USS Zumwalt

USS Zumwalt (DDG-1000) is a guided missile destroyer of the United States Navy. She is the lead ship of the Zumwalt class and the first ship to be named after Admiral Elmo Zumwalt.[10][11] Zumwalt has stealth capabilities, having a radar cross-section similar to a fishing boat despite her large size.[12] On 7 December 2015, Zumwalt began her sea trial preparatory to joining the Pacific Fleet.[13] The ship was commissioned in Baltimore on 15 October 2016.[4] Her home port is San Diego, California.[14]

USS Zumwalt (DDG-1000)
USS Zumwalt (DDG-1000) at night
USS Zumwalt after floating out of drydock in 2013.
History
United States
Name: Zumwalt
Namesake: Admiral Elmo Zumwalt
Awarded: 14 February 2008
Builder: Bath Iron Works
Cost: ≈$3.5 billion[1] to 4.4 billion[2]
Laid down: 17 November 2011[3]
Launched: 28 October 2013
Christened: 12 April 2014
Commissioned: 15 October 2016[4]
Identification:
Motto: Pax Propter Vim (Peace Through Power)[5]
Status: in active service
Badge: USS Zumwalt DDG-1000 Crest
General characteristics
Class and type: Zumwalt-class destroyer, Guided missile destroyer
Displacement: 14,564 long tons (14,798 t)[6]
Length: 600 ft (182.9 m)
Beam: 80.7 ft (24.6 m)
Draft: 27.6 ft (8.4 m)
Installed power: Integrated Power System (IPS)
Propulsion:
Speed: 33.5 knots (62.0 km/h; 38.6 mph)
Complement: 142
Sensors and
processing systems:
  • AN/SPY-3 Multi-Function Radar (MFR) (X-band, scanned array)
  • Volume Search Radar (VSR) (S-band, scanned array)
Armament:
Aircraft carried:

Namesake

Elmo Zumwalt
Admiral Elmo Zumwalt

Zumwalt is named after Elmo Russell Zumwalt, Jr., who was an American naval officer and the youngest man to serve as the Chief of Naval Operations.[15] As an admiral and later the 19th Chief of Naval Operations, Zumwalt played a major role in U.S. military history, especially during the Vietnam War.[15] A highly decorated war veteran, Zumwalt reformed the US Navy's personnel policies in an effort to improve enlisted life and ease racial tensions.[15] After he retired from a 32-year naval career, he launched an unsuccessful campaign for the United States Senate.[15]

The hull classification symbol for Zumwalt is DDG-1000, which departs from the guided missile destroyer numbering sequence that goes up to DDG-126, which as of 2016, is Louis H. Wilson Jr., the latest of the named Arleigh Burke-class destroyers. Zumwalt continues the previous "gun destroyer" sequence left off with 1983, DD-997, the last of the Spruance class, Hayler.

Role

The Zumwalt class was designed with multimission capability. Unlike previous destroyer classes, designed primarily for deep-water combat, the Zumwalt class was primarily designed to support ground forces in land attacks, in addition to the usual destroyer missions of anti-air, anti-surface, and antisubmarine warfare.

Zumwalt is equipped with two Advanced Gun Systems (AGS), which are designed to fire the Long Range Land Attack Projectile (LRLAP). LRLAP was to be one of a range of land attack and ballistic projectiles for the AGS, but was the only munition the AGS could use as of 2018. LRLAP had a range of up to 100 nautical miles (190 km; 120 mi) fired from the AGS. It was to be a key component for ground forces support,[16] but LRLAP procurement was cancelled in 2016[17][18] and the Navy has no immediate plan to replace it.[9]

The Navy has re-purposed the Zumwalt class to surface warfare. [19]

History

Construction

Many of the ship's features were originally developed under the DD21 program ("21st Century Destroyer"). In 2001, Congress cut the DD-21 program by half as part of the SC21 program. To save it, the acquisition program was renamed as DD(X) and heavily reworked. The initial funding allocation for DDG-1000 was included in the National Defense Authorization Act of 2007.[20] By February 2008, a $1.4 billion contract had been awarded to Bath Iron Works in Bath, Maine,[21] and full rate production officially began a year later, on 11 February 2009.[22]

Zumwalt Deckplate Transit
Zumwalt's deckhouse in transit on 6 November 2012

In July 2008, a construction timetable was set for General Dynamics to deliver the ship in April 2013, with a March 2015 target date for Zumwalt to meet her initial operating capability[23] but, by 2012 the planned completion and delivery of the vessel was delayed to the 2014 fiscal year.[24] The first section of the ship was laid down on the slipway at Bath Iron Works on 17 November 2011,[24] by which point, fabrication of the ship was over 60% complete.[24] The naming ceremony was planned for 19 October 2013,[25] but was canceled due to the United States federal government shutdown of 2013.[26] The vessel was launched on 29 October 2013.[27][28]

Sea trials

In January 2014, Zumwalt began to prepare for heavy weather trials, to see how the ship and her instrumentation react to high winds, stormy seas, and adverse weather conditions. The ship's new wave-piercing inverted bow and tumblehome hull configuration reduce her radar cross-section. Tests involved lateral and vertical accelerations and pitch and roll. Later tests included fuel on-loading, data center tests, propulsion events, X-band radar evaluations, and mission systems activation to finalize integration of electronics. These all culminated in builders' trials and acceptance trials, with delivery for US Navy tests in late 2014, and with initial operating capability (IOC) to be reached by 2016.[29]

Future USS Zumwalt's first underway at sea
USS Zumwalt underway for the first time conducting at-sea tests and trials in the Atlantic Ocean, 7 December 2015.

Zumwalt's first commanding officer was Captain James A. Kirk.[30] Kirk attracted some media attention when he was first named the captain, due to the similarity of his name to that of the Star Trek television character Captain James T. Kirk, played by William Shatner. Shatner wrote a letter of support to Zumwalt's crew in April 2014.[31] On 7 December 2015, the ship departed Bath Iron Works for sea trials to allow the Navy and contractors to operate the vessel under rigorous conditions to determine whether Zumwalt is ready to join the fleet as an actively commissioned warship.[13]

On 12 December 2015, during sea trials, Zumwalt responded to a US Coast Guard call for assistance for a fishing boat captain who was experiencing a medical emergency 40 nautical miles (74 km) from Portland, Maine. Due to deck conditions, the Coast Guard helicopter was unable to hoist the patient from the fishing boat, so Zumwalt's crew used their 11-meter rigid-hulled inflatable boat (RHIB) to transfer him to the destroyer, from which he was transported to shore by the Coast Guard helicopter and then to a hospital.[32] The US Navy accepted delivery of Zumwalt on 20 May 2016.[33] In September 2016, it was reported that the vessel needed repairs after the detection of a seawater leak in the ship's auxiliary motor drive oil system.[34] The US Navy commissioned Zumwalt on 15 October 2016, in Baltimore during Fleet Week.[4]

Post-commissioning

On 21 November 2016, Zumwalt lost propulsion in her port shaft while passing through the Panama Canal from the Atlantic to the Pacific Ocean en route to her homeport in San Diego.[35] Water had intruded in two of the four bearings that connect Zumwalt's port and starboard Advanced Induction Motors to its drive shafts.[35] Both drive shafts failed and Zumwalt hit the lock walls in the canal, causing minor cosmetic damage.[35] Zumwalt's passage through the Panama Canal had to be completed with tugboats.[35] Zumwalt underwent repairs at Vasco Núñez de Balboa Naval Base near the Pacific end of the canal before continuing on to Naval Station San Diego.[35][36] Upon the ship's arrival in San Diego, the leak was revealed to be through the lubrication cooling system, though the cause remains unknown. Sources close to the incident described the completion of the canal transit with tugboats a prudent measure, and lauded Captain Kirk for quick thinking and integrity to acknowledge the cooling system failure rather than risk damage to the propulsion system by steering the ship to the dock without assistance. [37]

Post Delivery

Zumwalt departed San Diego for a first operational employment into the Pacific since the shipyard availability conducted in 2017 and 2018. [38] This patrol included a visit to Ketchikan, Alaska, [39] and Pearl Harbor, marking the first visit of a Zumwalt Class Destroyer to Hawaii.[40]

References

  1. ^ "The Navy Just Christened Its Most Futuristic Ship Ever". Business Insider. 2014.
  2. ^ The Navy’s New $4.4 Billion Ship Is A Big, Shiny Waste Of Money
  3. ^ Wertheim, Eric (January 2012). "Combat Fleets". Proceedings. Annapolis, Maryland: United States Naval Institute. 138 (1): 90. ISSN 0041-798X. Retrieved 13 January 2012.
  4. ^ a b c Bubala, Mary (16 October 2016). "Historic And Cutting Edge USS Zumwalt Commissioned In Baltimore". WJZ-TV. Retrieved 16 October 2016.
  5. ^ Harris, Adm. Harry (15 October 2016). "USS Zumwalt (DDG 1000) Commissioning Ceremony". US Pacific Command. Retrieved 24 July 2017.
  6. ^ "DDG 1000 Flight I Design". Northrop Grumman Ship Systems. 2007. Archived from the original on 15 September 2007.
  7. ^ a b c Kasper, Joakim (20 September 2015). "About the Zumwalt Destroyer". AeroWeb. Retrieved 25 October 2015.
  8. ^ GAO-05-752R Progress of the DD(X) Destroyer Program. U.S. Government Accountability Office. 14 June 2005.
  9. ^ a b LaGrone, Sam (11 January 2018). "No New Round Planned For Zumwalt Destroyer Gun System; Navy Monitoring Industry". USNI News. U.S. Naval Institute. Retrieved 2 March 2018.
  10. ^ "Navy Designates Next-Generation Zumwalt Destroyer". US Department of Defense. 7 April 2006.
  11. ^ "USS Zumwalt (DDG 1000)". US Department of Defense. 30 October 2013.
  12. ^ Patterson, Thom; Lendon, Brad (14 June 2014). "Navy's stealth destroyer designed for the video gamer generation". CNN. Retrieved 14 June 2014.
  13. ^ a b "Largest destroyer built for Navy heads out to sea". foxnews.com. Fox News. Archived from the original on 8 December 2015. Retrieved 8 December 2015.
  14. ^ Barber, Elizabeth (30 October 2013). "Navy new destroyer: USS Zumwalt is bigger, badder than any other destroyer". The Christian Science Monitor. Retrieved 15 December 2015.
  15. ^ a b c d Smith, J. Y. (3 January 2000). "Navy Reformer Elmo Zumwalt Dies". The Washington Post. Retrieved 2 October 2014.
  16. ^ "DDG 1000 Zumwalt Class - Multimission Destroyer". Naval Technology. Retrieved 16 May 2016.
  17. ^ New Warship’s Big Guns Have No Bullets - Defensenews.com, 6 November 2016
  18. ^ Navy Planning on Not Buying More LRLAP Rounds for Zumwalt Class - News.USNI.org, 7 November 2016
  19. ^ Eckstein, Megan (4 December 2017). "New Requirements for DDG-1000 Focus on Surface Strike". USNI News. U.S. Naval Institute. Retrieved 2 March 2018.
  20. ^ NDAA 2007 - "National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2007". (109-452) US Government Printing Office. 5 May 2006: 69–70.
  21. ^ "Navy Awards Contracts for Zumwalt Class Destroyers". Navy News Service. 14 February 2008.
  22. ^ "BIW News February 2009" (PDF). General Dynamics Bath Iron Works. 1 March 2009.
  23. ^ "Defense Acquisitions: Cost to Deliver Zumwalt-Class Destroyers Likely to Exceed Budget". Government Accountability Office. 31 July 2008. GAO-08-804
  24. ^ a b c "Flash Traffic: Keel Laid for 1st DDG-1000 Destroyer". The Navy. Navy Leage of Australia. 74 (1): 15. January 2012. ISSN 1322-6231.
  25. ^ Cavas, Christopher (3 October 2013). "New Ship News – Sub launched, Carrier prepped, LCS delivered". Defense News. Archived from the original on 4 October 2013.
  26. ^ "Navy Cancels, Postpones Zumwalt Christening". www.navy.mil. United States Navy. 11 October 2013. Retrieved 11 October 2013.
  27. ^ "First Zumwalt Class Destroyer Launched". 29 October 2013. Archived from the original on 3 November 2013.
  28. ^ Geoffrey Ingersoll (29 October 2013). "The US Navy's Most Intimidating Creation Yet Just Hit The Water". Business Insider.
  29. ^ DDG 1000 Preps for Heavy Weather Trials - DoDBuzz.com, 14 January 2014
  30. ^ "PCU Zumwalt". US Navy. Retrieved 31 August 2015.
  31. ^ Larter, David (16 April 2014). "Famous Capt. Kirk honors real one at ship christening". Trektothetroops.org. Navy Times. Archived from the original on 28 February 2016. Retrieved 18 September 2017.
  32. ^ Miller, Kevin (12 December 2015). "Navy's new Zumwalt rescues ailing fishing boat captain off Portland". Portland Press Herald. Retrieved 13 December 2015.
  33. ^ Atherton, Kelsey D. (20 May 2016). "Zumwalt Destroyer Delivered To The Navy". Harlan, IA: Popular Science. Retrieved 23 May 2016.
  34. ^ Avery Thompson (22 September 2016). "The Navy's Stealthy, High-Tech USS Zumwalt Just Broke Down". Popular Mechanics. Retrieved 23 November 2016.
  35. ^ a b c d e LaGrone, Sam (22 November 2016). "Updated: USS Zumwalt Sidelined in Panama Following New Engineering Casualty". USNI News. U.S. Naval Institute. Retrieved 22 November 2016.
  36. ^ "Un buque de guerra estadounidense sufre una avería tras cruzar el Canal de Panamá" [An American warship suffers a breakdown after crossing the Panama Canal] (in Spanish). Agencia EFE. 23 November 2016.
  37. ^ Gallagher, Sean (13 December 2016). "Zumwalt's propulsion problems were caused by seawater seepage in chillers". Ars Technica. Retrieved 13 December 2016.
  38. ^ Public Affairs, U.S. 3rd Fleet (8 March 2019). "First Operational Underway". Navy. Retrieved 25 April 2019.
  39. ^ Byers, MC2 Natalie (25 March 2019). "USS Zumwalt Arrives in Ketchikan". Navy. Retrieved 25 April 2019.
  40. ^ Cone, Allen (4 April 2019). "USS Zumwalt destroyer visits Pearl Harbor". UPI. Retrieved 25 April 2019.

External links

Advanced Gun System

The Advanced Gun System (AGS) is a naval artillery system developed and produced by BAE Systems Armaments Systems for the Zumwalt-class destroyer of the United States Navy. Designated the 155 mm/62 (6.1") Mark 51 Advanced Gun System (AGS), it was designed to provide long range naval gunfire support against shore-based targets. A total of six of the systems have been installed, two on each of the three Zumwalt-class ships. The Navy has no plans for additional Zumwalt-class ships, and no plans to deploy AGS on any other ship. AGS can only use ammunition designed specifically for the system. Only one ammunition type was designed, and the Navy halted its procurement in November 2016 due to cost ($800,000 to $1 million per round), so the AGS has no ammunition and cannot be used.

Bath Iron Works

Bath Iron Works (BIW) is a major United States shipyard located on the Kennebec River in Bath, Maine, founded in 1884 as Bath Iron Works, Limited. BIW has built private, commercial, and military vessels, most of which have been ordered by the United States Navy. The shipyard has built and sometimes designed battleships, frigates, cruisers, and destroyers, including the Arleigh Burke class which are currently among the world's most advanced surface warships.

Since 1995, Bath Iron Works has been a subsidiary of General Dynamics, the fifth-largest defense contractor in the world as of 2008. During World War II, ships built at BIW were considered to be of superior toughness by sailors and Navy officials, giving rise to the phrase "Bath-built is best-built."

Bofors 15,2 cm kanon m/42

The Bofors 152 mm kanon m/42 is a naval gun for use on ships. It was initially used aboard light cruisers and cruisers including the Swedish Tre Kronor class and the Dutch De Zeven Provincien class, after World War II. The last active ship to use the gun was the Peruvian Navy cruiser BAP Almirante Grau and was the largest naval gun still in active service prior to the commissioning of USS Zumwalt in October 2016, which is armed with the 155 mm Advanced Gun System.

The 152 mm gun was first designed in 1939 by Bofors for the Koninklijke Marine cruiser Kijkduin, eventually named De Zeven Provinciën. After the German invasion of the Netherlands in 1940 these artillery pieces were confiscated by the Swedish Government and placed on the Swedish cruiser HSwMS Tre Kronor.

Destroyer escort

Destroyer escort (DE) was the United States Navy mid-20th-century classification for a 20-knot (23 mph) warship designed with endurance to escort mid-ocean convoys of merchant marine ships. Kaibōkan were designed for a similar role in the Imperial Japanese Navy. The Royal Navy and Commonwealth forces identified such warships as frigates, and that classification was widely accepted when the United States redesignated destroyer escorts as frigates (FF) in 1975. From circa 1954 until 1975 new-build US Navy ships designated as destroyer escorts (DE) were called ocean escorts. Destroyer escorts, frigates, and kaibōkan were mass-produced for World War II as a less expensive antisubmarine warfare alternative to fleet destroyers. Other similar warships include the 10 Kriegsmarine escort ships of the F-class and the two Amiral Murgescu-class vessels of the Romanian Navy.

Postwar destroyer escorts and frigates were larger than those produced during wartime, with increased antiaircraft capability, but remained smaller and slower than postwar destroyers. As Cold War destroyer escorts became as large as wartime destroyers, the United States Navy converted some of their World War II destroyers to escort destroyers (DDE).

Fleet Week

Fleet Week is a United States Navy, United States Marine Corps, and United States Coast Guard tradition in which active military ships recently deployed in overseas operations dock in a variety of major cities for one week. Once the ships dock, the crews can enter the city and visit its tourist attractions. At certain hours, the public can take a guided tour of the ships. Often, Fleet Week is accompanied by military demonstrations and air shows such as those provided by the Blue Angels.

Guided missile destroyer

A guided-missile destroyer is a destroyer designed to launch guided missiles. Many are also equipped to carry out anti-submarine, anti-air, and anti-surface operations. The NATO standard designation for these vessels is DDG. Nations vary in their use of destroyer D designation in their hull pennant numbering, either prefixing or dropping it altogether. The U.S. Navy has adopted the classification DDG in the American hull classification system.

In addition to the guns, a guided-missile destroyer is usually equipped with two large missile magazines, usually in vertical-launch cells. Some guided-missile destroyers contain powerful radar systems, such as the United States’ Aegis Combat System, and may be adopted for use in an anti-missile or ballistic-missile defense role. This is especially true of navies that no longer operate cruisers, so other vessels must be adopted to fill in the gap.

Inverted bow

In ship design, an inverted bow (occasionally also referred to as reverse bow) is a ship's or large boat's bow whose farthest forward point is not at the top. The result may somewhat resemble a submarine's bow. Inverted bows maximize the length of waterline and hence the hull speed, and have often better hydrodynamic drag than ordinary bows. On the other hand, they have very little reserve buoyancy and tend to dive under waves instead of piercing or going over them.

Inverted bows were popular on battleships and large cruisers in the early 20th century. They fell out of favour, as they were very wet on high speeds and heavy seas, but have made a comeback on modern ship design.

List of current ships of the United States Navy

The United States Navy has approximately 490 ships in both active service and the reserve fleet, with approximately 90 more in either the planning and ordering stages or under construction, according to the Naval Vessel Register and published reports. This list includes ships that are owned and leased by the U.S. Navy; ships that are formally commissioned, by way of ceremony, and non-commissioned. Ships denoted with the prefix "USS" are commissioned ships. Prior to commissioning, ships may be described as a "pre-commissioning unit" or PCU, but are officially referred to by name with no prefix. US Navy support ships are often non-commissioned ships organized and operated by Military Sealift Command. Among these support ships, those denoted "USNS" are owned by the US Navy. Those denoted by "MV" or "SS" are chartered.

Current ships include commissioned warships that are in active service, as well as ships that are part of Military Sealift Command, the support component and the Ready Reserve Force, that while non-commissioned, are still part of the effective force of the U.S. Navy. Future ships listed are those that are in the planning stages, or are currently under construction, from having its keel laid to fitting out and final sea trials.

There exist a number of former US Navy ships which are museum ships (not listed here), some of which may be US government-owned. One of these, USS Constitution, a three-masted tall ship, is one of the original six frigates of the United States Navy. It is the oldest naval vessel afloat, and still retains its commission (and hence is listed here), as a special commemoration for that ship alone.

List of destroyers of the United States Navy

This is a list of destroyers of the United States Navy, sorted by hull number. It includes all of the series DD, DL, DDG, DLG, and DLGN.

CG-47 Ticonderoga and CG-48 Yorktown were approved as destroyers (DDG-47 and DDG-48) and redesignated cruisers before being laid down; it is uncertain whether CG-49 Vincennes and CG-50 Valley Forge were ever authorized as destroyers by the United States Congress (though the fact that the DDG sequence resumes with DDG-51 Arleigh Burke argues that they were).

List of equipment of the United States Navy

The Equipment of the United States Navy have been subdivided into: watercraft, aircraft, munitions, vehicles, and small arms.

Naval Base San Diego

Naval Base San Diego, which locals refer to as 32nd Street Naval Station, is the second largest Surface Ship base of the United States Navy and is located in San Diego, California. Naval Base San Diego is the principal homeport of the Pacific Fleet, consisting of over 50 ships and over 190 tenant commands. The base is composed of 13 piers stretched over 977 acres (3.95 km2) of land and 326 acres (1.32 km2) of water. The total on base population is over 24,000 military personnel and over 10,000 civilians.

Stealth ship

A stealth ship is a ship which employs stealth technology construction techniques in an effort to ensure that it is harder to detect by one or more of radar, visual, sonar, and infrared methods.

These techniques borrow from stealth aircraft technology, although some aspects such as wake and acoustic signature reduction (Acoustic quieting) are unique to stealth ships' design. Though radar cross-section (RCS) reduction is a fairly new concept many other forms of masking a ship have existed for centuries or even millennia.

USS Enterprise (NCC-1701)

USS Enterprise (NCC-1701) is a starship in the Star Trek media franchise. It is the main setting of the original Star Trek television series (1966–1969) and several Star Trek films, and it has been depicted in various spinoffs, films, books, products, and fan-created media. Under the command of Captain James T. Kirk, the Enterprise carries its crew on a mission "to explore strange, new worlds; to seek out new life and new civilizations; to boldly go where no man has gone before".

Matt Jefferies designed the Enterprise for television, and its core design components – a saucer-shaped primary hull, two outset engine nacelles, and a cylindrical secondary hull – have persisted across several television and film redesigns. After the Enterprise's destruction in the third franchise film, that vessel's filming model was redressed and depicted as its successor starship, the USS Enterprise, NCC-1701-A.

Initially a vision of the potential for human spaceflight, the original Enterprise became a popular culture icon. The vessel's original appearance influenced the design of subsequent franchise spacecraft. The model filmed for Star Trek has been on display for decades at the National Air and Space Museum. The Enterprise has repeatedly been identified as one of the best-designed and most influential science fiction spacecraft.

United States Navy

The United States Navy (USN) is the naval warfare service branch of the United States Armed Forces and one of the seven uniformed services of the United States. It is the largest and most capable navy in the world and it has been estimated that in terms of tonnage of its active battle fleet alone, it is larger than the next 13 navies combined, which includes 11 U.S. allies or partner nations. It has the highest combined battle fleet tonnage and the world's largest aircraft carrier fleet, with eleven in service, and two new carriers under construction. With 319,421 personnel on active duty and 99,616 in the Ready Reserve, the U.S. Navy is the third largest of the U.S. military service branches in terms of personnel. It has 282 deployable combat vessels and more than 3,700 operational aircraft as of March 2018, making it the third-largest air force in the world, after the United States Air Force and the United States Army.

The U.S. Navy traces its origins to the Continental Navy, which was established during the American Revolutionary War and was effectively disbanded as a separate entity shortly thereafter. After suffering significant loss of goods and personnel at the hands of the Barbary pirates from Algiers, the U.S. Congress passed the Naval Act of 1794 for the construction of six heavy frigates, the first ships of the U.S. Navy. The U.S. Navy played a major role in the American Civil War by blockading the Confederacy and seizing control of its rivers. It played the central role in the World War II defeat of Imperial Japan. The U.S. Navy emerged from World War II as the most powerful navy in the world. The 21st century U.S. Navy maintains a sizable global presence, deploying in strength in such areas as the Western Pacific, the Mediterranean, and the Indian Ocean. It is a blue-water navy with the ability to project force onto the littoral regions of the world, engage in forward deployments during peacetime and rapidly respond to regional crises, making it a frequent actor in U.S. foreign and military policy.

The Navy is administratively managed by the Department of the Navy, which is headed by the civilian Secretary of the Navy. The Department of the Navy is itself a division of the Department of Defense, which is headed by the Secretary of Defense. The Chief of Naval Operations (CNO) is the most senior naval officer serving in the Department of the Navy.

United States ship naming conventions

United States ship naming conventions for the U.S. Navy were established by Congressional action at least as early as 1862. Title Thirteen, Chapter Six, of the United States Code, enacted in that year, reads, in part,

The vessels of the Navy shall be named by the Secretary of the Navy under direction of the President according to the following rule:

Sailing-vessels of the first class shall be named after the States of the Union, those of the second class after the rivers, those of the third class after the principal cities and towns and those of the fourth class as the President may direct.

Further clarification was made by executive order of President Theodore Roosevelt in 1907. However, elements had existed since before his time. If a ship is reclassified, for example a destroyer is converted to a mine layer, it retains its original name.

Zumwalt-class destroyer

The Zumwalt-class destroyer is a class of United States Navy guided missile destroyers designed as multi-mission stealth ships with a focus on land attack. It is a multi-role class that was designed for secondary roles of surface warfare and anti-aircraft warfare and originally designed with a primary role of naval gunfire support. It was intended to take the place of battleships in meeting a congressional mandate for naval fire support. The ship is designed around its two Advanced Gun Systems, their turrets and magazines, and unique Long Range Land Attack Projectile (LRLAP) ammunition. LRLAP procurement was cancelled, rendering the guns unusable, so the Navy re-purposed the ships for surface warfare. A National Review article by Mike Fredenburg calls the Zumwalts "an unmitigated disaster". The class design emerged from the DD-21 "land attack destroyer" program as "DD(X)".

These ships are classed as destroyers, but they are much larger than any other active destroyer or cruiser. The vessels' distinctive appearance results from the design requirement for a low radar cross-section (RCS). The Zumwalt-class has a wave-piercing tumblehome hull form whose sides slope inward above the waterline, which dramatically reduces RCS by returning much less energy than a conventional flare hull form. The appearance has been compared to that of the historic USS Monitor and her famous antagonist CSS Virginia.The class has an integrated power system that can send electricity from its turbo-generators to the electric drive motors or weapons, the Total Ship Computing Environment Infrastructure (TSCEI), automated fire-fighting systems, and automated piping rupture isolation. The class is designed to require a smaller crew and to be less expensive to operate than comparable warships.

The lead ship is named Zumwalt for Admiral Elmo Zumwalt and carries the hull number DDG-1000. Originally, 32 ships were planned, with $9.6 billion research and development costs spread across the class. As costs overran estimates, the quantity was reduced to 24, then to 7, and finally to 3, significantly increasing the cost per ship to $4.24 billion (excluding R&D costs) and well exceeding the per-unit cost of a nuclear-powered Virginia-class submarine ($2.688 billion). The dramatic per-unit cost increases eventually triggered a Nunn–McCurdy Amendment breach and cancellation of further production. In April 2016, the total program cost was $22.5 billion, with an average cost of $7.5 billion per ship.

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