Uganda became an independent sovereign state on 9 October 1962. The British monarch, Elizabeth II, remained head of state as Queen of Uganda until the link with the British monarchy was severed on 9 October 1963 and the Kabaka (King) of Uganda, Edward Mutesa II, became the first President of Uganda.
Direct British rule of the Uganda Protectorate ended in 1962 with the Uganda Independence Act, which granted independence of the protectorate under the name "Uganda" but retained the British monarch, Elizabeth II, as nominal head of state and Queen of Uganda. Her constitutional roles as head of state were mostly delegated to the Governor-General of Uganda Sir Walter Coutts, who was the only holder of the office.
In 1963, Uganda adopted a new constitution which abolished the links with the British monarchy. Uganda became a republic within the Commonwealth. However, the new Ugandan state was deliberately referred to as a state rather than a republic, and the constituent native kingdoms (such as Buganda) continued in existence. The description "State" implied that the country was not a republic but instead a federation of tribal kingdoms. Following the proclamation of the State of Uganda on 9 October 1963, the Kabaka (King) of Uganda, Edward Mutesa II, became the first President of Uganda. Uganda did not become a republic de jure until 1966 with Obote's conflict with President Edward Mutesa II.
Motto: "For God and My Country"
Anthem: Oh Uganda, Land Of Beauty
Location of Uganda (red) in Africa
|Historical era||Cold War|
|9 October 1962|
• State of Uganda
|9 October 1963|
|Currency||East African shilling|
|ISO 3166 code||UG|
A Commonwealth realm is a sovereign state in which Queen Elizabeth II is the reigning constitutional monarch and head of state. Each realm is independent from the other realms. As of 2019, there are 16 Commonwealth realms: Antigua and Barbuda, Australia, The Bahamas, Barbados, Belize, Canada, Grenada, Jamaica, New Zealand, Papua New Guinea, Saint Kitts and Nevis, Saint Lucia, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, Solomon Islands, Tuvalu, and the United Kingdom. All 16 Commonwealth realms are members of the Commonwealth of Nations, an intergovernmental organisation of 53 member states. Elizabeth II is Head of the Commonwealth.
In 1952, Britain's proclamation of Elizabeth II's accession used the term realms to describe the seven sovereign states of which she was queen—the United Kingdom, Canada, Australia, New Zealand, South Africa, Pakistan and Ceylon. Since then, new realms have been created through independence of former colonies and dependencies and some realms have become republics.East African shilling
The East African shilling was the currency issued for use in British controlled areas in East Africa from 1921 until 1969. It was produced by the East African Currency Board. It is also the proposed name for a common currency that the East African Community plans to introduce.
The shilling was subdivided into 100 cents, and a pound was equivalent to twenty shillings.Elizabeth II
Elizabeth II (Elizabeth Alexandra Mary; born 21 April 1926) is Queen of the United Kingdom and the other Commonwealth realms.Elizabeth was born in London as the first child of the Duke and Duchess of York, later King George VI and Queen Elizabeth, and she was educated privately at home. Her father acceded to the throne on the abdication of his brother King Edward VIII in 1936, from which time she was the heir presumptive. She began to undertake public duties during the Second World War, serving in the Auxiliary Territorial Service. In 1947, she married Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh, a former prince of Greece and Denmark, with whom she has four children: Charles, Prince of Wales; Anne, Princess Royal; Prince Andrew, Duke of York; and Prince Edward, Earl of Wessex.
When her father died in February 1952, she became head of the Commonwealth and queen regnant of seven independent Commonwealth countries: the United Kingdom, Canada, Australia, New Zealand, South Africa, Pakistan and Ceylon. She has reigned as a constitutional monarch through major political changes, such as devolution in the United Kingdom, Canadian patriation, and the decolonisation of Africa. Between 1956 and 1992, the number of her realms varied as territories gained independence and realms, including South Africa, Pakistan, and Ceylon (renamed Sri Lanka), became republics. Her many historic visits and meetings include a state visit to the Republic of Ireland and visits to or from five popes. Significant events have included her coronation in 1953 and the celebrations of her Silver, Golden, and Diamond Jubilees in 1977, 2002, and 2012 respectively. In 2017, she became the first British monarch to reach a Sapphire Jubilee. She is the longest-lived and longest-reigning British monarch as well as the world's longest-serving female head of state, oldest living monarch, longest-reigning current monarch, and the oldest and longest-serving current head of state.
Elizabeth has occasionally faced republican sentiments and press criticism of the royal family, in particular after the breakdown of her children's marriages, her annus horribilis in 1992 and the death in 1997 of her former daughter-in-law Diana, Princess of Wales. However, support for the monarchy has consistently been and remains high, as does her personal popularity.Governor-general
Governor-general (plural governors-general) or governor general (plural governors general), in modern usage, is the title of an office-holder appointed to represent the monarch of a sovereign state in the governing of an independent realm. Governors-general have also previously been appointed in respect of major colonial states or other territories held by either a monarchy or republic, such as Japan in Korea and France in Indochina.List of governors of Uganda
This is a list of military administrators, commissioners, governors and governors-general of Uganda.
The office of Governor of Uganda was ultimately replaced by a President of Uganda after a brief transition to a Governor-General.List of living former sovereign monarchs
This is a list of former monarchs of sovereign states who are living to date. While most monarchs retain their position for their lifetime, some choose to abdicate in favour of a younger heir, while other monarchs are deposed when their monarchies are abolished or when another ruler seizes power by force. By international courtesy, these individuals are usually still addressed by their monarchical titles.List of predecessors of sovereign states in Africa
This is a list of all present sovereign states in Africa and their predecessors. The region of Africa is generally defined geographically to include the subregions of African continent, Madagascar island, Mauritius Island and several minor islands, and their respective sovereign states.
Oceania was originally colonised by Europeans with Southern Africa primarily by the British, and the West Africa and North Africa primarily by the British, French, Spanish and Portuguese. Today, Africa consists of 55 sovereign states of various government types, the most common consisting of parliamentary systems.List of state leaders in 1962
This is a list of heads of state, heads of governments, and other rulers in the year 1962.List of state leaders in 1963
This is a list of heads of state, heads of governments, and other rulers in the year 1963.List of titles and honours of Elizabeth II
Elizabeth II (born 21 April 1926) has held numerous titles and honours, both during and before her time as monarch of each of her Commonwealth realms. Each is listed below; where two dates are shown, the first indicates the date of receiving the title or award (the title as Princess Elizabeth of York
being given as from her birth), and the second indicates the date of its loss or renunciation.Personal union
A personal union is the combination of two or more states that have the same monarch while their boundaries, laws, and interests remain distinct. A real union, by contrast, would involve the constituent states being to some extent interlinked, such as by sharing some limited governmental institutions. In a federation and a unitary state, a central (federal) government spanning all member states exists, with the degree of self-governance distinguishing the two. The ruler in a personal union does not need to be a hereditary monarch.The term was coined by German jurist Johann Stephan Pütter, introducing it into Elementa iuris publici germanici (Elements of German Public Law) of 1760.Personal unions can arise for several reasons, ranging from coincidence (a woman who is already married to a king becomes queen regnant, and their child inherits the crown of both countries; the King of one country inherits the crown of another country) to virtual annexation (where a personal union sometimes was seen as a means of preventing uprisings). They can also be codified (i.e., the constitutions of the states clearly express that they shall share the same person as head of state) or non-codified, in which case they can easily be broken (e.g., by the death of the monarch when the two states have different succession laws).
The Commonwealth realms are independent states that share the same person as monarch.
Because presidents of republics are ordinarily chosen from within the citizens of the state in question, the concept of personal union has almost never crossed over from monarchies into republics, with the rare exception of the President of France being a co-prince of Andorra. In 1860 Marthinus Wessel Pretorius was simultaneously elected as the president of Transvaal and Orange Free State and he tried to unify the two countries but his mission failed and led to the Transvaal Civil War.Republics in the Commonwealth of Nations
The republics in the Commonwealth of Nations are the sovereign states in the organization with a republican form of government. As of May 2017, 30 out of the 53 member states were republics. Elizabeth II, who is the British monarch in the Commonwealth realms, is also still the titular Head of the Commonwealth in a personal capacity, but this role does not carry with it any power; instead, it is a symbol of the free association of Commonwealth members.Except for the former Portuguese possession of Mozambique and the former Belgian trust territory of Rwanda, they are all former British (or partly British) colonies or self-governing colonies that have evolved into republics. Most of the Commonwealth's members achieved independence while keeping the British monarch as their own individual head of state (in a form of personal union) and later became republics within the Commonwealth by abolishing the monarchy. In some other instances, the countries became republics after achieving independence from other former British colonies (as Bangladesh did from Pakistan in 1971).Uganda (disambiguation)
Uganda is a country in Africa.Uganda Protectorate
The British Protectorate of Uganda was a protectorate of the British Empire from 1894 to 1962. In 1893 the Imperial British East Africa Company transferred its administration rights of territory consisting mainly of Buganda Kingdom to the British Government.
In 1894 the Uganda Protectorate was established, and the territory was extended beyond the borders of Buganda to an area that roughly corresponds to that of present-day Uganda.Walter Coutts
Sir Walter Fleming Coutts (30 November 1912 – 4 November 1988) was a British colonial administrator and was Uganda's last Governor before independence, from 1961–1962. He was Governor-General of Uganda 1962–1963. He was educated at Glasgow Academy, the University of St Andrews and St John's College, Cambridge.