Ugo Spirito

Ugo Spirito (September 9, 1896, Arezzo – April 28, 1979, Rome) was an Italian philosopher; at first, a fascist political philosopher and subsequently an idealist thinker. He has also been an academic and a University teacher.

Early life

Spirito undertook academic study in law and philosophy.[1] He was initially an advocate of positivism although in 1918, whilst attending Sapienza University of Rome, he abandoned his position to become a follower of the Actual Idealism of Giovanni Gentile.[2] By the age of 22 he was a self-proclaimed fascist and actualist.[2]

Fascism

Spirito's particular interest in fascism was corporatism and he came to discuss the subject in depth through the journal Nuovi Studi di Diritto, Economica e Politica.[2] He wrote extensively on his favoured topic of 'integral corporatism', a system where ownership would be concentrated in the hands of workers rather than shareholders.[3] This belief in integral corporatism was sometimes equated with a commitment to common ownership.[4] Effectively therefore he represented the left-wing of fascism by supporting corporatism as a means of mass nationalisation and was the butt of criticism from other fascists who accused him of Bolshevism.[5] Spirito's economically left-wing ideals did not come to fruition in Fascist Italy and in the later years of fascism Spirito fell out of favour with Benito Mussolini.[2] Indeed, in 1942 he even attempted to publish a book of his theories, entitled Revolutionary War, but permission was denied by Mussolini.[6]

Academic career

Outside of his involvement in fascist politics Spirito held professorships at the University of Pisa, University of Messina, University of Genoa and at Rome itself.[2] Initially his academic attention was taken up with economics and criminal law but later in his career he became more interested in philosophical questions.[1] In terms of publications he served as editor of the Giornale Critico della Filosofia Italiana and the Enciclopedia Italiana and as joint director of the Nuovi Studi di Diritto, Economica e Politica.[1]

References

  1. ^ a b c Philip Rees, Biographical Dictionary of the Extreme Right Since 1890, Simon & Schuster, 1990, p. 371
  2. ^ a b c d e C.P. Blamires, World Fascism - A Historical Encyclopedia, ABC-CLIO, 2006, p. 629-30
  3. ^ Roger Griffin, Fascism, Oxford University Press, 1995, p. 68
  4. ^ P. Davies & D. Lynch, Routledge Companion to Fascism and the Far Right, 2002, p. 241
  5. ^ Stanley G. Payne, A History of Fascism 1914-45, Routledge, 1995, p. 220
  6. ^ Stanley G. Payne, A History of Fascism 1914-45, Routledge, 1995, p. 387

Further reading

Italian
  • Antonio Cammarana, Proposizioni sulla filosofia di Giovanni Gentile, prefazione del Sen. Armando Plebe, Roma, Gruppo parlamentare MSI-DN, Senato della Repubblica, 1975, 157 Pagine, Biblioteca Nazionale Centrale di Firenze BN 758951.
  • Antonio Cammarana, Teorica della reazione dialettica : filosofia del postcomunismo, Roma, Gruppo parlamentare MSI-DN, Senato della Repubblica, 1976, 109 Pagine, Biblioteca Nazionale Centrale di Firenze BN 775492.
  • Antonio Russo, Ugo Spirito. Dal positivismo all'antiscienza, Milano, Guerini editore, 1999, 240 Pagine.
1932 in Italy

Events from the year 1932 in Italy.

Enzo Giudici

Enzo Giudici (Mussomeli, September 24, 1920 – Rome, October 4, 1985) was an Italian academic, specialising in French Renaissance literature, particularly Louise Labé and Maurice Scève. He was also a publicist close to fascism.

Fascist syndicalism

Fascist syndicalism (related to national syndicalism) was a trade syndicate movement (syndicat means trade union in French) that rose out of the pre-World War II provenance of the revolutionary syndicalism movement led mostly by Edmondo Rossoni, Sergio Panunzio, A. O. Olivetti, Michele Bianchi, Alceste De Ambris, Paolo Orano, Massimo Rocca, and Guido Pighetti, under the influence of Georges Sorel, who was considered the “‘metaphysician’ of syndicalism.” The Fascist Syndicalists differed from other branches of syndicalism in that they generally favored class struggle, worker-controlled factories and hostility to industrialists, which lead historians to portray them as “leftist fascist idealists” who “differed radically from right fascists.” Generally considered one of the more radical Fascist syndicalists in Italy, Rossoni was the “leading exponent of fascist syndicalism.”, and sought to infuse nationalism with “class struggle.”

Giovanni Gentile

Giovanni Gentile (Italian: [dʒoˈvanni dʒenˈtiːle]; 30 May 1875 – 15 April 1944) was an Italian neo-Hegelian idealist philosopher, educator, and fascist politician. The self-styled "philosopher of Fascism", he was influential in providing an intellectual foundation for Italian Fascism, and ghostwrote part of The Doctrine of Fascism (1932) with Benito Mussolini. He was involved in the resurgence of Hegelian idealism in Italian philosophy and also devised his own system of thought, which he called "actual idealism" or "actualism", and which has been described as "the subjective extreme of the idealist tradition".

Index of contemporary philosophy articles

This is a list of articles in contemporary philosophy.

1926 in philosophy

1962 in philosophy

20th-century philosophy

A New Philosophy of Society: Assemblage Theory and Social Complexity

A New Refutation of Time

A. C. Grayling

A.P. Martinich

Abandonment (existentialism)

Abraham Edel

Abstract expressionism

Abstract labour and concrete labour

Accumulation by dispossession

Against His-Story, Against Leviathan

Alain Badiou

Alain de Benoist

Alain Etchegoyen

Alan Ross Anderson

Alan Soble

Alan Stout (philosopher)

Albert Camus

Albert Chernenko

Alberto Jori

Alberto Toscano

Albrecht Wellmer

Aldo Gargani

Alejandro Deustua

Alejandro Rozitchner

Alexander Bard

Alexandre Koyré

Alexandru Dragomir

Alexis Kagame

Alf Ross

Alfred Adler

Alfred I. Tauber

Alfred Jules Ayer

Alfred Jules Émile Fouillée

Alfred North Whitehead

Allan Bloom

Alvin Plantinga

Anarchism

Anarchism and anarcho-capitalism

Anarchism and Friedrich Nietzsche

Anarchism in Israel

Anarchism in Russia

Anarchism in Spain

Anarchism in Sweden

Anarchism in the United States

Anarchism in Turkey

Anarchism: A Documentary History of Libertarian Ideas

Anarchist Studies

Anarcho-capitalism and minarchism

Anatoly Lunacharsky

Anders Nygren

André Malet (philosopher)

Andreas Speiser

Andrew Chignell

Anna-Teresa Tymieniecka

Anomalous monism

Anthony Gottlieb

Anti-consumerism

Anti-Dühring

Anti-Semite and Jew

Anti-statism

Antonio Caso Andrade

Antonio Gramsci

Antonio Negri

Arborescent

Arda Denkel

Aretaic turn

Armin Mohler

Arthur Danto

Artificial consciousness

Arvi Grotenfelt

Asa Kasher

Asiatic mode of production

Association for Logic, Language and Information

Attitude polarization

Aurel Kolnai

Australasian Journal of Philosophy

Avrum Stroll

Barrows Dunham

Bas van Fraassen

Base and superstructure

Being and Nothingness

Being in itself

Benedetto Croce

Berlin Circle

Bernard Bosanquet (philosopher)

Bernard Williams

Bert Mosselmans

Bertrand de Jouvenel

Between Past and Future

Black swan theory

Bob Hale (philosopher)

Boris Furlan

Boris Grushin

Bracha L. Ettinger

Bracketing (phenomenology)

Bronius Kuzmickas

Bryan Magee

Bureaucracy

C. D. Broad

C. S. Lewis

C. Stephen Evans

Capital accumulation

Capital, Volume I

Capitalist mode of production

Carl Gustav Hempel

Carlos Castrodeza

Ramsey sentence

Carveth Read

Categories (Peirce)

Charles Morris, Baron Morris of Grasmere

Charles Parsons (philosopher)

Charles Taylor (philosopher)

Chicago school (mathematical analysis)

Chinese room

Christine Buci-Glucksmann

Christoph Schrempf

Clarence Irving Lewis

Claude Lefort

Claude Lévi-Strauss

Claudio Canaparo

Clive Bell

Cognitive map

Colin Howson

Colin McGinn

Commodification

Commodity (Marxism)

Confirmation holism

Connexive logic

Consensual living

Constant capital

Constantin Noica

Consumption of fixed capital

Contemporary philosophy

Contemporary Political Theory

Contemporary Pragmatism

Contingency, irony, and solidarity

Contrast theory of meaning

Contributions to Philosophy (From Enowning)

Cora Diamond

Cornel West

Cornelius Castoriadis

Critical pedagogy

Criticism of capitalism

Criticism of postmodernism

Criticisms of electoralism

Critique of Cynical Reason

Critique of Dialectical Reason

Critiques of Slavoj Žižek

Curt John Ducasse

Czesław Znamierowski

Daniel Dennett

Daniel Rynhold

Dariush Shayegan

Das Argument (journal)

Dasein

David Benatar

David Braine (philosopher)

David Chalmers

David Cockburn

David Kellogg Lewis

David Oswald Thomas

David Pearce (philosopher)

David Prall

David S. Oderberg

David Schmidtz

David Wong (philosopher)

Dean Zimmerman

Degenerated workers' state

Deleuze and Guattari

Delfim Santos

Democracy in Marxism

Democratic Rationalization

Denis Dutton

Dermot Moran

Dewitt H. Parker

Dialectica

Dieter Henrich

Differential and Absolute Ground Rent

Dimitrije Mitrinović

Dimitris Dimitrakos

Diogenes (journal)

Doctrine of internal relations

Dominant ideology

Dominik Gross

Donald Burt

Donald Davidson (philosopher)

Dorothy Emmet

Doxastic logic

Dual power

Dudley Knowles

Eckart Schütrumpf

Edith Wyschogrod

Edmund Gettier

Edward Bullough

Elaine Scarry

Eleutherius Winance

Elliott Sober

Émile Durkheim

Émile Meyerson

Emotivism

Epistemological anarchism

Eric Higgs (philosopher)

Erich Fromm

Erkenntnis

Ernest Gellner

Ernesto Garzón Valdés

Ernst Cassirer

Ernst Ehrlich

Ernst Gombrich

Ernst Nolte

Erwin Panofsky

Erwin Schrödinger

Esperanza Guisán

Ethical problems using children in clinical trials

Ethics Bowl

Étienne Balibar

Étienne Borne

Étienne Souriau

Eugen Rosenstock-Huessy

Exchange value

Exploitation

Exploitation theory

F. C. S. Schiller

F. H. Bradley

Fact, Fiction, and Forecast

False consciousness

Falsifiability

Faux frais of production

Feng Youlan

Ferdinand Ebner

Fi Zilal al-Qur'an

Finance capitalism

Form of life (philosophy)

Francis Fukuyama

Frank R. Wallace

Frantz Fanon

Franz Rosenzweig

Fred Miller (philosopher)

Frederick C. Beiser

Frederick Copleston

Frederick Ferré

Frederick Suppe

Fredric Jameson

Freudo-Marxism

Friedrich Waismann

From Bakunin to Lacan

Future Primitive and Other Essays

G. E. M. Anscombe

Gabriel Nuchelmans

Gani Bobi

Gary Drescher

General intellect

Geneviève Fraisse

Geoffrey Hellman

Geoffrey Hunter (logician)

Georg Klaus

George Caffentzis

George Dickie (philosopher)

George Edward Moore

George H. Smith

George Santayana

Gettier problem

Gila Sher

Gilbert Harman

Giles Fraser

Gilles Deleuze

Giorgio Agamben

Giovanni Gentile

Giuseppe Peano

Gödel's ontological proof

Gopal Balakrishnan

Gordon Park Baker

Gottlob Frege

Graham Priest

Gray Dorsey

Gricean maxims

Günter Abel

Gustav Bergmann

Guy Debord

György Lukács

György Márkus

Hajime Tanabe

Han Yong-un

Hans-Georg Gadamer

Hans Hahn

Hans Lipps

Hans Reichenbach

Hans Sluga

Hao Wang (academic)

Harald K. Schjelderup

Hassan Kobeissi

Hegemony

Helen Longino

Hélène Cixous

Helene von Druskowitz

Henri Berr

Henri Lefebvre

Henry Corbin

Herbert Feigl

Herbert Marcuse

Heterophenomenology

Hilary Putnam

Historicity (philosophy)

History and Future of Justice

History of the Church–Turing thesis

Honorio Delgado

Hossein Ziai

Howard Adelman

Howison Lectures in Philosophy

Hubert Damisch

Hubert Dreyfus

Hugh Mellor

Humana.Mente – Journal of Philosophical Studies

Huston Smith

Hypothetico-deductive model

I Heart Huckabees

I. A. Richards

Ideal observer theory

Idealistic Studies

Ideology

Igor Pribac

Illtyd Trethowan

Imperialism

In Defense of Anarchism

Indeterminacy of translation

Indexicality

Individualist anarchism

Information processing

Institutional cruelty

Instrumental rationality

Integral (spirituality)

Integral ecology

International Association for Philosophy of Law and Social Philosophy

International Journal of Žižek Studies

International Philosophical Quarterly

Interpellation (philosophy)

Introduction to Mathematical Philosophy

Irving Copi

Irving Singer

Is God Dead?

Isaiah Berlin

Ivan Aguéli

Ivan Sviták

Jaap Kruithof

Jack Copeland

Jack Russell Weinstein

Jacques Derrida

Jacques Lacan

Jacques Maritain

Jacques Rancière

James DiGiovanna

James E. Faulconer

James Franklin (philosopher)

James G. Lennox

James Griffin (philosopher)

James Gustafson

James M. Edie

Jamie Whyte

Janet Coleman

Jason Walter Brown

Jawaharlal Nehru

Jean-François Lyotard

Jean-Luc Nancy

Jean-Marc Ferry

Jean-Paul Sartre

Jean Baudrillard

Jean Clam

Jean Grenier

Jeff Malpas

Jens Staubrand

Jerry Fodor

Jerzy Perzanowski

Jesse Prinz

Jesús Mosterín

Joel J. Kupperman

Johannes Agnoli

John Corcoran (logician)

John Finnis

John Foster (philosopher)

John Greco (philosopher)

John Hospers

John Kekes

John L. Pollock

John McDowell

John N. Gray

John P. Burgess

John Rawls

John Searle

John von Neumann

John Weckert

John Wisdom

Jon Barwise

Jordi Pigem

José Ortega y Gasset

Josefina Ayerza

Joseph Beuys

Joseph de Torre

Joseph Henry Woodger

Joseph Hilbe

Joseph J. Spengler

Joseph Margolis

Joseph Runzo

Josiah Royce

Journal of Aesthetics and Art Criticism

Journal of Applied Non-Classical Logics

Journal of Logic, Language and Information

Journal of Philosophical Logic

Juan Manuel Guillén

Judith Butler

Juha Varto

Julia Kristeva

Jürgen Habermas

Jürgen Mittelstraß

Kancha Ilaiah

Kang Youwei

Karen J. Warren

Karl Ameriks

Karl Jaspers

Karl Loewenstein

Karl Menger

Karl Popper

Katarzyna Jaszczolt

Keiji Nishitani

Kit Fine

Konstantin Chkheidze

Konstanty Michalski

Krastyo Krastev

Krishna Chandra Bhattacharya

Kurt Almqvist

Kurt Baier

Kurt Gödel

Kurt Grelling

Kyle Stanford

L'existentialisme est un humanisme

Labor aristocracy

Lacan at the Scene

Larry Sanger

Latitudinarianism (philosophy)

Laughter (Bergson)

Laurence BonJour

Law of accumulation

Law of value

Lawrence Jarach

Leo Mikhailovich Lopatin

Leo Strauss

Leonardo Moledo

Leonidas Donskis

Les jeux sont faits

Lev Chernyi

Lewis Call

Lewis White Beck

Lila: An Inquiry into Morals

Linguistics and Philosophy

List of contributors to Marxist theory

Listen, Anarchist!

Ljubomir Cuculovski

Logic of information

Logica Universalis

Logical holism

Logical positivism

Logicomix

Logocentrism

Lorenzo Peña

Louis Althusser

Louis Pojman

Ludwig Wittgenstein

Luitzen Egbertus Jan Brouwer

Luxemburgism

Lwow-Warsaw School of Logic

Lynn Pasquerella

Mao Zedong

Marek Siemek

Mario Bunge

Mark Addis

Mark de Bretton Platts

Mark Philp

Mark Sacks

Mark Vernon

Mark Wrathall

Marshall McLuhan

Martha Nussbaum

Martin Buber

Martin Heidegger

Martin Hollis (philosopher)

Marvin Minsky

Marx W. Wartofsky

Masakazu Nakai

Maurice Blanchot

Maurice De Wulf

Maurice Merleau-Ponty

Mauricio Suarez

Maxence Caron

Meera Nanda

Mental representation

Mereological nihilism

Michael Oakeshott

Michael Tye (philosopher)

Michel Foucault

Michel Foucault bibliography

Michel Onfray

Michel Serres

Milan Damnjanović (philosopher)

Minimum programme

Mirror stage

Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi

Monroe Beardsley

Moritz Geiger

Moritz Schlick

Morris Weitz

Muhammad Husayn Tabatabaei

Murray Rothbard

Myth of Progress

Narhar Ambadas Kurundkar

Nassim Nicholas Taleb

Nathan Salmon

National-Anarchism

Nationalism and Culture

Ned Block

Nelson Goodman

Neocolonial Dependence

Neurophilosophy

New Foundations

New Libertarian Manifesto

New Sincerity

New Times (politics)

Nicholas Rescher

Nick Bostrom

Nicola Abbagnano

Nietzsche and Philosophy

Nina Karin Monsen

Noël Carroll

Non-politics

Non-voting

Norbert Bolz

Norbert Leser

Norman Malcolm

Norman Swartz

Norwood Russell Hanson

Notes on "Camp"

Now and After

Objet petit a

Oets Kolk Bouwsma

Okishio's theorem

Olaf Helmer

Olavo de Carvalho

Olga Hahn-Neurath

On Certainty

On Contradiction (Mao Zedong)

On Formally Undecidable Propositions of Principia Mathematica and Related Systems

OntoClean

Organic composition of capital

Oriental despotism

Original proof of Gödel's completeness theorem

Orlando J. Smith

Orthodox Trotskyism

Osvaldo Lira

Otto Bauer

Otto Neurath

Outline of anarchism

Overproduction

Oxford Literary Review

P. F. Strawson

Panait Cerna

Parametric determinism

Patricia Churchland

Paul Churchland

Paul de Man

Paul Grice

Paul Guyer

Paul Häberlin

Paul R. Patton

Paul Ricœur

Paul Virilio

Paulo Freire

Penelope Maddy

Per Bauhn

Per Martin-Löf

Periyar E. V. Ramasamy

Permanent war economy

Peter Caws

Peter Geach

Peter Hacker

Peter Millican

Peter Simons

Peter Singer

Peter Steinberger

Peter Stillman (academic)

Philip Hallie

Philipp Frank

Philippe Lacoue-Labarthe

Philippe Nys

Phillip Cary

Philosophical interpretation of classical physics

Philosophical Investigations

Philosophical Investigations (journal)

Philosophy and Phenomenological Research

Philosophy and Real Politics

Philosophy and Social Hope

Philosophy and the Mirror of Nature

Philosophy in a New Key

Philosophy of artificial intelligence

Philosophy of dialogue

Philosophy of engineering

Philosophy of information

Philosophy of technology

Philotheus Boehner

Pieranna Garavaso

Pierre Bourdieu

Pierre Boutang

Piotr Chmielowski

Pirmin Stekeler-Weithofer

Pirsig's metaphysics of Quality

Plato and a Platypus Walk Into a Bar

Polish Logic

Popper's experiment

Post-anarchism

Post-colonial anarchism

Post-industrial society

Post-left anarchy

Post-Scarcity Anarchism

Post-structuralism

Postanalytic philosophy

Postmodern Christianity

Postmodern social construction of nature

Postmodernism

Postmodernism, or, the Cultural Logic of Late Capitalism

Pragmatic maxim

Praxis School

Prefigurative politics

Preintuitionism

Prices of production

Principia Ethica

Principia Mathematica

Productive forces

Proletarian internationalism

Proletarianization

Psychical distance

Psychoanalysis and Religion

R. G. Collingwood

Rabindranath Tagore

Rachida Triki

Radical interpretation

Radical translation

Rado Riha

Ralph Johnson (philosopher)

Ralph Tyler Flewelling

Ramón Xirau

Randolph Clarke

Ranjana Khanna

Raphaël Enthoven

Rate of profit

Raymond Aron

Raymond Smullyan

Re.press

Reading Capital

Received view of theories

Recuperation (sociology)

Reflective disclosure

Reformism

Religion & Ethics Newsweekly

Religious interpretations of the Big Bang theory

Ren Jiyu

Rentier capitalism

Repressive hypothesis

Reproduction (economics)

Richard A. Macksey

Richard Rorty

Richard Schacht

Richard Tarnas

Richard von Mises

Richard Wollheim

Robert Audi

Robert Brandom

Robert Nozick

Robert Rowland Smith

Robert Stalnaker

Roberto Refinetti

Rodolfo Mondolfo

Roger Caillois

Roger Scruton

Roland Barthes

Rolf Sattler

Romanas Plečkaitis

Ronald Dworkin

Rosa Luxemburg

Rose Rand

Rüdiger Safranski

Rudolf Carnap

Rudolf Schottlaender

Ruling class

Rupert Read

Ruth Barcan Marcus

Ryle's regress

Saint Genet

Sakae Osugi

Samuel Maximilian Rieser

Sanjaya Belatthaputta

Sarvepalli Radhakrishnan

Sathya Sai Baba

Saul Kripke

Sayyid al-Qimni

Scientific essentialism

Search for a Method

Semantic view of theories

Semeiotic

Sergio Panunzio

Simon Blackburn

Simple commodity production

Six Myths about the Good Life

Sketch for a Theory of the Emotions

Slavoj Žižek

Social conflict theory

Social ecology

Socially necessary labour time

South Park and Philosophy: You Know, I Learned Something Today

Spomenka Hribar

Sri Aurobindo

Stanisław Leśniewski

Stanley Sfekas

State monopoly capitalism

Stefan Pawlicki

Stephen David Ross

Stephen Laurence

Stephen Mulhall

Stephen Pepper

Stephen Toulmin

Steven Tainer

Stewart Shapiro

Subject of labor

Sun Yat-sen

Superprofit

Surplus product

Surplus value

Susan Haack

Susan Oyama

Susan Sontag

Susan Stebbing

Syed Ali Abbas Jallapuri

Tadeusz Kotarbiński

Taha Abdurrahman

Takiyyetin Mengüşoğlu

Tasos Zembylas

Technological determinism

Technological Somnambulism

Temporal single-system interpretation

Tendency of the rate of profit to fall

The Absence of the Book

The Birth of the Clinic

The Bounds of Sense

The Case for God

The Imaginary (Sartre)

The Logic of Scientific Discovery

The Myth of Sisyphus

The Philosophical Forum

The Royal Way

The Seminars of Jacques Lacan

The Sublime Object of Ideology

The Transcendence of the Ego

Theodor Lipps

Thierry de Duve

Third camp

Thomas Munro

Thomas Nagel

Thomas Samuel Kuhn

Thoralf Skolem

Three Worlds Theory

Tim Dean

Tom Polger

Tomonubu Imamichi

Tore Nordenstam

Toronto School of communication theory

Tractatus Logico-Philosophicus

Transformation problem

Transitional demand

Two Dogmas of Empiricism

Type physicalism

Ugo Spirito

Ultra-imperialism

Underconsumption

Unequal exchange

Universal class

Uri Gordon

Ursula Wolf

Use value

Vale (author)

Valentin Ferdinandovich Asmus

Valorisation

Value added

Value product

Vanja Sutlić

Varadaraja V. Raman

Verification theory

Verificationism

Vianney Décarie

Victor Kraft

Vienna Circle

Vincent F. Hendricks

Vittorio Hösle

Vojin Rakic

W. D. Ross

Wage labour

Walter Berns

Walter Terence Stace

Warren Shibles

Wendell Berry

Werner Hamacher

Werner Heisenberg

Werner Krieglstein

What Is Literature?

What Is Your Dangerous Idea?

Whitny Braun

Why I Am Not a Christian

Wilfrid Sellars

Willard Van Orman Quine

Willem B. Drees

William Craig (philosopher)

William Fontaine

William Irwin Thompson

William James Lectures

William Kneale

William L. Rowe

William McNeill (philosopher)

William W. Tait

Władysław Mieczysław Kozłowski

Władysław Weryho

Wolfgang Smith

Wolfgang Stegmüller

Word and Object

Workerism

World communism

Xu Liangying

Yujian Zheng

Yves Brunsvick

Zen and the Art of Motorcycle Maintenance

Zeno Vendler

Zofia Zdybicka

Zollikon Seminars

Italian Fascism

Italian Fascism (Italian: fascismo italiano), also known as Classical Fascism or simply Fascism, is the original fascist ideology as developed in Italy. The ideology is associated with a series of three political parties led by Benito Mussolini, namely the Fascist Revolutionary Party (PFR) founded in 1915, the succeeding National Fascist Party (PNF) which was renamed at the Third Fascist Congress on 7–10 November 1921 and ruled the Kingdom of Italy from 1922 until 1943 and the Republican Fascist Party that ruled the Italian Social Republic from 1943 to 1945. Italian Fascism is also associated with the post-war Italian Social Movement and subsequent Italian neo-fascist movements.

Italian Fascism was rooted in Italian nationalism, national syndicalism, revolutionary nationalism and the desire to restore and expand Italian territories, which Italian Fascists deemed necessary for a nation to assert its superiority and strength and to avoid succumbing to decay. Italian Fascists also claimed that modern Italy is the heir to ancient Rome and its legacy and historically supported the creation of an Italian Empire to provide spazio vitale ("living space") for colonization by Italian settlers and to establish control over the Mediterranean Sea.Italian Fascism promoted a corporatist economic system whereby employer and employee syndicates are linked together in associations to collectively represent the nation's economic producers and work alongside the state to set national economic policy. This economic system intended to resolve class conflict through collaboration between the classes.Italian Fascism opposed liberalism, especially classical liberalism that Mussolini and Fascist leaders denounced as "the debacle of individualism", but rather than seeking a reactionary restoration of the pre-French Revolutionary world which it considered to have been flawed, it had a forward-looking direction. Fascism was opposed to Marxist socialism because of its typical opposition to nationalism, but it was also opposed to the reactionary conservatism developed by Joseph de Maistre. It believed the success of Italian nationalism required respect for tradition and a clear sense of a shared past among the Italian people, alongside a commitment to a modernised Italy.While Fascism in Italy did not initially espouse the explicit Nordicism and antisemitism inherent to Nazi ideology, racist overtones were present in Fascist thought and policies from the beginning of Fascist rule of Italy. As Fascist Italy and Nazi Germany grew politically closer in the latter half of the 1930s, Italian laws and policies became explicitly antisemitic, including the passage of the Italian Racial Laws. When the Fascists were in power, they persecuted the Greek speakers in Italy.

Italian idealism

Italian idealism, born from interest in the German one and particularly in Hegelian doctrine, developed in Italy starting from the spiritualism of the nineteenth-century Risorgimento tradition, and culminated in the first half of the twentieth century in its two greatest exponents: Benedetto Croce and Giovanni Gentile.

Italian philosophy

Italy over the ages has had a vast influence on Western philosophy, beginning with the Greeks and Romans, and going onto Renaissance humanism, the Age of Enlightenment and modern philosophy.

Sapienza University of Rome

The Sapienza University of Rome (Italian: Sapienza – Università di Roma), also called simply Sapienza or the University of Rome, is a collegiate research university located in Rome, Italy. Formally known as Università degli Studi di Roma "La Sapienza", it is one of the largest European universities by enrollments and one of the oldest in history, founded in 1303. The University is one of the most prestigious Italian universities, commonly ranking first in national rankings and in Southern Europe.Most of the Italian ruling class studied at Sapienza. Sapienza educated numerous notable alumni, including many Nobel laureates, Presidents of the European Parliament and European Commissioners, heads of several nations, notable religious figures, scientists and astronauts.. In September 2018, it was included in the top 100 of the QS World University Rankings Graduate Employability Ranking.

Ugo La Malfa

Ugo La Malfa (16 May 1903 – 26 March 1979) was an Italian politician, and an important leader in the Italian Republican Party, of which his son, Giorgio La Malfa, is now president.

University of Pisa

The University of Pisa (Italian: Università di Pisa, UniPi) is an Italian public research university located in Pisa, Italy. It was founded in 1343 by an edict of Pope Clement VI. It is the 19th oldest extant university in the world and the 10th oldest in Italy. The university is ranked within the top 10 nationally and the top 400 in the world according to the ARWU and the QS. It houses the Orto botanico di Pisa, Europe's oldest academic botanical garden, which was founded in 1544.

The University of Pisa is part of the Pisa University System, which includes the Scuola Normale Superiore and the Sant'Anna School of Advanced Studies. The university has about 50,000 students (of which 46,000 are undergraduate and postgraduate studies, and 3,500 are doctoral and specialization studies).

In the fields of philology and cultural studies, the University of Pisa is a leading member of ICoN, an inter-university consortium of 21 Italian universities supported by the Ministry of Education, Universities and Research, as well as a member of the European University Association, the Partnership of a European Group of Aeronautics and Space Universities network and the Cineca consortium. It's the only university in Italy which has become a member of the Universities Research Association.Among its notable graduates there are several national and foreign political leaders including two Italian presidents, five Popes, five Italian prime ministers and three Nobel Laureates as students, faculty or staff affiliates.

Pisa has an intense athletic rivalry with the University of Pavia, which traditionally culminates in the Pisa-Pavia Regatta (Regata Pisa-Pavia), the oldest competition of this kind in Italy, and second in Europe only to the Oxford Cambridge boat race.In 2013, the University of Pisa finished with La Sapienza University of Rome in first place among the Italian universities, according to the Academic Ranking of World Universities.

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