Umpire (baseball)

In baseball, the umpire is the person charged with officiating the game, including beginning and ending the game, enforcing the rules of the game and the grounds, making judgment calls on plays, and handling the disciplinary actions.[1] The term is often shortened to the colloquial form ump. They are also sometimes addressed as blue at lower levels due to the common color of the uniform worn by umpires. In professional baseball, the term blue is seldom used by players or managers, who instead call the umpire by name. Although games were often officiated by a sole umpire in the formative years of the sport, since the turn of the 20th century, officiating has been commonly divided among several umpires, who form the umpiring crew. The position is analogous to that of a referee in many other sports.

Umpire Bill Miller (26), Cleveland coach, umpire Adam Hamari (78) , umpire Kerwin Danley, umpire Ryan Blakney
An MLB umpiring crew meeting with the managers from each team before a 2017 game

Duties and positions

Umpire Malachi Moore San Antonio Texas 2016
Home plate umpire Malachi Moore reviews the lineup cards from both teams before a 2016 minor league baseball game

In a game officiated by two or more umpires, the umpire in chief (or home plate umpire) is the umpire who is in charge of the entire game. This umpire calls balls and strikes, calls fair balls, foul balls short of first/third base, and makes most calls concerning the batter or concerning baserunners near home plate. To avoid injury, the home plate umpire wears similar equipment to the catcher, including mask, chest protector, leg guards and shoes with extra protection added over the laces.[1] If another umpire leaves the infield to cover a potential play in foul ground or in the outfield, then the plate umpire may move to cover a potential play near second or third base. (The umpire-in-chief should not be confused with the crew chief, who is often a different umpire; see below.) In the event that an umpire is injured and only three remain, the second base position will generally be left vacant.

In nearly all levels of organized baseball, including the majors, an umpiring crew rotates so that each umpire in the crew works each position, including plate umpire, an equal number of games. In the earliest days of baseball, however, many senior umpires always worked the plate, with Hall of Fame umpire Bill Klem being the last umpire to do so. Klem did so for the first 16 years of his career.[2] On the Major League level, an umpiring crew generally rotates positions clockwise each game. For example, the plate umpire in one game would umpire third base in the next.

Other umpires are called base umpires and are commonly stationed near the bases. (Field umpire is a less-common term.) When two umpires are used, the second umpire is simply the base umpire. This umpire will make most calls concerning runners on the bases and nearby plays, as well as in the middle of the outfield. When three umpires are used, the second umpire is called the first-base umpire and the third umpire is called the third-base umpire, even though they may move to different positions on the field as the play demands.[1] These two umpires also call checked swings, if asked by the plate umpire (often requested by catcher or defensive manager; however, only the plate umpire can authorize an appeal to the base umpire): the first base umpire for right-handed batters, and the third base umpire for left-handed batters; to indicate a checked swing, the umpire will make a "safe" gesture with his arms. To indicate a full swing, he will clench his fist.

MLB umpire
A second base umpire (Mike Reilly) at an MLB game in 2008.

When four umpires are used (as is the case for all regular season MLB games unless one has to leave due to injury), each umpire is named for the base at which he is stationed. Sometimes a league will provide six umpires; the extra two are stationed along the outfield foul lines and are called the left-field and right-field umpires (or simply outfield umpires).

Outfield umpires are used in major events, such as the Major League Baseball All-Star Game, and depending on the level, at parts of post-season playoffs. For Major League Baseball, all playoff levels use six umpires adding a left-field and right-field umpire, while at lower levels, six umpires are used at the championship games (such as NCAA).[3] Rulings on catches of batted balls are usually made by the umpire closest to the play.

Crew chief

The term umpire-in-chief is not to be confused with the crew chief, who is usually the most experienced umpire in a crew. At the major-league and high minor-league (Class AAA and AA) levels, the crew chief acts as a liaison between the league office and the crew and has a supervisory role over other members of the crew.[4]

For example, on the Major League level, "The Crew Chief shall coordinate and direct his crew's compliance with the Office of the Commissioner's rules and policies. Other Crew Chief responsibilities include: leading periodic discussions and reviews of situations, plays and rules with his crew; generally directing the work of the other umpires on the crew, with particular emphasis on uniformity in dealing with unique situations; assigning responsibilities for maintaining time limits during the game; ensuring the timely filing of all required crew reports for incidents such as ejections, brawls and protested games; and reporting to the Office of Commissioner any irregularity in field conditions at any ballpark."[4] Thus, on the professional level, some of the duties assigned to the umpire-in-chief (the plate umpire) in the Official Baseball Rules have been reassigned to the crew chief, regardless of the crew chief's umpiring position during a specific game.

Judgment calls

An umpire's judgment call used to be final, unless the umpire making the call chose to ask his partner(s) for help and then decided to reverse it after the discussion.[1] Since 2014, the MLB allows managers to challenge plays during the game. If the manager successfully has a call overturned, they are rewarded with another challenge.[5] If an umpire seems to make an error in rule interpretation, his call, in some leagues, can be officially protested as is the case in MLB.[1] If the umpire is persistent in his or her interpretation, the matter will be settled at a later time by a league official. An independent study of umpire pitch-call accuracy over 11 seasons (2008-2018) released on April 8, 2019 by Mark T. Williams of Boston University concluding that over 20% of certain pitches are called incorrectly. For the 2018 season, home plate umpires made 34,294 incorrect pitch calls.[6]

In the early years of professional baseball, umpires were not engaged by the league but rather by agreement between the team captains. However, by the start of the modern era in 1901, this had become a league responsibility. There is now a unitary major league umpiring roster, although until the 1999 labor dispute that led to the decertification of the Major League Umpires Association, there were separate National and American League umpires. As a result of the 2000 collective bargaining agreement between Major League Baseball and the newly formed World Umpires Association, all umpires were placed on one roster and can work in either league.

Amateur umpiring

One Marine Making the Right Calls DVIDS177654
A volunteer umpire officiating a Little League Baseball game

An amateur umpire officiates non-professional or semi-professional baseball. Many amateur umpires are paid (typically on a per-game basis) and thus might be considered professionals, while some amateur umpires are unpaid. According to the Little League Baseball official website, umpires should be volunteers.[7]

There are numerous organizations that test or train anyone interested in umpiring for local leagues, and can help make connections to the leagues in the area. Little League Baseball and the Babe Ruth League are two of the most popular organizations when it comes to youth baseball, and each have their own application, test, and training process for becoming an umpire. In Canada, most umpires are certified through a provincial organization, and then hired by local municipal associations through an umpire in chief.

For the Little League World Series, amateur umpires from around the world participate on a volunteer basis. Prospective Little League World Series umpires must participate at various levels of Little League All-Star tournaments, ranging from district to state to regional tournaments, prior to being accepted to work the World Series tournament.[8]

High school umpiring

High school umpires are part-time umpires; most have other forms of employment. A high school umpire has to go to clinics and rules meetings before becoming an umpire. A person trying to become a high school umpire has to register with their respective state.[9] When they register with the state they receive a rulebook, a casebook and an umpire manual. After reading through the rulebooks the umpires meet at clinics and rules meetings to discuss rules and mechanics. Clinics and rules meetings are crucial in an umpire's development. Once an umpire has gone to clinics and rules meetings they then start to umpire scrimmages. In a scrimmage an umpire gets hands on training for the first time. Scrimmages are where young umpires can learn from veteran umpires. After going to clinics and umpiring in scrimmages the umpire then has to take a rule exam. The umpire must pass the exam in order to umpire during the season.[10] Once the umpire has passed the exam he/she is now ready to umpire high school level ballgames.

High school umpires are paid per game and the rate differs from state to state. The plate umpire and base umpire are paid the same amount for each game. Umpires in high school games use a two-person crew.[11] Three-person and four-person crews may be used in later rounds of the playoffs.

Professional umpire training and career development

Becoming a Major League Baseball umpire requires rigorous training, and very few succeed. Provided the individual makes satisfactory progress throughout, it typically takes from 7–10 years to achieve MLB status. First, a person desiring to become a professional umpire must attend one of two private umpiring schools authorized by Major League Baseball: Minor League Baseball Umpire Training Academy or The Harry Wendelstedt Umpire School.[12] Both schools are run by former Major League umpires and are located in Florida. There are no prerequisites for attending these schools; however, there is an Umpire Camp, run by Major League Baseball, that is generally considered a "tool for success" at either of these schools. These camps, offered as two separate one-week sessions, are held in November in Southern California. Top students at these camps are eligible to earn scholarships to either of the professional umpire schools in Florida.[13]

After five weeks of training, each school sends its top students to the Professional Baseball Umpires Corporation (PBUC) evaluation course also held in Florida.[14] The actual number of students sent on to the evaluation course is determined by PBUC with input from the umpire schools.[14] Generally, the top 10 to 20 percent of each school's graduating class will advance to the evaluation course. The evaluation course is conducted by PBUC staff, which differs in personnel from the staff at the respective umpire schools.[14] The evaluation course generally lasts around 10 days. Depending on the number of available positions in the various minor leagues, some (but not all) of the evaluation course attendees will be assigned to a low level minor league. Out of approximately 300 original umpire school students, about 30-35 will ultimately be offered jobs in Minor League Baseball after the evaluation course.

Professional umpires begin their careers in one of the Rookie or Class "A" Short-Season leagues, with Class-A being divided into three levels (Short-Season, Long-Season and Advanced "A").[14] Top umpiring prospects will often begin their careers in a short-season "A" league (for example, the New York–Penn League), but most will begin in a rookie league (for example, the Gulf Coast League).

David Rackley 2006
Umpire David Rackley working a Double-A Texas League game in 2006

Throughout the season, all minor league umpires in Rookie leagues, Class-A, and Class-AA are evaluated by members of the PBUC staff.[15] All umpires receive a detailed written evaluation of their performance after every season.[15] In addition, all umpires (except those in the rookie or Short Season Class-A leagues) receive written mid-season evaluations.[15]

Generally, an umpire is regarded as making adequate progress "up the ranks" if he advances up one level of Class "A" ball each year (thus earning promotion to Class AA after three to four years) and promotion to Class AAA after two to three years on the Class AA level. However, this is a very rough estimate and other factors not discussed (such as the number of retirements at higher levels) may dramatically affect these estimates. For example, many umpires saw rapid advancement in 1999 due to the mass resignation of many Major League umpires as a collective bargaining ploy.

When promoted to the Class AAA level, an umpire's evaluation will also be conducted by the umpiring supervisory staff of Major League Baseball. In recent years, top AAA prospects, in addition to umpiring and being evaluated during the regular season (in either the International or Pacific Coast League), have been required to umpire in the Arizona Fall League where they receive extensive training and evaluation by Major League Baseball staff.

In addition, top AAA prospects may also be rewarded with umpiring only Major League preseason games during spring training (in lieu of Class AAA games). Additionally, the very top prospects may umpire Major League regular season games on a limited basis as "fill-in" umpires (where the Class AAA umpire replaces a sick, injured or vacationing Major League umpire).

Finally, upon the retirement (or firing) of a Major League umpire, a top Class AAA umpire will be promoted to Major League Baseball's permanent umpire staff. During this entire process, if an umpire is evaluated as no longer being a major-league prospect, he will be released, ending his professional career. In all, PBUC estimates that it will take an umpire seven to eight years of professional umpiring before he will be considered for a major league position.[14]

As of 2018, major league umpires earn $150,000 to $450,000 per year depending on their experience, with a $340 per diem for hotel and meals.[16] Minor league umpires earn from $2,000 to $3,900 per month during the season.[16] Amounts vary based on the umpire's classification and experience.

As of March 2018, there are 19 four-man crews in MLB, for a total of 76 full-time umpires; they are augmented by 16 Class AAA umpires eligible to umpire regular season games, yielding a total roster of 92 MLB umpires.[17]

Tom Connolly 1916
Umpire Tom Connolly shown with the outside chest protector worn by AL home plate umpires for much of the 20th century

Uniform

Umpires are often referred as "Blue" because of the color of their uniforms. In the early days of baseball, umpire uniforms resembled suits (usually to keep them inconspicuous when in public) with the only difference being National League umpires wore an inside chest protector while American League umpires wore an outside (or "balloon") protector when calling balls and strikes.

In the 1960s, umpires were allowed to wear dress shirts that were light blue, and the American League umpires wore grey slacks with their blue coats, while National League umpires wore all blue coats and slacks. In 1970, the National League added a large patch on their coat and uniform with the league logo and a number on their left sleeve, along with a short-sleeved light blue shirt for hot summer games. The American League followed suit with the short sleeves in 1972, then in 1973 they wore a maroon blazer along with blue pants until 1979. In 1975, the American League umpire hats included the abbreviation "AL" (previous to that they included a shield for the AL). To celebrate the National League's 100th anniversary in 1976, the umpire blazers/light blue shirts included the league's centennial patch and the hats were designed in the "pillbox" style with the year "'76" included on them. In 1977, the use of the outside (balloon) protector was outlawed for new umpires but grandfathered for existing umpires, with the last umpire that used the outside protector, Jerry Neudecker, retiring in 1985. The use of ties with the blazers were gradually phased out; the last time they were worn in the World Series was in 1975 and overall was in the 1979 Major League Baseball All-Star Game by George Maloney, Terry Cooney, and Nick Bremigan. In World Series games starting in 1976, the umpires wore sweaters (light blue for National League umpires and off-white for American League umpires) instead of ties.

In 1980, Major League Baseball mandated that the umpires' uniforms be standardized, and they went to the American League pre-1973 style of blue blazers, grey slacks, and short sleeved light blue shirts; the American League began adding numbers to their umpire uniforms, with "AL" on their caps and National League umpires had "NL" on their caps. This style was pretty much the same (except for the use of windbreakers and sweaters later in the 1980s) through 1995. The league initials on the caps changed towards the late 1980s when the "N" and "L" were combined into a single letter, while the "A" and the "L" were interlocked.

In 1996, the button-down light blue shirt was replaced with a navy blue polo shirt with red and white trim on the collar and sleeve cuffs. The numbers were changed to red on the shirts, an "N" with the National League logo and an "A" with the American League logo on the hats. The American League used an optional red short-sleeved shirt (possibly a homage to the 1973-79 red blazers) that wasn't used by many umpires (the notable exceptions were Derryl Cousins and Dale Scott, who frequently wore the red shirts while working home plate, even as their colleagues on the bases wore navy blue shirts). The National League added a light blue shirt in 1997, which became much more popular than the red shirts in the AL.

Beginning in 2000, after the individual leagues' umpires were consolidated into a single staff, the 1996-99 uniform styles were carried over with "MLB" on the caps instead of the league designations. Since 2001, the uniforms switched to black blazers/windbreakers with grey slacks, with the hats now including the MLB logo (along with the short-sleeved light blue shirts), which remain relatively unchanged. The navy blue shirt was phased out in favor of black, and the light blue shirt was reintroduced after a brief experiment with gray. For the 2017 season, the umpires' jacket is black with light blue trim over the shoulders.

Famous umpires

Billklem
Longtime umpire Bill Klem, a member of the National Baseball Hall of Fame

Hall of Fame

The following ten umpires have been inducted into the National Baseball Hall of Fame:[18]

Conlan and O'Day played in 128 and 232 major league games, respectively, prior to becoming professional umpires.[19][20]

Several player inductees to the Hall of Fame served as substitute umpires for a small number of games during the early years of baseball; these include Hughie Jennings, Willie Keeler, King Kelly, and Chuck Klein.[21] Additionally, Hall of Fame player inductees Tim Keefe and Ed Walsh umpired professionally in the major leagues after their playing careers ended.[22][23]

Numbers retired by the National and American Leagues

Like players, umpires are identified by numbers on their uniforms. National League umpires began wearing numbers in 1970 (though they were assigned numbers in the 1960s) and American League umpires were assigned and began wearing uniform numbers in 1980. The National League umpires' numbers were initially assigned in alphabetical order (Al Barlick wearing number 1, Ken Burkhart number 2, etc.) from 1970 to 1978, which meant that an umpire's number could change each year depending on retirements and other staff changes. In 1979, the National League changed the numbering system and thereafter a number's umpire did not change from year to year. At first, as new umpires, they would be assigned higher numbers (for example, in 1979, Dave Pallone, Steve Fields, Fred Brocklander, and Lanny Harris were assigned numbers 26 to 29 instead of available numbers between 1 and 25). The National League numbering practice changed again in the mid-1980s, when new umpires were assigned previously used numbers (for example, in 1982 Gerry Davis was assigned number 12, previously worn by Andy Olsen, and in 1985 Tom Hallion was assigned number 20, previously worn by Ed Vargo.)

The American League's number assignments were largely random. Bill Haller, the senior American League umpire in 1980, wore number 1 until his retirement following the 1982 World Series, but the number was never reassigned.

In 2000, the American League and National League umpiring staffs were merged into a unified staff under the auspices of Major League Baseball, and all numbers were made available, including the numbers that had been retired by one of the leagues. (For example, the American League had retired Lou DiMuro's number 16 after his death, but it was made available to his son Mike after the staffs were unified.) In the event of duplications, the more senior umpire was given the first choice. (For example, Al Clark in the AL and Jerry Layne in the NL both wore the number 24, but because Clark had more seniority he was assigned 24 and Layne number 26. When Clark was relieved of his duties in 2000, Layne was able to obtain number 24.)

From time to time, Major League Baseball retires those numbers for umpires who have given outstanding service to the game, or in honor of umpires who have died.[24]

Since unified umpiring crews were established in 2000, all numbers are available to a Major League Baseball umpire, as each retired number was reserved per league. Only one umpire number has been retired since the current format was established, 42, because of the Major League Baseball policy instituted in 1997.

Longest major league careers

Joe West 2011
Joe West has umpired over 5,000 MLB games.

Most games

Regular season major league games umpired.

dagger West is still active; total reflects games through the end of the 2018 season.

Most seasons

Careers beginning prior to 1920:

1945 Baseball Umpire
A home plate umpire wearing his mask, c.1945

Careers beginning from 1920 to 1960:

Careers beginning since 1960:

  • 41 – Joe West (NL, 1976–99; MLB 2002–present), senior active Major League umpire as of 2019, and is recognized by MLB as having the longest tenure of any umpire in MLB history in terms of number of seasons umpired.[30]
  • 37 – Bruce Froemming (NL, 1971–99; MLB, 2000–07), ejected New York Yankees manager Billy Martin from Game 4 of the 1976 World Series, made controversial ball four call which prevented Milt Pappas' perfect game in 1972
  • 35 – Jerry Crawford (NL, 1976–99; MLB, 2000–2010), son of NL umpire Shag Crawford (1951–75) and brother of NBA official Joey Crawford (1977–2016)
  • 35 – Joe Brinkman (AL, 1972–99; MLB, 2000–06) last active umpire to have used the balloon chest protector (Brinkman switched to the inside protector in 1980); former owner of umpire school; last active AL umpire to work prior to implementation of DH.
  • 35 – Ed Montague (NL, 1974, 1976–99; MLB, 2000–09) One of three umpires (Bill Klem and Bill Summers were the others) to serve as World Series crew chief four times
  • 35 – Gerry Davis (NL, 1982–1999, MLB 2000–present), owner of officials equipment store; has umpired more postseason games than any other umpire (134)
  • 35 – Dana DeMuth (NL, 1985–99, MLB 2000–present), made (with Jim Joyce) game-ending obstruction call in Game 3 of the 2013 World Series
  • 34 – John Hirschbeck (AL, 1983–99, MLB 2000–2016), involved in infamous "spitting" incident with Roberto Alomar
  • 34 – Derryl Cousins (AL 1979–99; MLB 2000–2012) last remaining replacement called up during the 1979 umpire strike and last AL umpire to have worn the red blazer (1973–79)
  • 34 – Mike Reilly (AL, 1977–99, MLB 2000–2011)
  • 33 – Harry Wendelstedt (NL, 1966–98) The Wendelstedt family operates one of two MLB-approved umpire schools; son Hunter, currently an MLB umpire, took over after Harry's death in 2012.
  • 33 – Tim McClelland (AL, 1983–99, MLB 2000–2013), home plate umpire in Pine Tar Game and home plate umpire for David Wells' perfect game in 1998
  • 33 – Tim Welke (AL 1985–99, MLB 2000–2015), brother of umpire Bill Welke (1999–present), ejected Atlanta Braves manager Bobby Cox from Game 6 of the 1996 World Series, the most recent manager ejected in a World Series game
  • 31 – Dave Phillips (AL, 1971–1999; MLB, 2000–2002) He was the crew chief during the 1979 Disco Demolition Night at Comiskey Park, ordering the Chicago White Sox to forfeit the second game of a scheduled doubleheader to the visiting Detroit Tigers. First umpire to throw Gaylord Perry out of a game for an illegal pitch (1982), threw out Albert Belle for a corked bat (1994)
  • 31 – Larry Barnett (AL, 1968–99) Made "no interference" call in Game 3 of the 1975 World Series
  • 31 – Doug Harvey (NL, 1962–92), home plate umpire in Game 1 of 1988 World Series, punctuated by dramatic pinch-hit home run by an injured Kirk Gibson
  • 30 – Dale Scott (AL, 1987–1999, MLB 2000–2017); Last umpire to eject New York Yankees manager Billy Martin from a game, first openly homosexual umpire
  • 30 - Jerry Layne (NL, 1989-1999, MLB 2000-present)

Others

Ted Barrett 2012
Veteran MLB umpire Ted Barrett

Other noteworthy umpires have included:

Brian Runge
Third-generation MLB umpire Brian Runge

Current MLB umpiring crews

Below are the crews of umpires for the 2019 MLB season.[36] Crews frequently change over the course of the year as umpires are sometimes detached from their crew (so they do not work in their home city with some exceptions, such as the opening of a new stadium), are on vacation, or are injured. Each crew has an associated supervisor, usually a former MLB umpire, who is also listed.[37]

Major League Baseball – Umpiring Crews 2019
Crew Crew Chief Umpire 2 Umpire 3 Umpire 4 Supervisor
Crew A 12 Gerry Davis 53 Greg Gibson 91 Brian Knight 31 Pat Hoberg Chuck Meriwether
Crew B 14 Mark Wegner 77 Jim Reynolds 64 Alan Porter 85 Stu Scheurwater Larry Young
Crew C 20 Tom Hallion 10 Phil Cuzzi 13 Todd Tichenor 78 Adam Hamari Ed Montague
Crew D 22 Joe West 56 Eric Cooper 49 Andy Fletcher 93 Will Little Ed Rapuano
Crew E 24 Jerry Layne 21 Hunter Wendelstedt 19 Vic Carapazza 71 Jordan Baker Randy Marsh
Crew F 25 Fieldin Culbreth 39 Paul Nauert 54 C. B. Bucknor 17 D. J. Reyburn Larry Young
Crew G 26 Bill Miller 88 Doug Eddings 16 Mike DiMuro 98 Chris Conroy Charlie Reliford
Crew H 27 Larry Vanover 72 Alfonso Márquez  2 Dan Bellino 86 David Rackley Randy Marsh
Crew I 32 Dana DeMuth  5 Ángel Hernández 15 Ed Hickox 37 Carlos Torres Ed Montague
Crew J 33 Mike Winters 95 Tim Timmons 30 Rob Drake 76 Mike Muchlinski Ed Rapuano
Crew K 34 Sam Holbrook 58 Dan Iassogna 28 Jim Wolf 79 Manny Gonzalez Rich Rieker
Crew L 38 Gary Cederstrom 51 Marvin Hudson 80 Adrian Johnson 81 Quinn Wolcott Chuck Meriwether
Crew M 41 Jerry Meals 46 Ron Kulpa 60 Marty Foster 47 Gabe Morales Rich Rieker
Crew N 45 Jeff Nelson 63 Laz Diaz 11 Tony Randazzo 89 Cory Blaser Ed Montague
Crew O 50 Paul Emmel  1 Bruce Dreckman  4 Chad Fairchild 83 Mike Estabrook Charlie Reliford
Crew P 57 Mike Everitt  3 Bill Welke 68 Chris Guccione 94 Lance Barrett Charlie Reliford
Crew Q 65 Ted Barrett 44 Kerwin Danley 23 Lance Barksdale 74 John Tumpane Chuck Meriwether
Crew R  8 Jeff Kellogg  7 Brian O'Nora 92 James Hoye 90 Mark Ripperger Rich Rieker
Crew S  9 Brian Gorman  6 Mark Carlson 87 Scott Barry 73 Tripp Gibson Larry Young

Etymology

According to the Middle English dictionary entry for noumpere, the predecessor of umpire came from the Old French nonper (from non, "not" and per, "equal"), meaning "one who is requested to act as arbiter of a dispute between two people", or that the arbiter is not paired with anyone in the dispute.[38]

In Middle English, the earliest form of this shows up as noumper around 1350, and the earliest version without the n shows up as owmpere, a variant spelling in Middle English, circa 1440.

The n was lost after it was written (in 1426–1427) as a noounpier with the a being the indefinite article. The leading n became attached to the article, changing it to an Oumper around 1475; this sort of linguistic shift is called false splitting. Thus today one says "an umpire" instead of "a numpire".

The word was applied to the officials of many sports other than baseball, including association football (where it has been superseded by referee) and cricket (which still uses it).

See also

References

  1. ^ a b c d e "Official Rules: 9.00 The Umpire". MLB. Retrieved 2007-05-05.
  2. ^ Haudricourt, Tom (2007-04-14). "Chief among game's umpires". Journal Sentinel. Archived from the original on 2007-09-29. Retrieved 2007-05-05.
  3. ^ "Special Event selection". MLB. Retrieved 2007-05-05.
  4. ^ a b "2007 MLB Umpire Crews". MLB. Archived from the original on 2007-01-25. Retrieved 2007-05-05.
  5. ^ "Replay Review Regulations". MLB. MLB. Retrieved 20 April 2014.
  6. ^ "MLB Umpires Missed 34,294 Ball-Strike Calls in 2018. Bring on Robo-umps?". BU Today. Retrieved 16 June 2019.
  7. ^ "Umpire's Role". www.littleleague.org.
  8. ^ "Umpires Home". Little League Baseball. Archived from the original on 2007-04-25. Retrieved 2007-05-05.
  9. ^ [1], retrieved November 1, 2013
  10. ^ [2], retrieved November 1, 2013
  11. ^ [3], retrieved November 1, 2013
  12. ^ "Where are the Professional Umpire Schools Located?". MiLB. Retrieved 2007-05-05.
  13. ^ "MLB Umpire Camps". Major League Baseball.
  14. ^ a b c d e "Become an Umpire - MiLB.com Official Info - The Official Site of Minor League Baseball". MiLB.com.
  15. ^ a b c "Umpires - MiLB.com Official Info - The Official Site of Minor League Baseball". MiLB.com.
  16. ^ a b Miller, Kerry (May 3, 2018). "How Much Are MLB Umpires Paid?". Bleacher Report. Retrieved September 1, 2018.
  17. ^ "Major League Umpire Roster". MLB.com. March 2018. Retrieved September 1, 2018.
  18. ^ "Hall of Fame Umpires". Baseball Almanac. Retrieved August 21, 2017.
  19. ^ "Jocko Conlan". Retrosheet.org. Retrieved August 28, 2017.
  20. ^ "Hank O'Day". Retrosheet.org. Retrieved August 28, 2017.
  21. ^ "The Directory of Umpires". Retrosheet.org. Retrieved August 28, 2017.
  22. ^ "Tim Keefe". Retrosheet.org. Retrieved August 28, 2017.
  23. ^ "Ed Walsh". Retrosheet.org. Retrieved August 28, 2017.
  24. ^ "Umpires: Feature". Major League Baseball.
  25. ^ "Bill Klem". Retrosheet.org. Retrieved August 28, 2017.
  26. ^ "Joe West". Retrosheet.org. Retrieved November 21, 2018.
  27. ^ "Bruce Froemming". Retrosheet.org. Retrieved August 28, 2017.
  28. ^ "Tommy Connolly". Retrosheet.org. Retrieved August 28, 2017.
  29. ^ "Doug Harvey". Retrosheet.org. Retrieved August 28, 2017.
  30. ^ "Joe West becomes longest-tenured umpire - closecallsports.com". closecallsports.com.
  31. ^ Imber, Gil (June 13, 2012). "Record Breaker: Another Perfecto, Umpiring History Made". Close Call Sports.
  32. ^ "Joe Quinn Stats". Baseball Almanac. Retrieved August 28, 2017.
  33. ^ "Joe Quinn". Retrosheet.org. Retrieved August 28, 2017.
  34. ^ Adler, David (April 22, 2016). "De Jesus debuts as first MLB umpire from DR". MLB.com. Retrieved August 21, 2017.
  35. ^ "Umpires: Feature". Major League Baseball.
  36. ^ [http:closecallsports.com "2019 MLB UMPIRE CREWS"]. Close Call Sports. February 25, 2019. Retrieved February 25, 2019.
  37. ^ "Umpire Executives". MLB.com. Retrieved September 1, 2018.
  38. ^ "'Umpire' Came from French as Word Meaning `Not Equal'". Deseret News. Salt Lake City. Merriam-Webster. October 13, 1996. Retrieved September 2, 2018.

Further reading

External links

Baseball positions

Baseball is a bat-and-ball game played between two opposing teams who take turns batting and fielding. Within the game there are positions in which each player can play in.

There are nine fielding positions in baseball. Each position conventionally has an associated number, which is used to score putouts:

1 (pitcher), 2 (catcher), 3 (first baseman), 4 (second baseman), 5 (third baseman), 6 (shortstop), 7 (left fielder), 8 (center fielder), and 9 (right fielder).For example:

If the third baseman fields a ball and throws it to first, it is recorded as a 5-3 out.

A double play where the second baseman fields, throws to the shortstop covering second base, who throws to the first baseman, is recorded as a 4-6-3 double play. This is not the only way to make a double play.

Bill Finneran

William Finneran (January 12, 1878 – July 3, 1961) was an American umpire in Major League Baseball in 1911 and 1912. He also umpired in the Federal League, a "third major league", in 1915 and spent several seasons in various levels of professional umpiring. He is best known for an on-field incident in which he was knocked unconscious by a punch from player Sherry Magee.

Butter Fingers

Butter Fingers is a 1925 American film directed by Del Lord.

Carlos Torres (umpire)

Carlos Torres Nuldis (born September 14, 1978) is a Venezuelan professional umpire in Major League Baseball (MLB). He made his major league debut in 2015.

Davidson (name)

Davidson is a patronymic surname, meaning "son/descendant of David" (or "Beloved Son/Descendant"; 'David' lit. "Beloved One"). There are alternate spellings called septs, including those common in the British Isles and Scandinavia: Davidsen, Davisson, Davison, Daveson, Davidsson. While the given name comes from the Hebrew "David", meaning beloved, Davidson is rarely used as a masculine given name or nickname.It is also an anglicised version of the Ashkenazi Jewish surname Davidovitch, Slavic for "son of David" and Davidoff.

Francisco Alcaraz (umpire)

Francisco Alcaraz (26 October 1920 - 1 May 1996) was a Mexican League baseball player and umpire. In 1941, he went 5-4 with a 4.36 Earned run average; the Mexican League at that time was dominated by Negro League and Cuban players and few Mexicans held down a regular roster spot. In 1942, Francisco fell to 7-9, 6.10 with 76 walks in 125 1/3 IP for the Algodoneros de Torreón. During 1943, he had a 7-9, 4.11 record; it would be his last season pitching regularly in Mexico's top circuit.

Returning to the amateur ranks, Alcaraz became a star in Mexico's leagues, winning awards. He went 3-0 for Mexico in the 1944 Amateur World Series to help them win a Silver Medal, better than a Cuban team with five future major leaguers in the rotation. Alcaraz led the Series in wins.

Alcaraz resurfaced in 1949 as a pro, hitting .233 and slugging .308 for the Indios de Ciudad Juárez. He was in the Mexican League in 1950, now as a first baseman with San Luis Potosí, hitting .268/~.376/.280. In 1951, he batted .293/~.414/.379 in 20 games for the Sultanes de Monterrey. He also hit .348 for the Potros de Tijuana in 17 games in the Southwest International League. He finished up with Tijuana and the Tecolotes de Nuevo Laredo in 1952, hitting .170 for the former club and .227/~.433/.273 for the latter. He also pitched 7 games for Nuevo Laredo, going 1-0 with a 2.70 ERA.

Overall, Alcaraz hit .252/~.347/.280 in 507 AB in the Mexican League (including his lower stats from his pitching days) and had a record of 20-22, 4.82 in 87 games.

His playing career over, Alcaraz umpired in the Arizona–Mexico League in 1957–1958, then was an umpire in the Mexican League from 1959–1968. From 1967–1971 and 1974-?, he umpired in the Mexican Pacific League. He also worked in the Venezuelan League in 1972–1973, and from 1977–1982, in a minor Mexican circuit.

In 2007, Alcaraz was inducted into the Salón de la Fama as an umpire.

Fred Brocklander

Frederick ("Fred") Brocklander (March 5, 1940 – August 13, 2009) was a Major League Baseball (MLB) umpire in the National League (NL) from 1979 to 1992. A native of Baltimore, Maryland, he umpired in the minor leagues for ten years. He was promoted to the National League during the 1979 umpire strike. He retired as an NL umpire in 1992. Throughout his National League career, he wore number 28.

Leo Sulky

Leo Sulky (6 December 1874-3 June 1957) was an American actor. He usually appeared in films directed by Del Lord such as Black Oxfords (1924), Yukon Jake (1924), Wall Street Blues (1924), Lizzies of the Field (1924), Galloping Bungalows (1924), From Rags to Britches (1925), and A Sea Dog's Tale (1926); by Harry Edwards such as The Lion and the Souse (1924), The Luck o' the Foolish (1924). The Hansom Cabman (1924), All Night Long (1924), There He Goes (1925), The Sea Squawk (1925), Boobs in the Wood (1925), and Plain Clothes (1925); and by Ralph Ceder such as Little Robinson Corkscrew (1924), and Wandering Waistlines (1924).He also appeared in The First 100 Years (1924) by Harry Sweet, The Window Dummy (1925) by Lloyd Bacon, Hotsy Totsy (1925) by Alf Goulding, Alice Be Good (1926) by Eddie Cline, Picking Peaches (1924) by Erle C. Kenton, Romeo and Juliet (1924), She Couldn't Say No (1954), Reap the Wild Wind (1942), The Rainmakers (1935), The Jolly Jilter (1927) starring Lois Boyd and Bud Ross, The Wild Goose Chaser (1925) and A Raspberry Romance (1925).

List of Major League Baseball retired numbers

Major League Baseball and its participating clubs have retired various uniform numbers over the course of time, ensuring that those numbers are never worn again and thus will always be associated with particular players or managers of note. The use of numbers on uniforms to better identify one player from another, and hence to boost sales of scorecards, was tried briefly by the Cleveland Indians of 1916, but this failed. The first team to permanently adopt the practice was the New York Yankees of 1929. By 1932, all 16 major league clubs were issuing numbers, and by 1937, the leagues passed rules requiring it.

The Yankees' original approach was to simply assign the numbers 1 through 8 to the regular starting lineup in their normal batting order. Hence, Babe Ruth wore number 3 and Lou Gehrig number 4. The first major leaguer whose number was retired was Gehrig, in July 1939, following his retirement due to amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, which became known popularly as Lou Gehrig's Disease.

Since then, over 150 other people have had their numbers retired, some with more than one team. This includes managers and coaches, as Major League Baseball is the only one of the major North American professional leagues in which the coaching staff wear the same uniforms as players. Three numbers have been retired in honor of people not directly involved on the playing field – all three for team executives. Some of the game's early stars, such as Ty Cobb and Christy Mathewson, retired before numbers came into usage. Teams often celebrate their retired numbers and other honored people by hanging banners with the numbers and names. Early stars, as well as honored non-players, will often have numberless banners hanging along with the retired numbers. Because fewer and fewer players stay with one team long enough to warrant their number being retired, some players believe that getting their number retired is a greater honor than going into the Baseball Hall of Fame. Ron Santo, upon his number 10 being retired by the Chicago Cubs on the last day of the 2003 regular season, enthusiastically told the Wrigley Field crowd as his #10 flag was hoisted, "This is my Hall of Fame!" However, Santo would be inducted into the Hall of Fame in July 2012, nearly two years after his death, after being voted in by the Veterans Committee.

Phantom ballplayer

A phantom ballplayer is either a baseball player who is incorrectly listed in source materials as playing in a Major League Baseball (MLB) game, often the result of typographical or clerical errors, or a player who spent time on an MLB active roster without ever appearing in an MLB contest during his career. Most of the first form of phantom players date from the 19th or early 20th century, with at least one showing up as late as World War II.

A modern-day phantom ballplayer is generally caused by the player being removed from the active roster by a subsequent action (such as being optioned to a minor league team) or the team reaching the end of their season, and the player not having later opportunity to play in a major league game. Many of these phantom players were September call-ups in backup roles.

Roberto Ortiz (umpire)

Roberto Carlos Ortiz Maymi (born December 16, 1984) is a Major League Baseball (MLB) umpire. He made his debut on May 14, 2016, becoming the first MLB umpire since Delfin Colon to have been born in Puerto Rico. He wears number 40, which was most recently worn by former umpire Jeff Gosney.During the 2016 season, Ortiz umpired eight games (two as the home plate umpire), and during 2017 he umpired 66 games (14 behind the plate).

Terry Craft

Terry Lee Craft (born December 9, 1954) is a former professional baseball umpire who worked in the American League from 1987 to 1999 and throughout both major leagues from 2000 to 2006. Craft umpired 1,734 major league games in his 20-year career. He umpired in two no-hitters, a Major League Baseball All-Star Game, an American League Championship Series, and two Division Series.

Umpire (cricket)

In cricket, an umpire (from the Old French nompere meaning not a peer, i.e. not a member of one of the teams, impartial) is a person who has the authority to make decisions about events on the cricket field, according to the Laws of Cricket. Besides making decisions about legality of delivery, appeals for wickets and general conduct of the game in a legal manner, the umpire also keeps a record of the deliveries and announces the completion of an over.

A cricket umpire is not to be confused with the referee who usually presides only over international matches and makes no decisions affecting the outcome of the game.

Umpire (disambiguation)

An umpire (or "referee") is a person of authority in a number of sports games.

Specific sports umpires include:

Umpire (Australian rules football)

Umpire (baseball)

Umpire (cricket)

Umpire (field hockey)

International Umpire of SailingUmpire may also refer to:

In geography:

Umpire, Arkansas

Umpire, MissouriIn military:

HMS Umpire, Royal Navy shipsIn law:

Umpire (law), an arbitration officer in the United States

Crown Umpire, the chief arbitrator under the British Unemployment Insurance Act of 1911

West (name)

West is a surname shared by several notable people:

Absolom M. West, Southern United States politician, soldier, railroad president and labor organizer

Adam West, actor who played the title character in the television series Batman

Alan West, Baron West of Spithead, a Parliamentary Under-Secretary of State at the British Home Office

Allen West (disambiguation), multiple people

Andrew West (disambiguation), multiple people

Andy West, American bass guitarist

Anita West, British actress and former television presenter

Anthony West (author), British author

Anthony West (motorcycle racer), an Australian Grand Prix motorcycle road racer

Belf West, NFL player

Benjamin West, Anglo-American painter

Billy West, American voice actor

Billy West (silent film actor), an American film actor and director of the silent film era

Bob West, the voice of Barney T. Dinosaur

Brian West (disambiguation), multiple people

Catherine West (born 1966), English Labour Party politician, Member of Parliament (MP) for Hornsey and Wood Green since 2015

Chandra West, actress

Charles West (disambiguation), multiple people

Chester H. West, American Medal of Honor recipient

Colin West (born 1962), English football player and coach

Colin West (author), English children book writer and illustrator

Colin West (footballer, born 1967), English football player

Corinne West, American singer-songwriter

Cornel West, religious studies and African-American studies scholar

David West (basketball), basketball player

David West, RSW, watercolourist

Debi Mae West, American voice actor

Delonte West, basketball player for the Cleveland Cavaliers

Dominic West, English actor

Don West (educator), an American educator

Don West (sportscaster), American professional wrestling commentator

Dorian West, former English rugby footballer

Dorothy West, novelist

Dottie West, American country music singer

Earl Irvin West, American church historian

Edward West, British economist

Florence Duval West (1840–1881), American poet

Fred West, serial killer

George West (disambiguation), multiple people

Gilbert West, British author

Gordon West, former English footballer

Graeme West, New Zealand rugby league footballer and coach

Harry West, Irish politician

Henry West (disambiguation), multiple people

Herbert West, fictional character of H. P. Lovecraft

Honey West, fictional character

H. O. West, Louisiana businessman

James Edward Maceo West, US inventor

James West (football manager), British Manchester United manager

James E. West (politician), former mayor of Spokane, Washington

James E. West (Scouting), first Chief Scout Executive of the Boy Scouts of America (BSA)

James R. West, American trumpet player and teacher

James T. West, (Captain James West, Jim West), fictional character of Wild Wild West

Jane West, British writer and poet

Jerry West, professional basketball player for the Los Angeles Lakers

Jerry West (author), author of The Happy Hollisters series of children books

Jessamyn West (writer), American writer

Jim West (guitarist), guitarist for "Weird Al" Yankovic, film and TV composer, slack-key guitar performer (under the name Kimo West).

Jim West (footballer), Australian rules footballer

Joe West (umpire), baseball umpire

John West (disambiguation), multiple people

Josh West, British-American Olympic rower and Earth Sciences professor

Josh West (Home and Away), fictional character in Australian soap opera Home and Away

Julian West, stage name of editor and bon-vivant Nicolas de Gunzburg

Kanye West, American record producer and rapper

Kit West, special effects artist of Raiders of the Lost Ark and Return of the Jedi

Kimber West, former Playboy Playmate

Leslie West, founding member and front man for the rock band Mountain.

Lizzie West, an American singer/songwriter

Louis Jolyon West (b. 1924), American psychiatrist

Madeleine West, Australian actress

Mae West, actress and screenwriter

Mark West (basketball), American basketball player

Martin West (disambiguation), multiple people

Mary Allen West (1837-1892), American journalist, editor, educator

Matthew West, contemporary Christian musician

Matthew West (assemblyman), American state legislator

Maura West, an American actress

Michael West (disambiguation), multiple people

Michelle Sagara West, Japanese-Canadian author of fantasy literature

Mike West (swimmer), Canadian backstroke swimmer

Morris L. West, Australian writer

Nathanael West, pen name of Nathan Wallenstein Weinstein, American novelist and playwright

Nicholas West, an English bishop and diplomatist

Nigel West, pen-name of the British writer and former politician Rupert Allason

Oswald West, an American politician

Owen West, an American military officer and official

Owen B. West (1869–1948), an American politician, businessman, and farmer

Paul West (disambiguation), multiple people

Pennerton West, American artist

Peter West, British TV presenter and sports commentator

Peter West (footballer), Australian rules footballer

Randy West, television announcer

Randy West (porn star), pornographic actor and director

Randy West (photographer), photographer

Rebecca West, British-Irish writer

Red West, American actor, film stuntman and songwriter

Richard Gilbert West, British botanist and geologist

Richard Martin West, Danish astronomer

Robert West (disambiguation), multiple people

Rosemary West, British serial killer, wife of Fred West

Samuel West, British actor

Scott West, Australian rules footballer

Shane West, actor

Sherri West, fictional District Attorney, appearing on Law & Order: Special Victims Unit

Speedy West, American Rockabilly Hall of Fame

Stuart West, evolutionary biologist

Stu West, bassist

Taribo West, Nigerian football defender

Temple West, British admiral

Timothy West, British actor

Tom West (disambiguation), multiple people

Togo D. West Jr., African American attorney

Vita Sackville-West, English poet, novelist and gardener

Wallace West, American science fiction writer

Wally West, fictional superhero known for being the first Kid Flash and the third Flash

Walter West (politician), Australian politician

Walter Scott West, American Medal of Honor recipient

William West (disambiguation), multiple people

West (Berkshire cricketer), an English professional cricketer

Baron West:

Thomas West, 1st Baron West

Thomas West, 2nd Baron West

Reginald West, 6th Baron De La Warr

Richard West, 7th Baron De La Warr

Thomas West, 8th Baron De La Warr

Thomas West, 9th Baron De La Warr

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