Ultra-prominent peak

An ultra-prominent peak, or Ultra for short, is a mountain summit with a topographic prominence of 1,500 metres (4,900 ft) or more; it is also called a P1500.[1] There are approximately 1,524 such peaks on Earth.[2] Some well-known peaks, such as the Matterhorn and Eiger, are not Ultras because they are connected to higher mountains by high cols and therefore do not achieve enough topographic prominence.

The term "Ultra" originated with earth scientist Stephen Fry, from his studies of the prominence of peaks in Washington in the 1980s. His original term was "ultra major mountain", referring to peaks with at least 1,500 metres (4,900 ft) of prominence.[3]

Map of Ultras
Map of Ultras worldwide

Distribution

Currently, 1,515 Ultras have been identified above sea level: 637 in Asia, 353 in North America, 209 in South America, 119 in Europe (including the Caucasus), 84 in Africa, 69 in Australasia and 39 in Antarctica.[2]

Many of the world's largest mountains are Ultras, including Mount Everest, K2, Kilimanjaro, Mont Blanc, and Mount Olympus. On the other hand, others such as the Eiger and the Matterhorn are not Ultras because they do not have sufficient prominence. Many Ultras lie in rarely visited and inhospitable parts of the world, including 39 in Greenland, the high points of the Arctic islands of Novaya Zemlya, Jan Mayen and Spitsbergen, and many of the peaks of the Greater ranges of Asia. In British Columbia, some of the mountains listed do not even have generally recognized names.

Thirteen of the fourteen 8,000m summits are Ultras (the exception being Lhotse), and there are a further 64 Ultras over 7,000 metres (23,000 ft) in height. There are 90 Ultras with a prominence of over 3,000 metres (9,800 ft), but only 22 with more than 4,000 metres (13,000 ft) prominence.

A number of Ultras have yet to be climbed, with Sauyr Zhotasy, (possibly) Mount Siple, and Gangkar Puensum being the most likely candidates for the most prominent unclimbed mountain in the world.[3][4]

All of the Seven Summits are Ultras by virtue of the fact that they are the high points of large landmasses. Each has its key col at or near sea level, resulting in a prominence value almost equal to its elevation.

Lists of Ultras (1515)

General

Europe (119)

Asia (637)

Africa (84)

Oceania (69)

Antarctica (41)

North America (353)

Mount Logan
The summit of Mount Logan in the Yukon, the highest point in Canada, is ranked sixth in the world by topographic prominence.

South America (209)

See also

References

  1. ^ Rob Woodhall (18 May 2016). "Relative hills on Earth". TheRelativeHillsofBritain. Ultra: peaks with a minimum prominence/relative height of 1500m. Steve Fry coined the term Ultra in the USA in the 1980s. His original term was 'ultra major mountain'. There are no Ultra summits in Britain. Hall of Fame entry minimum is 15.
  2. ^ a b Maizlish, A. "The Ultra-Prominences Page". Peaklist.org.
  3. ^ a b Helman, Adam (2005). The Finest Peaks: Prominence and other Mountain Measures. Trafford. ISBN 1-4120-5994-1.
  4. ^ Maizlish, A. "Antarctic Ultra-Prominent Summits". Peaklist.org. (See footnotes 3 and 10.)
Arcalod

Arcalod is a mountain of Savoie, France. It lies in the Bauges range of the French Prealps and has an elevation of 2,217 metres (7,274 ft) above sea level.

Arcalod has a prominence of 1,713 metres (5,620 ft) and is thus an ultra prominent peak. It is the 4th most prominent peak in the French Alps.

Azimuthbjerg

Azimuthbjerg is the highest mountain in Skjoldungen Island, SE Greenland.

Birkkarspitze

The Birkkarspitze (2749 m) is the highest mountain in the Karwendel range, Austria as well as an ultra prominent peak. It is located within the Innsbruck-Land District of Tyrol, Austria.

Cima Dodici

Cima Dodici (Italian for "peak 12", in Cimbrian language Freyjoch) is a mountain on the border of Vicenza in Veneto and Trentino in Trentino Alto Adige, northern Italy, south of the village of Borgo Valsugana. It has an elevation of 2,336 metres. and is the highest peak in Vicenza. At 1,874 m prominence, it is an ultra prominent peak. The key col is near the village of Pergine Valsugana.

Deep Creek Mountains

The Deep Creek Mountains, officially the Deep Creek Range (Goshute: Pi'a-roi-ya-bi), are a mountain range in the Great Basin located in extreme western Tooele County and Juab County, Utah, in the western United States.

The range trends north-south, (with a curl to the west at the southern end, 16% of range in White Pine County, Nevada), and is composed of granite in its central highest portion. The valley to the east is Snake Valley and to the west is Deep Creek Valley. Nearby communities include Callao, Utah to the east and the community of Ibapah and the lands of the Confederated Tribes of the Goshute Reservation to the west.

The highest point in the Deep Creek Range is Ibapah Peak, an ultra prominent peak, which rises to 12,087 feet (3,684 m). Other peaks include Haystack Peak at 12,020 feet (3,660 m) and Red Mountain at 11,588 feet (3,532 m). The range is the source of several perennial streams and supports a diverse coniferous forest, with an "island" of alpine tundra on the highest summits. The range has a vertical relief of 7,800 feet (2,400 m) above the salt flats of the Great Salt Lake Desert lying to the northeast and rises about 6,000 feet (1,800 m) above the semiarid plains to the west.

Doi Inthanon

Doi Inthanon (Thai: ดอยอินทนนท์, pronounced [dɔ̄ːj ʔīn.tʰā.nōn]) is the highest mountain in Thailand. It is in Chom Thong District, Chiang Mai Province. This mountain is an ultra prominent peak, known in the past as Doi Luang ('big mountain') or Doi Ang Ka, meaning the 'crow's pond top'. Near the mountain's base was a pond where many crows gathered. The name Doi Inthanon was given in honour of Inthawichayanon, last King of Chiang Mai, who was concerned about the forests in the north and tried to preserve them. He ordered that after his death his remains be interred at Doi Luang, which was then renamed in his honour.

Today, the summit of Doi Inthanon is a popular tourist destination for both foreign and Thai tourists, with a peak of 12,000 visitors visiting the summit on New Year's Day. In addition to a range of tourist facilities on the summit, there is also a Royal Thai Air Force weather radar station at the summit and the Thai National Observatory (TNO) at km44.

Huangmaojian

Huangmaojian (Chinese: 黄茅尖; pinyin: Huángmáojiān; literally: 'Black Speargrass Peak') is a 1,930-meter (6,330 ft) mountain in Longquan County in southwest of Zhejiang province in eastern China. The mountain is the highest peak of Zhejiang and part of the Wuyi Mountains that have their bulk in Fujian province. Huangmaojian is an ultra prominent peak. The mountain is located within the Fengyangshan–Baishanzu National Nature Reserve.

Lists of mountains

Mountains are listed according to various criteria:

List of mountains by elevation

List of highest mountains greater than 7,200 metres (23,622 ft) above sea level

Topographic prominence

List of most prominent mountains

List of peaks by prominence

Ultra-prominent peak

Summits farthest from the Earth's center

Lists of highest points restricted to a specific geographic area

List of countries by highest point

List of islands by highest point

Lists of mountains by region sorted by country or province

Seven Summits, the highest peak on each continent

List of mountain types sorted by geological origin

List of mountain ranges organized into mountain ranges

M'Goun

The M'Goun mountain, also rendered as Ighil Mgoun / Ighil M’Goun / Irhil M’Goun (in tifinagh ⵉⵖⵉⵍ ⵎⴳⵯⵏ), Ighil n’Oumsoud, Jebel Mgoun, Jebel Ighil M’Goun and Jebel Aït M’goun, at 4,071 metres (13,356 ft) is the third highest peak of the Atlas Mountains after Toubkal and Ouenkrim).

It is an ultra prominent peak located in the Drâa-Tafilalet region of Morocco.

Mount Bahaya

Mount Bahaya (Somali language: Buurta Baxaya, sometimes spelled Mount Bahaja), also known as Mount Karkoor, is the fourth-tallest mountain in Somalia, after the triple-peaked mountains Mount Shimbiris, Mount Surud Cad, and Mount Warraq. It is the only Ultra-prominent peak in the country with a summit of about 2,100 m (6,900 ft). It is located in the northern Bari region, 60 kilometres (37 mi) east of Bosaso, and 20 kilometres (12 mi) southwest of Qandala, close to the Red Sea. The exact elevation is uncertain, being either 2,065 m (6,775 ft), 2,084 m (6,837 ft), or 2,120 m (6,960 ft). According to one 1974 map from the Defense Mapping Agency, it could even be 2,135 m (7,005 ft) in height.

With a prominence of 1,543 to 1,613 meters, it is an Ultra-prominent peak, making it the 74th to 58th most prominent peak in Africa, and the only definite one in the country of Somalia. The taller Mount Shimbiris could possibly be an Ultra-prominent peak as well, with a measured prominence of 1,495 m (4,905 ft). The mountain is highly elongated in a northwest-southeast direction, leading some to list the southern and northern ends as Bahaya and Karkoor, respectively.Mount Bahaya is the tallest peak in the Fadhisame Mountains, which are in northeastern Somalia. The range itself is a small section of the larger Ogo Mountains, which define the northern Horn of Africa in most of Somalia, and which extend further east, their peaks forming the Socotra Archipelago. Bahaya, along with the surrounding range, is mostly made up of the deeply-eroded remnants of an ancient volcanic chain.

Mount Ellen (Utah)

Mount Ellen is a mountain located in Garfield County, Utah. The high point of Mount Ellen's North Summit Ridge is the highest point in the Henry Mountains; it is also the highest point in Garfield County. It can be reached by a short hike from an unpaved road. These mountains were the last to be surveyed by the USGS in the lower 48 states. The mountain can be seen from as far as Mount Peale in the La Sal Mountains of eastern Utah.

Mount Ellen is an ultra prominent peak, meaning that it has more than 1,500 metres (4,921 ft) of topographic prominence, standing out considerably from nearby mountains. It stands in the watershed of the Fremont River, which together with Muddy Creek forms the Dirty Devil River, which drains into the Colorado River, and ultimately into the Gulf of California in Mexico.

The Paiute name for Mount Ellen was Un tar re. It was also referred to as First Mountain. After climbing to the summit in June 1872, Almon Harris Thompson named it for his wife Ellen. Ellen Powell Thompson was also the sister of explorer John Wesley Powell.Over several days beginning on September 10th, 1895 a detachment of the U.S. Army Signal Corps established the world heliograph record from stations atop Mount Ellen, Utah and Mount Uncompahgre, Colorado. The record for visual signalling was established utilizing mirrors 8 inches across and telescopes. The flashing signals communicated over a distance of 183 miles.

Mount Markham

Mount Markham is a twin-peaked massif surmounting the north end of Antarctica's Markham Plateau. The main peak has an elevation of 4,350 metres (14,272 ft) and the lower sub-peak is 4,280 metres (14,042 ft) high. Discovered by the British National Antarctic Expedition of 1901–1904), it is named for Sir Clements Markham, who, as President of the Royal Geographical Society, planned the expedition and chose Robert Falcon Scott as its leader.

Mount Markham is the fourth-highest ultra prominent peak in Antarctica.

Mount Paatusoq

Mount Paatusoq, also known as 'Mount Patuersoq', is the highest mountain in the Kujalleq municipality, SE Greenland.It is the highest peak in the King Frederick VI Coast area of far southeastern Greenland. Long considered the highest unclimbed peak in remote southern Greenland, it was climbed by the 1962 Austro-German Greenland Expedition (Österreichische Deutsche Grönland Expedition 1962) led by Austrian alpinist Toni Dürnberger from April to July 1962.

Pidurutalagala

Pidurutalagala (Sinhala: පිදුරුතලාගල, pronounced [ˌpidurutaˈlaːɡələ], Straw Plateau Rock), or Mount Pedro in English, is an ultra prominent peak, and the tallest mountain in Sri Lanka, at 2,524 m (8,281 ft). It is situated North-North-East from the town of Nuwara Eliya, and is easily visible from most areas of the Central Province.

Its summit is home to the central communications array of the Government of Sri Lanka and armed forces, and serves as an important point in the country's radar system. The peak is currently designated as an "Ultra-high security zone", and is protected by a large military base; being strictly off limits to the general public.

On 1 March 2010, a small wildfire broke out over the mountain's forest cover. The fire destroyed 3 acres (0.012 km2) of forest, before being doused by the Sri Lanka Air Force and nearly 300 local residents.

Pointe Percée

The Pointe Percée (lit.: pierced point) is the highest mountain in the Aravis range of the French Prealps in Haute-Savoie. It rises to 2753 meters and has 1643 m of prominence, and is thus is classified as an ultra prominent peak. Its first documented climb was by M. L. Maquelin of Geneva in 1865, though it was likely climbed much earlier.

She Devil (mountain)

She Devil is a summit in Idaho County, Idaho, in the United States. It forms part of the Seven Devils Mountains. With an elevation of 9,242 feet (2,817 m), She Devil is the 265st highest summit in the state of Idaho. It is considered to be an ultra-prominent peak, one of about 1515 such peaks in the world.

She Devil was named from Nez Perce mythology.

Torre Cerredo

Torre Cerredo, also called Torrecerredo or Torre de Cerredo (Asturian: La Torre Cerréu) is the highest peak of the Cantabrian Mountains, northern Spain.

With a prominence of 1,931 m, it is an ultra prominent peak and the third most prominent peak of the Iberian Peninsula.

Toubkal

Toubkal or Tubkal (Berber: ⵜⵓⴳⴳ ⴽⴰⵍ Tugg kal; Arabic: توبقال‎ Tūbqāl) is a mountain peak in southwestern Morocco, located in the Toubkal National Park. At

4,167 metres (13,671 ft), it is the highest peak in the Atlas Mountains, Morocco, North Africa and the Arab World. Located 63 km (39 mi) south of the city of Marrakesh, and visible from it, Toubkal is an ultra prominent peak, the highest for over 2,000 km (1,200 mi). For climbers it is "the most popular mountain objective in the Atlas mountains".

Lists of ultra-prominent summits

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