Ukrainian Auxiliary Police

The Ukrainische Hilfspolizei or the Ukrainian Auxiliary Police (Ukrainian: Українська допоміжна поліція, Ukrains'ka dopomizhna politsiia) was the official title of the local police formation set up by Nazi Germany during World War II in Reichskommissariat Ukraine; shortly after the German conquest of the Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic in Operation Barbarossa against the Soviet Union, Germany's former ally in the invasion of Poland.[1]

The Ukrainian Auxiliary Police was created by Heinrich Himmler in mid-August 1941 and put under the control of German Ordnungspolizei in General Government territory.[1] The actual Reichskommissariat Ukraine was formed officially on 20 August 1941.[2] The uniformed force was composed in large part of the former members of the Ukrainian People's Militia created by OUN in June.[3] There were two categories of German-controlled Ukrainian armed organisations. The first comprised mobile police units most often called Schutzmannschaft,[1] or Schuma, organized on the battalion level and which engaged in the murder of Jews and in security warfare in most areas of Ukraine. It was subordinated directly to the German Commander of the Order Police for the area.[4]

The second category was the local police force (approximately, a constabulary), called simply the Ukrainian Police (UP) by the German administration, which the SS raised most successfully in the District of Galicia (formed 1 August 1941) extending south-east from the General Government. Notably, the District of Galicia was a separate administrative unit from the actual Reichskommissariat Ukraine. They were not connected with each other politically.[4]

The UP formations appeared as well further east in German occupied Soviet Ukraine in significant towns and cities such as Kyiv. The urban based forces were subordinated to the city's German Commander of State protection police (Schutzpolizei or Schupo); the rural police posts were subordinated to the area German Commander of Gendarmerie. The Schupo and Gendarmerie structures were themselves subordinated to the area Commander of Order Police.[5]

Ukrainische Hilfspolizei
Ukrainian Auxiliary Police
Bundesarchiv Bild 146-1982-161-01A, Ukrainische Wachmannschaft eines Torfwerks
Active27 July 1941
CountriesGerman-occupied Europe including Reichskommissariat Ukraine and Distrikt Galizien
AllegianceNazi Germany
RoleAuxiliary police

History

General Government for the occupied Polish territories (1941)
Map of the German Distrikt Galizien as of 1 September 1941

The local municipal police force (UP) in the occupied Ukrainian SSR came into existence right after the commencement of Operation Barbarossa. It was the result of an order issued on 27 July 1941 by the German commander in chief of the Order Police in occupied Kraków. The Ukrainian auxiliary police in the new District of Galicia fell under the command of the German office for the General Government.[6]

An actual ethnic Ukrainian command centre did not exist. The top Ukrainian police officer, Vladimir Pitulay, rose to the rank of major and became the district commandant (Major der Ukrainische Polizei und Kommandeur) in Lemberg (now Lviv). A police school was established in Lviv by the district SS-and-Police Leader in order to meet plans for growth. The school director was Ivan Kozak.[7] The total number of enlisted men in the new politically independent Distrikt Galizien amounted 5,000 people (out of the planned 6000, as the police was perceived negatively in Galicia due to German actions in Ukraine) including 120 low-level officers who served there.[7] The units were used primarily to keep order and carry out constabulary duties.[8] Their actions were restricted by other police groups such as the Sonderdienst, made up of Volksdeutsche; the Kripo (Criminal police); Bahnschutz (railroad and transport police); and the Werkschutz, who kept order and guarded industrial plants. They were supported by the Ukrainian Protection Police and the Ukrainian Order Police.[8]

Reichskommissariat-Ukraine
Map of the Reichskommissariat Ukraine superimposed with outline of modern-day Ukraine

In the newly formed Reichskommissariat Ukraine the auxiliary police forces were named Schutzmannschaft,[9][10] and amounted to more than 35,000 men throughout all of the occupied territories, with 5000 in Galicia.[11] The names of battalions reflected their geographic jurisdiction.[6] The make-up of the officer corps was representative of Germany's foreign policy. Professor Wendy Lower from Towson University wrote that although Ukrainians greatly outnumbered other non-Germans in the auxiliary police, only the ethnically German Volksdeutsche from Ukraine were given the leadership roles.[12] Many of those who joined the ranks of the police had served as militiamen under Soviet rule since the invasion of Poland in 1939.[13] Professor Tadeusz Piotrowski wrote that the majority of Ukrainische Hilfspolizei in Galicia came from OUN-B,[14] which was confirmed by Professor John-Paul Himka as an important transitional stage of OUN involvement in the Holocaust.[15] According to Andrew Gregorovich, the ethnic composition of Auxiliary Police reflected the demographics of the land and included not only Ukrainians but also Russians from among the Soviet POWs, Poles drafted from the local population, and German Volksdeutsche of all nationalities.[16] However, Browning (Ordinary Men) and Lower both insist that, for the German administration, nobody but the "Ukrainians and local ethnic Germans could be relied upon to assist with the killing".[17][18] Also, according to Aleksandr Prusin most members were ethnically Ukrainian, hence the name or the force.[19] The auxiliary police were directly under the command of the Germanic-SS, the Einsatzgruppen, and military administration.[20]

Participation in the Holocaust

Professor Alexander Statiev of the Canadian University of Waterloo writes that Ukrainian Auxiliary Police were the major perpetrator of the Holocaust on Soviet territories based on native origins, and those police units participated in the extermination of 150,000 Jews in the area of Volhynia alone.[21] German historian Dieter Pohl in The Shoah in Ukraine writes that the auxiliary police was active during killing operations by the Germans already in the first phases of the German occupation.[22] The auxiliary police registered the Jews, conducted raids and guarded ghettos, loaded convoys to execution sites and cordoned them off. There is a possibility that some 300 auxiliary policemen from Kiev helped organize the massacre in Babi Yar.[22] They also took part in the massacre in Dnipropetrovsk, where the field command noted that the cooperation ran "smoothly in every way". Cases where local commandants ordered murder of Jews using police force are known.[22] In killings of Jews in Kryvy Rih the "entire Ukrainian auxiliary police" was put to use.[22]

Persecution of Poles

Defining nationality of Ukrainian policemen using present-day classifications is problematic, because in German occupied eastern Poland (see: District of Galicia) there was no perception of de jure Ukrainian independent statehood. Some Ukrainian Hilfspolizei who harbored a pathological hatred for Poles and Jews – resulting in acts of mass murder – remained formally and legally Polish from the time before the invasion until much later. Thirty years after the war ended, one former Ukrainian policeman, Jan Masłowski (a.k.a. Ivan Maslij), was recognized in Rakłowice near Wrocław by Polish survivors of massacres committed by Ukrainische Hilfspolizei in the towns of Szczepiatyn, Dyniska, Tarnoszyn, Niemstów, and Korczów. He was sentenced to death in Poland in 1978.[23]

On 13 November 1942, members of the Ukrainische Hilfspolizei robbed and executed 32 Poles and 1 Jew in the village of Obórki (pl), located in prewar Wołyń Voivodeship. After the crime the village was burned down.[24] On 16 December 1942, the Ukrainian policemen, led by Germans, killed 360 Poles in Jezierce (former powiat Rivne).[24][25]

In Lviv, in late February and March 1944, the Ukrainische Hilfspolizei arrested a number of young men of Polish nationality. Many of them were later found dead and their Identity documents stolen. The Government Delegation for Poland started negotiations with the OUN-B. When they failed, Kedyw began an action called "Nieszpory" (Vespers) where 11 policemen were shot in retaliation and the murders of young Poles in Lviv stopped.[26]

Role in the Ukrainian Insurgent Army formation

For many who joined the police force, enlistment served as an opportunity to receive military training and direct access to weapons. Bandera's OUN leadership on 20 March 1943 issued secret instructions ordering their members who had joined the German auxiliary police to desert with their weapons and join with the military detachment of OUN (SD) units in Volyn. The number of trained and armed policemen who in spring 1943 joined the ranks of the future Ukrainian Insurgent Army were estimated to be 10,000. This process in some places involved engaging in armed conflict with German forces as they tried to prevent desertion.[27]

Battalions

By 1942, after the military administration was replaced with the regular Gendarmerie in occupied East, the strength of the Schutzmannschaft had increased tenfold. However, the new recruits were mostly not in the battalions. Instead, they took up the individual post duty as militias in place of former local Ordnungsdienst. The actual Security Battalions (or Schumas, German: Schutzmannschaft Bataillone) comprised only one-third of the overall strength of the formation.[28] As a matter of course, the static police wore black uniforms from the pre-war German stock which was no longer used and kept in storage. The black uniforms of the former Allgemeine-SS including their characteristic field caps were simply stripped of German insignia and given to Schutzmannschaft to use with the new patches. Gradually, the mobile units were issued field-grey uniforms (pictured).[29] The desired size of each battalion was about 500 soldiers divided into three companies of 140-150 men each, with 50 staff members.[30][31] The logistical problems with securing enough uniforms for all of them continued until late 1942. For the weapons, the most widely used were captured Russian military rifles and pistols. Machine guns remained scarce until the latter stages of the war.[32]

115th Battalion of Ukrainian Shuma 1943
Ukrainian Schutzmannschaft battalion photographed in 1942

Most battalions were assigned block numbers based on ethnic and national makeup for ease of recognition. Those in Russia South and the heart of Ukraine were numbered from 101 to 200. The ones operating in Russia Center and in Byelorussia were numbered from 51 to 100.[31] An exception was Battalion 201, which was formed not in Galicia but in Frankfurt an der Oder in October 1941, from members of the disbanded Nachtigall Battalion, formed originally by OUN-B.[33]

Russia Center and Byelorussia
  • Schutzmannschaft Bataillon 51 (ukrainische), disbanded in May 1943
  • Schutzmannschaft Bataillon 53 (ukrainische), formed in August 1942
  • Schutzmannschaft Bataillon 54 (ukrainische), formed in September 1942
  • Schutzmannschaft Bataillon 55 (ukrainische), formed in August 1942
  • Schutzmannschaft Wacht Bataillon 57, 61, 62, 63 (ukrainische), since July 1944 as Schutzmannschaft-Brigade Siegling; in August, as 30th Waffen Grenadier Division of the SS.[30][34]
Russia South and Ukraine
  • Schutzmannschaft Bataillons 101, 102, 103, 104 (ukrainische) formed in July 1942.[30]
  • Schutzmannschaft Bataillons 105, 106 (ukrainische) formed in November 1942.[30]
  • Schutzmannschaft Bataillons 108, 109, 110, 111, 113, 114 (ukrainische) formed in July 1942.[30]
  • Schutzmannschaft Bataillon 115 (ukrainische) formed in July 1942 and transferred to Belarus right away.[35]
  • Schutzmannschaft Bataillons 116, 117 (ukrainische) formed in July 1942.[30]
  • Schutzmannschaft Bataillon 118, formed in July 1942 with former Soviet officers at the helm who were soon dispatched in Kiev to form other battalions. In December 1942, transferred to Minsk.[35]
  • Schutzmannschaft Bataillons 119, 120, 121 (ukrainische), formed in November 1942.[30]
  • Schutzmannschaft Battalions 122, 123, 124 (ukrainische), formed in July 1942.[30]
  • Schutzmannschaft Bataillon 125 (ukrainische), formed in November 1942.[30]
  • Schutzmannschaft Bataillons 129, 130, 131 (ukrainische), formed in July 1942.[30]
  • Schutzmannschaft Bataillons 134, 136 (ukrainische), formed in November 1942.[30]
  • Schutzmannschaft Bataillons 137, 138, 139, 140 (ukrainische), formed in October 1942.[30]
  • Schutzmannschaft Bataillons 143, 144, 145, 146 (ukrainische), formed in August 1942.[30]
  • Schutzmannschaft Bataillons 155, 156, 157, 158 (ukrainische), formed in November 1942.[30]

See also

References

  1. ^ a b c Symposium Presentations (September 2005). "The Holocaust and [German] Colonialism in Ukraine: A Case Study" (PDF). The Holocaust in the Soviet Union. The Center for Advanced Holocaust Studies of the United States Holocaust Memorial Museum. pp. 15, 18–19, 20 in current document of 1/154. Archived from the original (PDF file, direct download 1.63 MB) on 16 August 2012. Retrieved 15 June 2013.
  2. ^ Jürgen Matthäus, Jewish Responses to Persecution: 1941–1942. AltaMira Press, p. 524.
  3. ^ Dr. Frank Grelka (2005). Ukrainischen Miliz. Die ukrainische Nationalbewegung unter deutscher Besatzungsherrschaft 1918 und 1941/42. Viadrina European University: Otto Harrassowitz Verlag. pp. 283–284. ISBN 3447052597. Retrieved 17 July 2015.
  4. ^ a b Arne Bewersdorf. "Hans-Adolf Asbach. Eine Nachkriegskarriere" (PDF). Band 19 Essay 5 (in German). Demokratische Geschichte. pp. 1–42. Retrieved 26 June 2013.
  5. ^ See the treatment in Dieter Pohl, Nationalsocialistische Judenverfolgung in Ostgalizien 1941-1944: Organisation und Durchführung eines staatlichen Massenverbrechens (Munich: Oldenbourg, 1997), Section II.2: "Der Besatzungsapparat im Distrikt Galizien"
  6. ^ a b Magocsi, Paul Robert (1996). A History of Ukraine. University of Toronto Press. pp. 631, 633.
  7. ^ a b Василь Офіцинський, Дистрикт Галичина (1941—1944). Історико-політичний нарис. — Ужгород, 2001 (Vasil Oficinskiy, "District Galicia 1941–1944." The historical and political essay. Uzhgorod, 2001.) Citation: Комендантом Львівської поліції був Володимир Пітулай (Vladimir Pitulay), його заступником Лев Огоновський (Leo Ohonovskyi). Особовий склад Української допоміжної поліції формувався з молодих людей, які закінчили курси Поліційної школи у Львові. У кінці січня такі курси закінчили 186 українських поліцаїв. А 15 травня 1942 р. закінчився другий вишкільний курс, який підготував 192 поліцаїв... Українську міліцію 15 серпня 1941 р. було переорганізовано в Українську допоміжну поліцію, яка на осінь 1941 р. нараховувала 6000 чол.
  8. ^ a b Abbott, Peter (2004). Ukrainian Armies 1914-55. Osprey Publishing. pp. 38–. ISBN 1-84176-668-2.
  9. ^ Czesław Madajczyk, Faszyzm i okupacje 1938-1945, Poznań 1983, ISBN 83-210-0335-4, Vol.2, p. 359.
  10. ^ Schutzmannschaft battalions were formed by orders of Reichsführer-SS between 25 July and 31 August 1941.
  11. ^ В. Дзьобак, Порівняльна характеристика колаборації населення Росії й України в роки радянсько-німецької війни (PDF file, direct download 242 KB) Сторінки воєнної історії України Випуск 11. - Київ: Інститут історії України НАН України, 2009; №11. (V. Dzobak Comparison of collaboration population of Russia and Ukraine during the Soviet-German War in Military History of Ukraine Vol 11. Kyiv: Institute of History of Ukraine, 2009. № 11, page 267 (252–276).)
  12. ^ Prof. Wendy Lower, Towson University. Local Participation in the Crimes of the Holocaust in Ukraine: Forms and Consequences LMU Muenchen / Towson Univ MD.
  13. ^ Timothy Snyder, The Reconstruction of Nations, pg. 159.
  14. ^ Tadeusz Piotrowski, Poland's Holocaust: Ethnic Strife, Collaboration with Occupying Forces and Genocide in the Second Republic, 1918-1947, 1997, page 221.
  15. ^ John‐Paul Himka (20 October 2011), The Organization of Ukrainian Nationalists, the Ukrainian Police, and the Holocaust. Danyliw Research Seminar on Contemporary Ukraine.
  16. ^ Andrew Gregorovich (Spring 1995). "World War II in Ukraine". FORUM Ukrainian Review (reprint) (92). Infoukes.com p. 25. Retrieved 28 June 2016. Chapter: Jewish Holocaust in Ukraine.
  17. ^ Wendy Morgan Lower, Towson University. "From Berlin to Babi Yar" (PDF). Volume 9 (2007). Journal of Society, The Kripke Center. p. 6 / 9(2007). ISSN 1522-5658. Archived from the original (PDF file, direct download 3.4 MB complete) on 5 March 2009. Retrieved 24 April 2014.
  18. ^ Browning, Christopher R. (1992–1998). "Arrival in Poland" (PDF file, direct download 7.91 MB complete). Ordinary Men: Reserve Police Battalion 101 and the Final Solution in Poland. Penguin Books. pp. 135–142. Retrieved 24 April 2014. Also: PDF cache archived by WebCite.
  19. ^ Александр Прусин (Aleksandr Prusin), "Украинская полиция и Холокост в генеральном округе Киев, 1941–1943: действия и мотивации" (PDF). Archived from the original on 13 January 2012. Retrieved 26 December 2016.CS1 maint: BOT: original-url status unknown (link) ГОЛОКОСТ І СУЧАСНІСТЬ *№ 1, 2007. Національна бібліотека України. Retrieved from the Internet Archive on 11 June 2013. ‹See Tfd›(in Russian)
  20. ^ Spector, Robert Melvin (2005). World without civilization: mass murder and the Holocaust. University Press of America. pp. 678–.
  21. ^ The Soviet Counterinsurgency in the Western Borderlands Statiev Alexander Cambridge University Press 2010 page 69
  22. ^ a b c d Ray Brandon, Wendy Lower (28 May 2008). "Ukrainian Society, Soviet Officialdom, and the West". The Shoah in Ukraine: History, Testimony, Memorialization. Indiana University Press. p. 55. ISBN 0253001595. Retrieved 22 June 2013.
  23. ^ Robert Horbaczewski (16 February 2005). "Ostatnia kara śmierci (The last case of capital punishment)". Region - Gospodarka i polityka. Kronika Tygodnia (reprint: Roztocze.net). Retrieved 22 June 2013.
  24. ^ a b Grzegorz Motyka, Ukraińska partyzantka 1942-1960
  25. ^ Czesław Partacz, Krzysztof Łada, Polska wobec ukraińskich dążeń niepodległościowych w czasie II wojny światowej, (Toruń: Centrum Edukacji Europejskiej, 2003)
  26. ^ Grzegorz Motyka, Rafał Wnuk, Pany i rezuny, 1997, p. 63
  27. ^ ‹See Tfd›(in Ukrainian) Організація українських націоналістів і Українська повстанська армія. ""Двофронтова" боротьба УПА, p.165" (PDF). Archived from the original on 28 September 2011. Retrieved 26 December 2016.CS1 maint: BOT: original-url status unknown (link)
  28. ^ Martin Dean (2003). Collaboration in the Holocaust: Crimes of the Local Police in Belorussia and Ukraine, 1941-44. Palgrave Macmillan. p. 60. ISBN 1403963711.
  29. ^ Gordon Williamson (2012). German Security and Police Soldier 1939-45. Osprey Publishing. p. 44. ISBN 1782000070.
  30. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n Marcus Wendel (19 January 2014). "Schutzmannschaft Bataillone" (Internet Archive 6 January 1914 capture). Axis History. Retrieved 1 June 2014.
  31. ^ a b Christoph Schiessl (2009). The Search for Nazi Collaborators in the United States (Google Books). Wayne State University. ProQuest. p. 40. ISBN 1109090072. Retrieved 23 February 2015.
  32. ^ Martin C. Dean (2003). Collaboration in the Holocaust. Palgrave Macmillan. p. 68. ISBN 1403963711.
  33. ^ Per Anders Rudling (2015). "Schutzmannschaft Battalion 201 and Hauptmann Roman Shukhevych in Belarus 1942" (Available in RTF). Schooling in Murder. Academia.edu; Ernst-Moritz-Arndt-Universität, Greifswald. Retrieved 23 February 2015.
  34. ^ GFN (1992). "Organizational History of the German SS Formations 1939-1945" (PDF). Command and General Staff College (CGSC), US Army Combined Arms Center. p. 24. Archived from the original (PDF file, direct download) on 16 February 2011. Retrieved 23 February 2015.
  35. ^ a b Natalia Petrouchkevitch (2015). Wartime experiences of the Schutzmannschaft Battalion 118. Victims and criminals. Wilfrid Laurier University. pp. 71–78. Retrieved 23 February 2015.
Bohdan Koziy

Bohdan Koziy (23 February 1923 – 30 November 2003) was a Ukrainian suspected war criminal and allegedly a member of the Ukrainische Hilfspolizei (Ukrainian Auxiliary Police), a Nazi German mobile police force that operated in the General Government on July 27, 1941. The name of the unit reflected its geographic jurisdiction.

Bruckenthal

Bruckenthal (Ukrainian: Брукента́ль) was a village (a colony) located in what is now Sokal Raion, Lviv Oblast, of Western Ukraine.

The village was established in the course of the Josephine colonization by German Catholic settlers in 1786.In the interwar period the village belonged to Poland, and was a seat of gmina (a municipality) including several other villages. In January 1940 the majority of the inhabitants moved out (Heim ins Reich). The empty houses were taken over mostly by local Poles. In the late March 1944 the village was razed by Ukrainian Auxiliary Police and Ukrainian Insurgent Army, killing over 200 people.

Chrynów massacre

Chrynów massacre (Polish: Zbrodnia w Chrynowie) was a massacre of Polish worshipers which took place in the Volhynian village of Chrynów, Gmina Grzybowica, Powiat Włodzimierz, Wołyń Voivodeship of the Second Polish Republic (Volyn Oblast since 1945, modern Грибовицька волость, Ukraine). It took place on Sunday, July 11, 1943, when a death squad of the Ukrainian Insurgent Army (UPA) as well as armed deserters from the Ukrainian Auxiliary Police (formed by Nazi Germany), supported by local Ukrainian peasants, surrounded local Roman-Catholic church where the Poles had gathered for a religious ceremony. The parish priest Jan Kotwicki was shot along with a group of women, when attempting to escape through the vestry. During the attack on the village Ukrainians murdered some 150 Poles. A week after this events all buildings in the village and the church were burned down to the ground, and the village ceased to exist.

Estonian Auxiliary Police

Estonian Auxiliary Police were Estonian collaborationist police units during World War II.

Kamianets-Podilskyi massacre

The Kamianets-Podilskyi massacre was a World War II mass shooting of Jews carried out in the opening stages of Operation Barbarossa, by mobile killing squads of Nazi German Police Battalion 320 along with Jeckeln's Einsatzgruppen, the Hungarian soldiers, and the Ukrainian Auxiliary Police. The killings were conducted on August 27 and August 28, 1941, in the Soviet city of Kamianets-Podilskyi (now Ukraine), occupied by German troops in the previous month on July 11, 1941. According to the Nazi German reports a total of 23,600 Jews were murdered, including 16,000 who had earlier been expelled from Hungary.

Korosciatyn massacre

The Korosciatyn massacre took place on the night of February 28/29, 1944, during the province-wide wave of massacres of Poles in Volhynia in World War II. Korosciatyn, which now bears the name of Krynica and is located in western Ukraine, was one of the biggest ethnic Polish villages of the interwar Poland’s within Buczacz County in Tarnopol Voivodeship (pictured). Located along the railway line from Tarnopol to Stanislawów, in 1939 it had some 900 inhabitants, all of them being ethnic Poles. Korosciatyn had an elementary school, a Roman Catholic church and a railway station. It belonged to the Latin Rite Roman Catholic parish of nearby Monasterzyska, which also covered several nearby villages. Among the most famous of the citizens of this parish, are Rev. Stanislaw Padewski (bishop of the Roman Catholic diocese of Kharkiv), professor Gabriel Turowski (personal physician of John Paul II) as well as two scientists, professor Michal Lesiow of Lublin’s Maria Curie University and doctor Jan Zaleski of Krakow’s Pedagogical College. Altogether, in 1939 the Deaconry of Buczacz had around 45 000 Polish inhabitants.All of the residents of Korosciatyn were ethnic Poles (as was the case also of the village of Debowica). Some 2,000 ethnic Ukrainians lived in the surrounding villages in the area. Soon after joint Nazi and Soviet attack on Poland in September 1939, the Ukrainian nationalists murdered the inhabitants of a Polish settlement of Kolodne near Wyczolki, then the Soviets deported leaders of the Polish community to Siberia. Among those deported, was the village administrator of Korosciatyn, Jozef Zaleski and his wife. Zaleski died in Siberia on September 14, 1941.

In June 1941, when German units pushed the Red Army out of the area, local Ukrainians of the village of Czechow murdered their Polish neighbors. All victims were buried in a mass grave - 11 Poles (including 6 kids), as well as 6 Ukrainians, who opposed the murders. It was a prelude of later events. On Christmas Eve of 1943, Ukrainian auxiliary police shot one Pole, Marian Hutnik, and on Christmas Day 1943, five additional Poles were killed. The Ukrainians returned on Boxing Day, killing additional four Poles.

Lozisht

Ignatówka, also Lozisht, was a Jewish shtetl (village) located in what is now western Ukraine but which used to be part of the Second Polish Republic before the Nazi-Soviet invasion of Poland in 1939. Ignatówka was bordering a Jewish shtetl in Zofjówka, located in the gmina Silno, powiat Łuck of the Wołyń Voivodeship, in prewar Poland. The two villages were part of a joint Jewish community of Trochenbrod and Lozisht.

Ignatówka (Lozisht) was founded in 1838, and had grown to approximately 1,200 inhabitants by the beginning of World War II. Of those, only a few survived. Most of the Jews of Ignatówka died in a single killing spree along with the Jews of neighbouring Zofjówka (Trochenbrod) in the hands of local collaborators, consisting mostly of the Ukrainian Auxiliary Police shooters who rounded up the prisoners in the presence of only a few German SS men. According to Virtual Shtetl over 5,000 Jews were massacred, including 3,500 from Zofiówka and 1,200 from Ignatówka, including some inhabitants of other nearby settlements. The village was totally destroyed and now only fields and a forest can be seen there.

Mizoch Ghetto

The Mizoch (Mizocz) Ghetto (German: Misotsch; Cyrillic: Мизоч; Yiddish: מיזאָטש) was a World War II ghetto set up in the town of Mizoch, Western Ukraine by Nazi Germany for the forcible segregation and mistreatment of Jews.

Petro Voinovsky

Petro Voinovsky, Romanian: Petru Voinovschi, Russian: Пётр Войновский, Ukrainian: Петро Войновський (September 8, 1913, village Stanivtsi Dolyshni — April 8, 1996) was a Ukrainian nationalist. He lived in Bukovyna (a region of modern Ukraine that belonged to Romania before 1940), served in the Romanian army in the rank of lieutenant, resigned in 1935 due to the policy of "Romanization" (he refused to change his name into Romanian one). He participated in Ukrainian scouting organization Plast, joined OUN in 1930s. Initially supported Stepan Bandera, but later moved to Andriy Melnyk's faction. Since 1940 Voinovsky was the regional leader of OUN in Bukovyna and Bessarabia.

In 1941, with German support, he organized the so-called Bukovyna Kurin (Ukrainian: Буковинський курiнь, the Bukovynian Battalion) - the biggest paramilitary unit of Andriy Melnyk's faction, got the rank of a captain (Hauptmann). When the German-Soviet war began, the Bukovyna Kurin came to Ukraine in order to organize pro-German local administration. In November 1941 his unit was merged with the Kiev auxiliary police while Voinovsky and some other of his people were transferred to Schutzmannschaft battalions.

According to sources of Stepan Bandera's faction, Voinovsky actively helped Germans in their reprisals against Ukrainian nationalists - adherents of Bandera. Nevertheless, he was arrested by Gestapo in Lviv in 1944 and imprisoned in Brez concentration camp where he became paralyzed.

Since 1949 Voinovsky resided in the USA.

After Ukraine became independent in 1991, several mass-media proclaimed Voinovsky a national hero of Ukraine. A monument in memory of Bukovyna Kurin was erected in Chernivtsi. Voinovsky visited Ukraine in 2003 and was interviewed.

Petro Zakhvalynsky

Petro Zakhvalynsky (Ukrainian: Петро Захвалинський, Russian: Пётр Захвалынский), also known under pseudonym "Roman", (died 1943) was a Ukrainian nationalist, member of Andriy Melnyk's faction in OUN.

During the Russian Civil War, he was an officer in Petlura's army; after its defeat, he emigrated to France where he joined the OUN. After the split of OUN in 1941, he supported Andriy Melnyk's faction.

In October 1941, he came to Ukraine as a member of OUN groups that cooperated with Germans and were sent to occupied territories in order to establish a Ukrainian presence in the local administration under German occupation. In September 1941, Kiev was occupied by Germans. He was active in establishing, aided Oleh Olzhych and Stepan Sulyatytsky, an auxiliary police force known as the Kiev Kurin, of which he became the commander in November 1941.

The Kiev auxiliary police were later united with Bukovyna Kurin and reformed, and Zakhvalynsky remained its commander. From November 1941, he was chief of police for the Kiev General District).

In August 1942, he was removed from both offices (i.e. Chief of police of Kiev City and Kiev General District) and replaced by Anatol Kabaida. He was appointed a Hauptmann of the 2nd company of the 115th battalion of Schutzmannschaft, participated in numerous operations against both partisans and civilians.

In 1943, he was secretly executed by Germans for nationalist agitation among his soldiers.

Pyriatyn

Pyriatyn (Ukrainian: Пиря́тин) is a city in Poltava Oblast, Ukraine. It is the administrative center of Pyriatyn Raion. Population: 15,781 (2015 est.)

Roman Shukhevych

Roman-Taras Yosypovych Shukhevych (Ukrainian: Рома́н-Тарас Йо́сипович Шухе́вич, also known by his pseudonym Taras Chuprynka (June 30, 1907 – March 5, 1950) was a Ukrainian nationalist, one of the commanders of Nachtigall Battalion, a hauptmann of the German Schutzmannschaft 201 auxiliary police battalion, a military leader of the Ukrainian Insurgent Army (UPA), and one of the organizers of the Halych-Volhyn Massacre.

Schutzmannschaft

The Schutzmannschaft or Auxiliary Police (literally: "protective, or guard units"; plural: Schutzmannschaften, abbreviated as Schuma) was the collaborationist auxiliary police of native policemen serving in those areas of the Soviet Union and the Baltic states occupied by Nazi Germany during World War II. Reichsführer-SS Heinrich Himmler established the Schutzmannschaft on July 25, 1941, and subordinated it to the Order Police (Ordnungspolizei; Orpo). By the end of 1941, some 45,000 men served in Schutzmannschaft units, about half of them in the battalions. During 1942, Schutzmannschaften expanded to an estimated 300,000 men, with battalions accounting for about a third, or less than one half of the local force. Everywhere, local police far outnumbered the equivalent German personnel several times (in most places, the ratio of Germans to natives was about 1-to-10).The Schutzmannschaften had a reputation for their auxiliary police battalions (Schutzmannschaft-Bataillonen). Created to support the German offensive, in particular by combating the anti-Nazi resistance, many of these battalions participated in the Holocaust and caused thousands of Jewish deaths. Usually the battalions were voluntary units and were not directly involved in combat. In total, about 200 battalions were formed. Each battalion had an authorized strength of about 500, but the actual size varied greatly. They should not be confused with native German police battalions (SS-Polizei-Bataillone) which the Order Police formed between 1939 and 1945 and which also participated in the Holocaust (see Ordnungspolizei Police Battalions and Reserve Police Battalion 101).The Order Police organized the Schutzmannschaften by nationality (see Belarusian Auxiliary Police, Estonian Auxiliary Police, Latvian Auxiliary Police, Lithuanian Auxiliary Police, and Ukrainian Auxiliary Police).

Schutzmannschaft Battalion 118

Schutzmannschaft Battalion 118 was a Schutzmannschaft auxiliary police battalion (Schuma) formed by the Nazis in the spring of 1942 in Kiev in the Reichskommissariat Ukraine. The battalion was split away from the Schuma Battalion 115, formed from the some members of paramilitary "Bukovinian Battalion". 100 members of the third company of the Battalion 115 formed the first company of Battalion 118; it was considered the elite of the battalion. Additional two new companies were composed of Soviet prisoner-of-war (mostly Ukrainians, Russians and Belarusians) and local volunteers from Kiev region. Other nationalities of the Soviet Union were represented as well including even from the Caucasus. The German commander of the battalion was Sturmbannführer Erich Körner, who had his own staff of Germans, commanded by Emil Zass.In 1944, the battalion, led by the former Red Army officer Vasiura Hryhoriy (aged 27, executed in 1986 by the USSR), was merged back to the Battalion 115 and transferred from East Prussia to France, where it joined the 30th Waffen Grenadier Division of the SS.

Schutzmannschaft Battalion 201

The Schutzmannschaft Battalion 201 was a World War II Schutzmannschaft auxiliary police battalion (Schuma) formed by Nazi Germans on October 21, 1941, predominantly from the soldiers of Ukrainian Nachtigall Battalion dissolved two months prior and the Roland Battalion. Nachtigall was a Security Police unit composed almost exclusively from members of the OUN(b), who were transported from Vinnytsia to Neuhammer on August 13, 1941 and disarmed at gunpoint due to political disagreement with the German leadership. Historian Frank Golczewski says the Battalion fought against partisans and participated in the Jewish genocide in Belarus. According to historian John-Paul Himka no one has specifically studied the activities of Schuma 201 in relation to the destruction of the Jewish population. But we do know – wrote Himka – that the Germans routinely used the Schuma battalions in Belarus both to fight partisans and to murder Jews.Battalion 201 numbered 650 persons, most of whom belonged to Stepan Bandera’s wing of the Organization of Ukrainian Nationalists. It served for a year in Belarus before being disbanded. Roman Shukhevych, the supreme commander of the UPA from 1943 to 1950 was an officer of the battalion.

Many of its members, especially the commanding officers, would later be recruited into the Ukrainian Insurgent Army.

Stanisławów Ghetto

Stanisławów Ghetto (Polish: getto w Stanisławowie, German: Ghetto Stanislau) was a Nazi ghetto established in 1941 by the SS in Stanislavov (now Ivano-Frankivsk) in Western Ukraine. Before 1939, the town was part of the Second Polish Republic). After the German invasion of the Soviet Union, Nazi Germany incorporated the town into District of Galicia, as the fifth district of the semi-colonial General Government.On 12 October 1941 during the so-called Bloody Sunday, some 10,000–12,000 Jews were shot into mass graves at the Jewish cemetery, by the German uniformed SS-men from SIPO and Order Police battalions together with the Ukrainian Auxiliary Police. Dr. Tenenbaum of the Judenrat refused the offer of exemption and was killed along with the others. Two months after that, the ghetto was established officially for the 20,000 Jews still remaining, and sealed off with walls on 20 December 1941. Over a year later, in February 1943, the Ghetto was officially closed, when no more Jews were held in it.

The Lemberg Mosaic

The Lemberg Mosaic, subtitled the "Memoirs of Two who Survived the Destruction of Jewish Galicia," is a book on the Holocaust by Jakob Weiss. This work brings to light the relatively obscure history of the systematic and total destruction of Jewish Lemberg (Lwów, now Lviv in Ukraine). It is presented in the format of a biography, detailing the struggle for survival of four families in the backdrop of two back-to-back invasions of the city and surrounding region by both the Soviets (1939) and the Germans (1941).

Ukrainian People's Militia

Ukrainian People's Militia or the Ukrainian National Militia (Ukrainian: Українська Народна Міліція), was a paramilitary formation created by the Organization of Ukrainian Nationalists (OUN) in the General Government territory of occupied Poland and later in the Reichskommissariat Ukraine during World War II. It was set up in the course of Operation Barbarossa, the 1941 invasion of the Soviet Union. The formation, created in June 1941, preceded the official founding of the Ukrainian Auxiliary Police in mid-August 1941 by Heinrich Himmler. There is conclusive historical evidence indicating that members of the Ukrainian Militia took a leading role in the 1941 Lviv pogroms, resulting in the massacre of 6,000 Polish Jews, after the German army reached Lwów (Lemberg) at the end of June in Soviet-occupied eastern Poland (now Lviv, Ukraine). Initially the Ukrainian militia acted independently, with the blessings of the SS, but later were limited to joint operations (Aktionen) with German units or otherwise functioned directly under the Nazi command.The Ukrainian People's Militia was active in occupied territories behind the Wehrmacht lines, assisting the German Security Police and the Einsatzgruppen while the army kept advancing in the direction of Zhytomyr, Rivne and Kiev. Heinrich Himmler was appointed Chief of SS and Police for the Eastern Territories on 17 July 1941 and decreed the formation of the Schutzmannschaften from among the non-German auxiliaries. In mid-August he regrouped the indigenous militia which had sprung up under the military rule to form the core of the official Ukrainische Hilfspolizei. Before that, members of the Ukrainian militia in formerly Polish cities with sizeable Polish-Jewish presence compiled lists of targets for the branch offices of the KdS and assisted with the roundups (as in Stanisławów, Włodzimierz Wołyński, Łuck).[a] In Korosten, the Militia rounded up 238 Jews described as "a source of continuous unrest" and carried out the killings by themselves. In Sokal, on 30 June 1941 they arrested and executed 183 Jews dubbed "the commissars". Other locations followed.By 7 August 1941 the stations of Ukrainian People's Militia were established in most areas conquered by the Wehrmacht including prominent formerly Polish cities under the Soviet reign of terror since 1939, such as Lviv (Lwów, Lemberg), Ternopil (Tarnopol), Stanislavov (Stanisławów), Lutsk (Łuck), Rivne, Yavoriv, Kamenetz-Podolsk, Drohobych (Drohobycz), Borislav, Dubno, Sambor, Kostopol, Sarny, Kozovyi, Zolochiv, Berezhany, Pidhaytsi, Kolomyya, Rava-Ruska, Obroshyno, Radekhiv, Gorodok, Kosovo, Terebovlia, Vyshnivtsi, Zbarazh, Zhytomyr and Fastov.

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