Umar Shaikh Mirza II

Umar Sheikh Mirza II (1456–1494 C.E.) was the ruler of the Fergana Valley. He was the fourth son of Abu Sa'id Mirza, the Emperor of the Timurid Empire in what is now Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, eastern Iran and Afghanistan.

His first wife and chief consort was Qutlugh Nigar Khanum, a princess of the Chagatai Khanate and daughter of Yunus Khan of Moghulistan. Umar had two other wives and had three sons and five daughters from his wives. His eldest son was Babur Mirza from his wife Qutlugh Nigar Khanum. His sons from this other two wives were Jahangir Mirza II and Nasir Mirza. His eldest son Babur Mirza founded the Mughal Empire in 1525 and was the first Mughal Emperor of India.

Umar Sheikh Mirza died in a freak accident in Aksi fort, North Fergana, on 10 June 1494. It occurred when he was in his dovecote, which was built at the edge of the building, collapsed, thus making eleven-year-old Babur, the ruler of Fergana.[1]

Umar Sheikh Mirza II
King of Ferghana Valley
Umar Shaykh Mirza, 1875-1900
Born870 AH/ 1456
Samarkand, Uzbekistan
Died899 AH/ 10 June 1494 (aged 38)
Ferghana, Uzbekistan
SpouseQutlugh Nigar Khanum (m.1475)
Ulus Agha
Fatma Sultan Agha
Makhdum Sultan Begum
Umid Aghacha
Yun Sultan Aghacha
Agha Sultan Aghacha
IssueKhanzada Begum
Babur, Mughal Emperor
Jahangir Mirza II
Nasir Mirza
Mihr Banu Begum
Shahr Banu Begum
Yadgar Sultan Begum
Rukaiya Sultan Begum
HouseHouse of Timur
FatherAbu Sa'id Mirza
MotherShah Sultan Begum
ReligionSunni Islam



He had a total of seven consorts:

  • Qutlugh Nigar Khanum (m.1475), daughter of Yunus Khan of Moghulistan and Aisan Daulat Begum;
  • Ulus Agha (div.), daughter of Khwaja Hussein Beg;
  • Fatima Sultan Agha, daughter of one of the begs of Mogul Tumans;
  • Makhdum Sultan Begum, known as Karaguz Begum;
  • Umid Aghacha, a concubine who died before Mirza;
  • Yun Sultan Aghacha, a Moghul concubine;
  • Agha Sultan Aghacha, another concubine;

He had three sons:

  • Babur - with Qutlugh Nigar Khanum;
  • Jahangir Mirza (1485 - 1508) - with Fatima Sultan Agha;
  • Nasir Mirza (1487 - 1515) - with Umid Aghacha;

He had six daughters:

  • A stillborn daughter - with Ulus Agha;
  • Khanzada Begum (1478 - 1545) - with Qutlugh Nigar Khanum;
  • Mihr Banu Begum (born 1481) - with Umid Aghacha;
  • Shahr Banu Begum (1491 - 1542) - with Umid Aghacha, married to Junaid Barlas;
  • Yadgar Sultan Begum (born 1494) - with Agha Sultan Aghacha, married to Abdul Latif Sultan, son of Hamza Sultan;
  • Rukaiya Sultan Begum (1494 - 1528) - with Makhdum Sultan Begum, married to Jani Beg Sultan;


  1. ^ Abraham Eraly (17 September 2007). Emperors Of The Peacock Throne: The Saga of the Great Moghuls. Penguin Books Limited. p. 18. ISBN 978-93-5118-093-7.


  • "Mirza Muhammad Haidar". Silk Road Seattle. University of Washington. Retrieved 2006-11-07. On the occasion of the birth of Babar Padishah (the son of Omar Sheikh)
Abu Sa'id Mirza

Mirza Abū Saʿīd Baig Mohammed Khan or Abū Saʿīd Mirza (Chagatay/Persian: ابو سعید میرزا‎) was an important member of the Timurid dynasty. He was the ruler of a large area in Transoxiana, Khurasan and the southern Caspian region. However, his greater claim to fame lies in his bloodline and subsequent lineage: Abu Sa'id Mirza was a male-line great-grandson of Timur the Lame, and he was the paternal grandfather of Babur, who would found the Mughal empire of India.

Aisan Daulat Begum

Aisan Daulat Begum (died June, 1505, other spellings Ishan Daulat, Isan Daulat, Ësan Dawlat) was the Queen consort of Moghulistan as the first wife and chief consort of Yunus Khan, a descendant of Chaghatai Khan, the second son of Genghis Khan. She was the mother of Qutlugh Nigar Khanum, and hence the grandmother of the first Mughal emperor, Babur.

Battle of Akhsi

In the early 16th century, Sultan Mahmud Khan, the Chagatai Khan of Western Moghulistan and Sultan Ahmad Alaq Khan, the Chagatai Khan of Eastern Moghulistan decided to counter the growing power of the Uzbeks under Muhammad Shaybani. Sultan Ahmed Tambol had rebelled against his Timurid master Babur and declared his independence. But when Babur tried to reconquer his territory with the help of his uncles (the above named Khans), Ahmed Tambol sought the assistance of the Uzbeks. The two Moghul brothers united their forces and launched a campaign against Tambol, but Muhammad Shaybani surprised the Khans and proved victorious in battle of Akhsi and took them both prisoner.

Battle of the Chirciq River

The Battle of the Chirciq River was fought between Sultan Mahmud Khan of Moghulistan and Sultan Ahmed Mirza, the Timurid ruler of Samarkand & Bukhara in 1488 C.E. over the city of Tashkent. The Moghuls decisively defeated the Timurids as a result of the defection of 3,000 Uzbeks under the command of Muhammad Shaybani Khan.

Chust, Uzbekistan

Chust (Uzbek: Chust/Чуст; Tajik: Чуст; Russian: Чуст) is a city in eastern Uzbekistan. It is the administrative center of Chust District. The City of Chust is located in the northern corner of the Fergana Valley along the river Chustsoy.

Chust is one of the oldest cities in the Fergana Valley. The Fergana automobile road passes through the city. This road connects Chust with several other places, such as the cities of Namangan, Andijan, and Fergana.

Chust underwent significant changes during the Soviet period. Many factories and institutions were built during that time. Currently, the city is an important center for cotton processing.


Fakhr-un-Nissa (died 1501) was a Mughal princess as the eldest child of the first Mughal Emperor Babur and his Empress consort Aisha Sultan Begum.Fakhr-un-Nissa was born in 1501 in Samarkand to the nineteen-year-old Babur and his first wife, Aisha Sultan Begum. Upon her birth, she was given the name of Fakhr-un-Nissa ("Glory of Women"). The princess died a month or forty days after her birth, and her death grieved Babur the most as he dearly loved his daughter.

Khanzada Begum

Khanzada Begum (c. 1478 – 1545) was a Timurid princess and the eldest daughter of Umar Shaikh Mirza II, the amir of Ferghana. She was also the elder sister of Babur, the founder of the Mughal Empire. She and her brother remained deeply attached to each other all their lives, a period during which the family progressed from ruling a tiny and obscure principality in Central Asia to ruling a large portion of the Indian subcontinent. Babur conferred on his sister, the honorable title of Padshah Begum and she was really the first lady of his Empire after his death.

Khanzada Begum is frequently mentioned in the Baburnama, her brother's memoirs, and always with affection and respect. She is also frequently mentioned in the Humayun-nama by her niece Gulbadan Begum, who calls her aunt 'Dearest Lady' (aka janam). Many occasions are described where she intervened during political difficulties between her relatives and more specifically her nephews.

List of state leaders in 1493

This is a list of heads of state, heads of governments, and other rulers in the year 1493.

Masuma Sultan Begum (daughter of Babur)

Masuma Sultan Begum (Persian: معصومہ سلطان بیگم‎; born c. 1508) was a Mughal princess and the daughter of the first Mughal emperor, Babur. She is frequently mentioned in the Humayun-nama by her sister, Gulbadan Begum, who calls her sister 'Elder sister Moon' (mah chacha).

Miran Shah

Mirza Jalal-ud-din Miran Shah Beg (1366 – 16? April 1408) (Persian: میران شاہ‎) was a son of Timur, and a Timurid governor during his father's lifetime.

Muhammad Shaybani

Muhammad Shaybani Khan (Uzbek: Muhammad Shayboniy), also known as Abul-Fath Shaybani Khan or Shayabak Khan or Shahi Beg Khan (c. 1451 – 2 December 1510), was an Uzbek leader whose original name: shibägh, stands for wormwood and also black obsidian. He consolidated various Uzbek tribes and laid the foundations for their ascendance in Transoxiana and the establishment of the Khanate of Bukhara. He was a Shaybanid or descendant of Shiban (or Shayban), the fifth son of Jochi, Genghis Khan's eldest son. His father was Sheikh Haidar, son of Abu'l-Khayr Khan.

Nur-un-Nissa Begum (wife of Jahangir)

Nur-un-Nissa Begum (Persian: نورنسا بیگم‎; born c. 1570) meaning 'Light among Women', was a Timurid princess, the daughter of Ibrahim Husain Mirza. She was empress consort of the Mughal Empire as the wife of fourth Mughal emperor Jahangir.

Qutlugh Nigar Khanum

Qutlugh Nigar Khanum (also spelled Kutlak Nigar Khanum; d. 1505) was the first wife and chief consort of Umar Shaikh Mirza II, the ruler of Ferghana Valley. She was a princess of Moghulistan by birth and was a daughter of Yunus Khan, the Great Khan of Moghulistan.

She was also the mother of Emperor Babur, the founder of the Mughal Empire of India as well as its first emperor.

Siege of Kabul (1504)

In 1504 Babur besieged Kabul and took the city from the Arghuns under Mukim Beg Arghun to become the new king of Kabul and Ghazni regions. The territory gave him respite from his Uzbek troubles in Central Asia and allowed him to build his nascent kingdom into a strong and formidable power in later years, enough to be able to conquer northern India.

Siege of Samarkand (1494 / 1496)

After the death of King Abu Sa'id Mirza, the great-grandson of Amir Timur Beg Gurkani (Taimur Lung), his much reduced Timurid Empire was divided among four of his sons namely;

Umar Shaikh Mirza II, King of Ferghana

Sultan Ahmed Mirza, King of Samarkand, Bukhara & Hissar

Sultan Mahmud Mirza, King of Balkh

Ulugh Beg Mirza II, King of KabulA civil war between two brothers Umar Shaikh Mirza II (father of Babur), King of Fergana and Sultan Ahmed Mirza, King of Samarkand and Bukhara was being fought in 1492 when Umar Shaikh died of natural causes leaving his son, the 12-year-old Babur in charge of his Kingdom. Ahmed Mirza, Babur's uncle wasted no time in attacking Babur's Kingdom but failed in his attempt. Ahmed Mirza later also died of natural causes. After Sultan Ahmed Mirza’s death, Sultan Mahmud Mirza moved to Samarkand and reigned there for some five or six months, reportedly attempting to regulate the collection of taxes and strengthen his army. But with the deaths of Sultan Ahmed Mirza, Sultan Mahmud Mirza and Umar Shaikh Mirza II, all occurring during the space of a year, civil strife intensified. The richest amirs tried to make use of the child Timurids, preferring to enthrone the weakest of them.Sultan Ali Mirza bin Mahmud Mirza was thus raised in Bukhara. But the young Timurid Sultan Baysonqor Mirza bin Mahmud Mirza’s coming to power in Samarkand roused the governors of other provinces. Sultan Ali Mirza left Bukhara on a campaign against Samarkand, but the inhabitants of the city put up a fierce resistance. These events and the confusion and anarchy with which they were attended in the kingdom of Samarkand did not escape the observation of Babur who resolved to try his fortune. In 1496, the 15-year-old Babur marched to attack Samarkand. At the same moment and induced by the same motives Sultan Masud Mirza the older brother of Sultan Ali Mirza and Baysonqor Mirza was on his way to besiege the city. Thus that unfortunate city, unfortunate from its very wealth and former prosperity, saw itself beleaguered on three sides at the same time by the arms of three different potentates who acted without concert; Babur having advanced towards it from Andijan; Masud Mirza from Hissar and Sultan Ali from Bukhara.

Sultan Ahmed Mirza

Sultan Ahmed Mirza was the eldest son of Abu Sa'id Mirza on whose death he became the Timurid ruler of Samarkand and Bukhara from 1469 until 1494. During his rule, he successfully repelled at least one invasion attempt by the Kara Koyunlu, and failed in an attempt to conquer Khurasan from its ruler Sultan Husayn Mirza Bayqara. He was embroiled in the Timurid Civil Wars with his brothers Umar Shaikh Mirza II and Sultan Mahmud Mirza. He died while returning from his Ferghana expedition against Babur, the twelve-year-old son and successor of Umar Shaikh Mirza II. As he had no male heir, he was succeeded by his brother, Sultan Mahmud Mirza.

Timurid dynasty

The Timurid dynasty (Persian: تیموریان‎), self-designated as Gurkani (Persian: گورکانیان‎, Gūrkāniyān), was a Sunni Muslim dynasty or clan of Turco-Mongol lineage descended from the warlord Timur (also known as Tamerlane). The word "Gurkani" derived from "gurkan", a Persianized form of the Mongolian word "kuragan" meaning "son-in-law", as the Timurids were in-laws of the line of Genghis Khan, founder of the Mongol Empire. Members of the Timurid dynasty were strongly influenced by the Persian culture and established two significant empires in history, the Timurid Empire (1370–1507) based in Persia and Central Asia and the Mughal Empire (1526–1857) based in the Indian subcontinent.

Timurid family tree

The family tree of the Timurid dynasty, the ruling family of the Timurid Empire and Mughal Empire, is listed below.

After the end of the Timurid Empire in 1507, the Mughal Empire was established in 1526 in South Asia by Babur, a descendant of Timur through his father and possibly a descendant of Genghis Khan through his mother. The dynasty he established is commonly known as the Mughal dynasty (see Mughal emperors). By the 17th century the Mughal Empire ruled most of the Indian subcontinent, but declined during the 18th century. The Timurid dynasty came to an end in 1857 after the Mughal Empire was dissolved by the British Empire, and Bahadur Shah II was exiled to Burma.

Yunus Khan

Yunus Khan (c. 1416 – 1487) (Uyghur: يونس خان‎), was Khan of Moghulistan from 1462 until his death in 1487. He is identified by many historians with Ḥājjī `Ali (Chinese: 哈只阿力, Pinyin: Hazhi Ali) (Uyghur: ھاجى علي‎), of the contemporary Chinese records. He was the maternal grandfather of Babur, founder of the Mughal Empire.

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