Montana

K04QX-D in Townsend, Montana

K04RA-D in Clarksville, Arkansas

K04RP-D in Delta Junction, Alaska

K04RS-D in San Juan Bautista, California

K04RT-DT in Judith Gap, Montana

K14QH-D in Butte Falls, Oregon

K41LF-D in Salina & Redmond, Utah

KAHO-LD in Woodville, Texas

KAKZ-LD in Cathedral City, California

KDLN-LP in Newport, Oregon

KFIQ-LP in Lubbock, Texas

KHFW-LD in Dallas, Texas

KQSL-LD in San Rafael, California

KRMF-LD in Reno, Nevada

KTFB-CA in Bakersfield, California

KVER-CA in Indio, California

W04AE in Herkimer, New York

W04AG-D in Garden City, etc., Virginia

W04BS-D in Bethel, Maine

W04CI in Appomattox, Virginia

WBXF-CA in Des Moines, etc., Iowa

WGCI-LD in Skowhegan, Maine

WKPZ-CD in Pennington Gap, Virginia

WLWP-LP in Millsboro, etc., Delaware

WMDF-LD in Key West, Florida

WNHT-LD in Montgomery, Alabama

WOCK-CD in Chicago, Illinois

WPXO-LD in East Orange, New Jersey

WTSP in St. Petersburg, Florida

WUVM-LP in Atlanta, GeorgiaThe following low-power stations, which are no longer licensed, formerly broadcast on digital or analog channel 4:

K04AU in Panguitch, Utah

K04BN in Teasdale/Torrey, Utah

K04BO in Marysvale, Utah

K04CV in Broken Bow, Nebraska

K04CX in Cascadia, Oregon

K04EG in Trenton, Nebraska

K04EK in Orderville, Utah

K04EY in Grants Pass, etc., Oregon

K04FR in Escalante, Utah

K04FT in Mazama, Washington

K04GA in Kings River, Nevada

K04GB in Fort Bidwell, California

K04GD in Beowawe, etc., Nevada

K04GR in Dorena, etc., Oregon

K04GS in Crested Butte, etc., Colorado

K04HK in Black Butte Ranch, Oregon

K04HL in Ord, Nebraska

K04IN in Tropic, etc., Utah

K04JD in Salida, etc., Colorado

K04NU in Seiad Valley, California

K04OF-D in Sargents, Colorado

K04OJ in Ticaboo, Utah

K04OZ in Oljeto, Utah

K04PP in Navajo Mtn. Sch., etc., Utah

KCDH-LP in Winnfield, Louisiana

KJBW-CA in Springdale, Arkansas

KVFR-LP in Redding, California

W04CW in Tigerton, etc., Wisconsin

W04DE in Laurel, Mississippi

DUT

DUT is an acronym for

Da Nang University of Technology in Da Nang, Vietnam

Dalian University of Technology in Dalian, China

Delft University of Technology in Delft, the Netherlands

Device under test, especially in electronics, associated with semiconductor testing

Diplôme universitaire de technologie, a French undergraduate university degree in technology

Durban University of Technology in Durban, South Africa

DUT (gene), which encodes DUTP pyrophosphatase

Drinking-up time, a former feature of United Kingdom alcohol licensing law

DUT1 or DUT, which describes the difference between coordinated universal time (UTC) and universal time (UT)

Unalaska Airport (IATA airport code "DUT"), an airport in Unalaska, Alaska, U.S.

D.Ut., an abbreviation used for the United States District Court for the District of Utah

Dutch Harbor

Dutch Harbor is a harbor on Amaknak Island in Unalaska, Alaska. It was the location of the Battle of Dutch Harbor in June 1942, and was one of the few sites, besides the attack on Pearl Harbor in Hawaii, in incorporated U.S. territory to be bombed by the Japanese during World War II.Dutch Harbor is now the home of an important fishing industry.

FV Big Valley

The Big Valley was a 92-foot (28 m) crabber boat. The vessel capsized and sank Saturday, January 15, 2005, in the Bering Sea in an area 70 miles (110 km) west of Saint Paul Island, Alaska. Only one member of the crew survived: Cache Seel, 30. Skipper Gary Edwards, 46, of Kodiak, Alaska; Danny Vermeersch, 33 of Belgium; Josias Luna, 48, of Anchorage, Alaska; Aaron Marrs, 27, of Louisville, Kentucky; and Carlos Rivera, 35, of Uruguay all perished.

The vessel's Emergency position-indicating radiobeacon station (EPIRB) went off around 8:00am AST (UTC−9), at the beginning of the 2005 opilio crab hunting season. Three fishing vessels (Cornelia Marie, Maverick and Sea Rover), U.S. Coast Guard ship USCGC Sherman, the Alaska state patrol boat Stimson, and a Coast Guard helicopter out of Saint Paul Island were involved in the search.

The helicopter rescued Cache Seel, who was the only crewmember to make it to the life raft. Vermeersch and Rivera, who were wearing survival suits like Seel, were found dead in the water. Vermeersch was recovered by the helicopter, and Rivera was recovered by Stimson. Edwards, Luna and Marrs fell into the water without survival suits, and their bodies were never found. According to Seel's account, Edwards and Luna were thrown overboard while trying to release the life raft. Vermeersch ultimately freed it, but only Seel made it to the raft after 50 minutes in the water.The Coast Guard had limited the Big Valley, one of the smallest boats that participated in the crab fishery, to carrying 31 crab pots. She left Dutch Harbor in Unalaska, Alaska, for her final trip with 55 pots and 183,000 pounds of bait, more than three times the amount allowed, according to the Coast Guard investigation. That extra weight contributed to her fate, the investigation found.

The search for Big Valley was covered in an episode of the television show, Deadliest Catch. It was Big Valley's captain, Gary Edwards, who demonstrated the EPIRB for the show.

KSKA

KSKA (91.1 FM) is a non-commercial radio station in Anchorage, Alaska, United States. The station airs public radio programming from the National Public Radio network and the BBC World Service. KSKA also airs some locally originated programming.

KUCB (FM)

KUCB is a non-commercial radio station in Unalaska, Alaska, broadcasting on 89.7 FM. It signed on in October 2008 to replace KIAL 1450 AM. KUCB generally broadcasts local programming, plus programming from National Public Radio, Native Voice One and Alaska Public Radio. The KIAL radio and television stations were formerly owned by the municipality of Unalaska; due to municipal cutbacks they now operate as an independent non-profit organisation dependent largely on individual donors. Shortly after its sell-off, KIAL, which only broadcast at 50 watts, moved to the FM dial as KUCB, with a stronger signal.

Leontiy Sivstov

Leontiy Ivanovich Sivstov (1872-1919) was a church reader who lived in Unalaska. Along with Aleksey Yachmenev, who like Sivstov was Aleut himself, Sivstov accompanied Waldemar Jochelson on his 1909-1910 ethnological studies on the Aleut.

Madsen Airport

Madsen Airport may refer to:

Tom Madsen Airport, also known as Unalaska Airport, a public airport in Unalaska, Alaska, United States (FAA: DUT)

Madsen Airport (Wyoming), a private airport in Gillette, Wyoming, United States (FAA: WY65)

Onalaska

Onalaska may refer to:

Onalaska, Texas

Onalaska, Washington

Onalaska, Wisconsin

Onalaska (town), Wisconsin

Lake Onalaska, a lake in Wisconsin

Ounalashka Corporation

The Ounalashka Corporation is the native village corporation for the Aleuts of Unalaska and Amaknak Islands, in the Aleutian Islands. Like its parent entity, the Aleut Corporation, it was formed as a result of the Alaska Native Claims Settlement Act of 1971. Its headquarters are located in Unalaska, Alaska.

The Ounalashka Corporation has a significantly greater control over the economy and development of Unalaska than do many of the other village corporations in Alaska, due to the severely limited amount of land suitable for development on the island, and the high percentage of that land that the corporation owns. To maintain that control, the Corporation has a policy of never selling any portion of its land, though it does issue leases for as long as 50 years. Since consolidating its holdings in the late 1970s, it has become nearly impossible to plan any new development in Unalaska without authorization of the Corporation.

Sergie Sovoroff

Sergie Sovoroff (September 17, 1901 – September 27, 1989) was an Aleut educational leader. He was born on Umnak Island in the Aleut village of Nikolski in 1902. Sovoroff was born only nine years before the United States government outlawed sea otter hunting. After 1911, the need and use of iqya-x, Aleut sea kayaks, declined abruptly. But Sovoroff continued to see a need for creating model sea kayaks, known in his days by the Russian name "baidarka". Sovoroff "...kept up the tradition of making kayak models". Model sea kayaks built by Sovoroff, quite often with three hatches with a Russian Orthodox priest seated in the middle hatch, can be seen in many museums around the world. These model sea kayaks, finely crafted by Sovoroff, often equipped with a rudder on the stern of the kayak, all too frequently bear the name of the person who purchased them or donated them to the museum, and not Sovoroff's.

Sergie died on September 27, 1989 and is buried in Nikolski, Alaska.

Sovoroff built model sea kayaks from the 1910s through the 1980s and his work and teaching served an important role of carrying Unangan sea kayak construction through a period when it appeared that the ancient art would be lost forever. The rebirth and revitalization of Unangan iqya-x in the late 20th and early 21st century can be directly attributed to the instruction, inspiration, and dedication of Sergie Sovoroff.Sovoroff built three-hatch kayaks called uluxtax and one-hatch kayak called iqyax. Sovoroff's models continue to inspire and instruct Alaska youth on how these boats were built and paddled, as well as the important role that they played in the ancient Aleutian culture. Sergie's 3D (three-dimensional) models have served as a practical instructional design tool, providing blue prints for many generations of people who become intrigued with this ancient design and want to recreate models or full-scale sea kayaks.

Sovoroff's model kayaks are on display at locations such as the Anchorage Fine Arts Museum, the Aleutian Pribilof Islands Association headquarters in Anchorage, and the Unalaska School in Unalaska, Alaska, although his name is often missing from public displays.

When invading promyshlenniks (fur hunters from Kamchatka) invaded the Aleutians, the ancient culture and traditions of building sea kayaks was significantly altered. Sovoroff preserved the blueprint, the plans of how to build model sea kayaks, one of the most important forms of transportation in the ancient Unangan culture which has persisted on the lower Alaska Peninsula and the Aleutian Islands for over 8000 years. The Unungan iqya-x (or, in Russian, "baidarka"; or, in the Inuit language, "kayak") played a paramount role within the ancient culture, not unlike the role that automobiles assume in 21st century America. For example, in pre-1741 times, an ultimate insult from one Aleut youngster to another might be something like, "Your family doesn't even own a sea kayak!".

Sitka Spruce Park

Sitka Spruce Park is a public park in the city of Unalaska, Alaska. The roughly 5-acre (2.0 ha) park is located on Biorka Drive on Amaknak Island, south of Unalaska Airport. It is one of the few places on the island where there are a significant number of trees. A small part of the park is a National Historic Landmark, as it was the site of the earliest documented afforestation in North America. In 1805, Russian agents planted an unknown number of Sitka spruce trees in the area, of which six were documented to be surviving in 1978.

Unalaska Airport

Tom Madsen (Dutch Harbor) Airport (IATA: DUT, ICAO: PADU, FAA LID: DUT) is a state owned, public use airport in City of Unalaska, on Amaknak Island in the Aleutian Islands, off the coast of the U.S. state of Alaska. It is located near the Bering Sea coast of Unalaska Island, 800 miles (1,300 km) southwest of Anchorage and 1,950 miles (3,140 km) from Seattle.

The official name of the City of Unalaska's port is Dutch Harbor. That name is also applied to the portion of Unalaska on Amaknak Island, which is located across a bridge from the rest of the city on Unalaska Island. Therefore, the airport is sometimes referred to as Dutch Harbor Airport. In 2002, the State of Alaska renamed it Tom Madsen Airport in honor of Charles Thomas Madsen Sr., a bush pilot who was killed in an airplane accident that year. However, the Federal Aviation Administration still refers to it as Unalaska Airport.Scheduled commercial airline service is provided by PenAir, a code share partner of Alaska Airlines. At one point Alaska Airlines operated Boeing 737-200 Combi jetliners to the airport with these aircraft transporting a combination of passengers and freight on the main deck of the aircraft. However, due to load restrictions as a result of the short runway as well as cancellations due to weather, Alaska Airlines then contracted the service via a code sharing arrangement to PenAir in 2004. PenAir currently operates Saab 340 and Saab 2000 regional turboprop aircraft into the airport. AirPac also previously served the airport with British Aerospace BAe 146-100 jets with this aircraft type having enhanced short runway takeoff and landing performance. The airfield runway is 4,100 feet long which is quite short for jet operations when compared with typical runways normally used by mainline jet aircraft. Other airlines that served the airport in the past included MarkAir operating Boeing 737-200 Combi jet aircraft and Reeve Aleutian Airways flying Lockheed L-188 Electra turboprops via a code sharing agreement with Alaska Airlines.As per Federal Aviation Administration records, the airport had 28,234 passenger boardings (enplanements) in calendar year 2008, 26,705 enplanements in 2009, and 26,711 in 2010. It is included in the National Plan of Integrated Airport Systems for 2011–2015, which categorized it as a primary commercial service airport (more than 10,000 enplanements per year).

Unalaska City School District

Unalaska City School District (UCSD) is a school district headquartered in Unalaska, Alaska.

There are two schools:

Eagles View Elementary Achigaalux

Unalaska City High SchoolCirca October 1978 the district had 15 teachers and 140 students.

Unalaska Island

Unalaska (Aleut: Nawan-Alaxsxa) is an island in the Fox Islands group of the Aleutian Islands in the US state of Alaska located at 53°38′N 167°00′W. The island has a land area of 1,051 square miles (2,720 km2). It measures 79.4 mi (127.8 km) long and 34.7 mi (55.8 km) wide. The city of Unalaska, Alaska, covers part of the island and all of neighboring Amaknak Island where the Port of Dutch Harbor is located. The population of the island excluding Amaknak as of the 2000 census was 1,759 residents.

Unalaska is the second largest island in the Fox Islands group and the Aleutian Islands. The coastline of Unalaska is markedly different in appearance than other major Aleutian Islands, with innumerable inlets and peninsulas. The irregular coastline is broken by three long deep bays, Beaver Inlet, Unalaska Bay, and Makushin Bay, as well as by numerous smaller bays and coves. Unalaska's terrain is rugged and covered with mountains, and during the greater part of the year the higher elevations are covered with snow.Unalaska is the Aleut name for the island. Several theories about its origin exist; the most likely is that the name comes from a corruption of the Russian word Ounalashka from the Aleut word for near the mainland, nawan Alaskax.

Climate data for Dutch Harbor, Unalaska, Alaska
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °F (°C) 58
(14)
54
(12)
61
(16)
58
(14)
60
(16)
73
(23)
75
(24)
81
(27)
74
(23)
65
(18)
57
(14)
59
(15)
81
(27)
Average high °F (°C) 36.7
(2.6)
37.4
(3.0)
38.5
(3.6)
40.8
(4.9)
46.0
(7.8)
51.5
(10.8)
56.8
(13.8)
58.8
(14.9)
53.9
(12.2)
47.3
(8.5)
42.2
(5.7)
39.0
(3.9)
45.8
(7.7)
Daily mean °F (°C) 32.5
(0.3)
32.5
(0.3)
33.5
(0.8)
36.2
(2.3)
41.4
(5.2)
46.8
(8.2)
51.4
(10.8)
53.3
(11.8)
48.8
(9.3)
42.3
(5.7)
37.4
(3.0)
34.7
(1.5)
40.9
(4.9)
Average low °F (°C) 28.0
(−2.2)
27.8
(−2.3)
28.2
(−2.1)
31.4
(−0.3)
36.7
(2.6)
41.8
(5.4)
45.9
(7.7)
47.6
(8.7)
43.5
(6.4)
37.3
(2.9)
32.1
(0.1)
30.3
(−0.9)
35.9
(2.2)
Record low °F (°C) −8
(−22)
0
(−18)
2
(−17)
−5
(−21)
15
(−9)
30
(−1)
21
(−6)
30
(−1)
19
(−7)
2
(−17)
8
(−13)
5
(−15)
−8
(−22)
Average precipitation inches (mm) 7.28
(185)
6.35
(161)
5.40
(137)
3.46
(88)
3.98
(101)
2.48
(63)
2.19
(56)
2.69
(68)
5.21
(132)
7.17
(182)
6.76
(172)
7.89
(200)
60.86
(1,545)
Average snowfall inches (cm) 23.8
(60)
20.4
(52)
16.5
(42)
6.6
(17)
0.2
(0.51)
0
(0)
0
(0)
0
(0)
0
(0)
0.5
(1.3)
6.4
(16)
17.1
(43)
91.5
(231.81)
Average precipitation days (≥ 0.01 inch) 21 20 20 17 17 14 13 14 18 23 23 23 223
Source: WRCC[18]
Municipalities and communities of Aleutians West Census Area, Alaska, United States
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