USS Dwight D. Eisenhower

USS Dwight D. Eisenhower (CVN-69) (known informally as "Ike") is a nuclear-powered aircraft carrier currently in service with the United States Navy. Commissioned in 1977, the ship is the second of the ten Nimitz-class aircraft carriers currently in service, and is the first ship named after the 34th President of the United States, Dwight D. Eisenhower. The vessel was initially named simply as USS Eisenhower, much like the lead ship of the class, Nimitz, but the name was changed to its present form on 25 May 1970.[3] The carrier, like all others of her class, was constructed at Newport News Shipbuilding Company in Virginia, with the same design as the lead ship, although the ship has been overhauled twice to bring her up to the standards of those constructed more recently.

Since commissioning, Dwight D. Eisenhower has participated in deployments including Operation Eagle Claw during the Iran hostage crisis in 1980, as well as the Gulf War in the 1990s, and more recently in support of U.S. military operations in Iraq and Afghanistan. The carrier currently serves as the flagship of Carrier Strike Group 10.[4]

USS Dwight D. Eisenhower (CVN-69)
USS Dwight D. Eisenhower (CVN-69)
USS Dwight D. Eisenhower with USS George Washington in the Indian Ocean
History
United States
Namesake: Dwight D. Eisenhower
Builder: Newport News Shipbuilding
Cost: $5.2 billion (2016 dollars)
Laid down: 15 August 1970
Launched: 11 October 1975
Sponsored by: Mamie Doud-Eisenhower[1]
Commissioned: 18 October 1977
Homeport: NS Norfolk, Virginia
Motto: I Like Ike or Greater Each Day
Nickname(s): Mighty Ike or Ike
Status: in active service
Badge: USS Dwight D Eisenhower CVN-69 Crest
General characteristics
Class and type: Nimitz-class aircraft carrier
Displacement: 101,600 long tons (113,800 short tons)[2]
Length:
  • Overall: 1,092 feet (332.8 m)
  • Waterline: 1,040 feet (317.0 m)
Beam:
  • Overall: 252 ft (76.8 m)
  • Waterline: 134 ft (40.8 m)
Height: 244 feet (74 m)
Draft:
  • Maximum navigational: 37 feet (11.3 m)
  • Limit: 41 feet (12.5 m)
Propulsion:
Speed: 30+ knots (56+ km/h; 35+ mph)
Range: Unlimited distance; 20–25 years
Complement:
  • Ship's company: 3,532
  • Air wing: 2,480
Sensors and
processing systems:
  • AN/SPS-48E 3-D air search radar
  • AN/SPS-49(V)5 2-D air search radar
  • AN/SPQ-9B target acquisition radar
  • AN/SPN-46 air traffic control radars
  • AN/SPN-43C air traffic control radar
  • AN/SPN-41 landing aid radars
  • 4 × Mk 91 NSSM guidance systems
  • 4 × Mk 95 radars
Electronic warfare
& decoys:
Armament:
Armor: Unknown
Aircraft carried: 90 fixed wing and helicopters

Design and construction

On 29 June 1970, then-Northrop Grumman Newport News of Newport News, Virginia was awarded the contract for construction. On 30 June 1975, her designation was changed from CVAN-69 to CVN-69. She was laid down as hull number 599 on 15 August 1970 at Newport News shipyard at a cost of $679 million ($4.5 billion in 2016 dollars), launched 11 October 1975 after christening by Mamie Doud-Eisenhower, and commissioned 18 October 1977, Captain William E. Ramsey in command.[1] On commissioning, she replaced the aging World War II–era carrier USS Franklin D. Roosevelt in the fleet.

Service history

1970s

Dwight D. Eisenhower was initially assigned to the United States Atlantic Fleet, and, after receiving over a year of training, the ship was visited by President Jimmy Carter with his wife Rosalynn Carter, Defense Secretary Harold Brown and National Security Advisor Zbigniew Brzeziński. In January 1979, she sailed for her first deployment to the Mediterranean Sea. During this deployment, while off the coast of Israel, Israeli Prime Minister Menachem Begin visited Dwight D. Eisenhower, The carrier returned to Norfolk Naval Station in July of the same year.

1980s

BAe Sea Harrier 800 NAS on USS Eisenhower 1984.JPEG
A Sea Harrier of the Fleet Air Arm takes off from the deck of Dwight D. Eisenhower in 1984.

Under the command of her second Commanding Officer, Captain James H. Mauldin, her second deployment occurred in 1980, when she was dispatched by President Carter to the Indian Ocean, in response to the Iran hostage crisis. She relieved sister-carrier Nimitz three days after the Iranian hostage rescue attempt. To help maintain morale, Capt. Mauldin allowed the men aboard to participate in "Flight Deck Olympics". The Navy also authorized a special ration of beer, consisting of six cans per man, which was dispensed over a two-month period.[3]

Dwight D. Eisenhower returned to the Mediterranean Sea for her third deployment, under the command of her third Captain E. W. Clexton, Jr., from 5 January to 13 July 1982. During this deployment, 11 passengers and crew were lost when Mamie, her onboard logistics aircraft, crashed near Souda Bay, Crete, on 2 April. She also participated in the 24 June evacuation of the U.S. Embassy staff from Beirut, Lebanon, as that country descended into civil war.[3]

F-8E(FN) catching wire on USS Eisenhower (CVN-69) 1983.JPEG
An F-8E(FN) Crusader of the Aéronavale traps aboard Dwight D. Eisenhower in 1983.

Ike embarked on her fourth deployment from 27 April to 2 December 1983. In addition to several major exercises with NATO, Egyptian and U.S. Air Force personnel and assets, she came under direct threat of attack as Libyan dictator Muammar al-Qadhafi vowed to turn the Gulf of Sidra into a "red gulf of blood" should the ship enter the zone claimed by Libya. Further tensions between Libya, Chad, Sudan and Egypt forced Ike to be ordered to the disputed area. Between 2 and 5 August, the ship's Combat Air Patrol intercepted two MiG-23 Flogger and two Dassault-Breguet Mirage V aircraft headed toward the carrier in separate engagements. The Libyan aircraft immediately turned back toward their bases, ending both incidents. Diplomatic measures deflated the crisis days later. On 26 August, Ike sailed within sight of the embattled city of Beirut, Lebanon. The ship launched reconnaissance sorties in support of the U.S. Marines and other international peacekeepers coming under attack ashore. After 93 days at sea since her previous port visit, Ike visited Italy on 21 October. She once again had to make speed toward Beirut, just five days later on the 26th, because of suicide attacks that killed nearly 300 American and French troops on 23 October. Ike would remain on station until relieved by carriers Independence and John F. Kennedy in mid November.[3]

In May and June 1984, for the 40th anniversary of D-Day, Ike was deployed to Normandy, France and Portsmouth, England. The port visit in England included a visit from Queen Elizabeth II. After her fifth deployment Dwight D. Eisenhower went into Newport News Shipbuilding and Drydock in October 1985 for a major overhaul. The 18-month yard period included the addition of the Close-in Weapons System (CIWS), NATO Sea Sparrow Missile System, Naval Tactical Data System, anti-submarine warfare module, communications upgrades and rehabilitation of 1,831 berths in 25 compartments. She re-entered the fleet in April 1987.[5]

On 29 February 1988, Ike started her sixth deployment to the Mediterranean. While returning to Norfolk, on 29 August 1988, she collided with an anchored Spanish coal ship while entering the harbor to dock at Norfolk Naval Station when wind and currents pushed the carrier off course, but only caused minor damage to both ships.[3][6] Dwight D. Eisenhower entered Norfolk Naval Shipyard (Portsmouth, Virginia) in September 1988; she returned to the fleet in April 1989.

1990s

Four US Navy carriers at Norfolk Naval Station 1985.jpeg
Dwight D. Eisenhower (foreground) at Norfolk in 1985 alongside Nimitz, John F. Kennedy and America.

In 1990, Dwight D. Eisenhower completed her seventh Mediterranean deployment. The deployment became a commemorative event in the worldwide "Dwight D. Eisenhower Centennial", celebrating the 100th anniversary of the late president's birth. During D-Day anniversary ceremonies off the coast of Normandy, President Eisenhower's son John Eisenhower and D-Day veterans embarked in the ship, while Carrier Air Wing Seven conducted a memorial flyover of the American cemetery at Omaha Beach in Normandy, France.

Gulf War

In response to Iraq's invasion of Kuwait, Dwight D. Eisenhower became the first carrier to conduct sustained operations in the Red Sea, and only the second nuclear-powered aircraft carrier ever to transit the Suez Canal. Ike served as a ready striking force in the event Iraq invaded Saudi Arabia, and participated in maritime interception operations in support of a United Nations embargo against Iraq.

After completion of an extensive shipyard period and work-up, the carrier deployed 26 September 1991 to the Persian Gulf to continue multi-national operations with coalition forces in support of Operation Desert Storm. Ike returned to Norfolk on 2 April 1992, and, on 12 January 1993, entered Norfolk Naval Shipyard for overhaul and conversion, returning to the fleet 12 November 1993.

Post–Gulf War

USS Eisenhower (CVN-69) leaves Norfolk for Operation Uphold Democracy in 1994.JPEG
Dwight D. Eisenhower departs Norfolk for Operation Uphold Democracy in 1994.

In September 1994, Dwight D. Eisenhower and elements of the U.S. 10th Mountain Division first tested the concept of adaptive force packaging. The division's soldiers and equipment were loaded on board, and the ship's Army/Navy team headed for Port-au-Prince to lead Operation Uphold Democracy, the U.S.-led effort to restore the elected government of Haiti.[7][8]

One month later, in October 1994, Dwight D. Eisenhower departed for a six-month deployment which included flying missions in support of Operation Southern Watch and Operation Deny Flight. This deployment marked the first time that women had deployed as crew members of a U.S. Navy combatant. Dwight D. Eisenhower, Carrier Air Wing Three (CVW-3), and the Commander, Cruiser-Destroyer Group 8 staff team included more than 400 women. The integration of women caused some negative headlines for the Navy. During the deployment, 15 women serving aboard had to be reassigned ashore because of pregnancy, earning the ship the nickname The Love Boat.[9] There was also a case of a sailor who filmed himself having sex with a female.[9]

In April 1995, the game show Wheel of Fortune taped two weeks of episodes on the ship's hangar deck.[10] Dwight D. Eisenhower returned to Newport News Shipbuilding on 17 July 1995 for an 18-month complex overhaul, completed on 27 January 1997. Among other upgrades, they installed a new Advanced combat direction system. The ship departed on her 10th deployment on 10 June 1998 and returned in December. In February 1999, she returned to the Norfolk Navy Shipyard for a six-month refitting and returned to the fleet in June. Upon completion in June 1999, she returned to full duty in the fleet.

2000s

US Navy 061025-N-2835F-001 The flagship for Commander, Carrier Strike Group Eight (CCSG-8), Nimitz-class aircraft carrier USS Dwight D. Eisenhower (CVN 69), anchors off the coast of Cyprus for a port visit
Dwight D. Eisenhower anchors off the coast of the Port of Limassol in the Mediterranean in 2006
CVN-69-SPIE-training
Explosive Ordnance Disposal Mobile Unit Six participates in Special Patrol Insertion/Extraction (SPIE) training session with Dwight D. Eisenhower
Super Hornet on flight deck
F/A-18E/F Super Hornet parked on the flight deck of Dwight D. Eisenhower, as the ship operates in the Persian Gulf, December 2006.

Deploying in February 2000 and returning that August on the "Millennium Cruise", for the first time Ike's embarked aircraft dropped ordnance in combat while enforcing Operation Southern Watch's No-Fly Zone over Iraq.

On 3 October 2006 with Carrier Air Wing Seven (CVW-7), Dwight D. Eisenhower returned to sea as flagship of RADM Allen G. Myers, commanding Carrier Strike Group Eight (CSG-8), which included guided-missile cruiser Anzio, guided-missile destroyers Ramage and Mason, and fast-attack submarine Newport News.[11] She visited Naples, Italy, and then Limassol, Cyprus, for three days in October 2006 before departing to the east. She entered the Persian Gulf in December 2006.[12]

On 8 January 2007, a U.S. AC-130 gunship based out of Djibouti was dispatched to target Al-Qaeda operatives located in Somalia. Dwight D. Eisenhower was deployed in the Indian Ocean to provide air cover for the operation and, if needed, to evacuate downed airmen and other casualties.[13] She joined other U.S. and allied vessels from Combined Task Force 150 (CTF-150), based out of Bahrain.[14] A U.S. spokesperson did not say which particular ships comprised the cordon, but the task force included vessels from Canada, France, Germany, Pakistan, the UK and the US. Ships of CTF-150 from the U.S. Navy include the Arleigh Burke-class destroyer Ramage and the Ticonderoga-class cruiser Bunker Hill.[15] The aim of CTF-150's patrols is to "... stop SICC leaders or foreign militant supporters escaping" Somalia.[16] In March 2007, following the Iranian seizure of Royal Navy personnel, Dwight D. Eisenhower began battle group exercises off the Iranian coastline. The following month, in April, the ship was relieved by Nimitz.[17]

Rafale USS Dwight D. Eisenhower
A French Dassault Rafale fighter aircraft conducts touch and go landings aboard Dwight D. Eisenhower during a coalition training exercise.

On 4 October 2008 Dwight D. Eisenhower Petty Officer 2nd Class Robert Lemar Robinson was killed aboard ship during training exercises off the coast of North Carolina. The sailor was struck and mortally wounded, by an airplane at 8:15 p.m. on the carrier's flight deck.[18]

On 21 February 2009, Dwight D. Eisenhower deployed for the Arabian Sea and environs rotating into the forward-deployed forces there. She served as the flagship of Carrier Strike Group 8 commanded by Rear Admiral Kurt W. Tidd. Also embarked were Carrier Air Wing 7 and the staff of Commander, Destroyer Squadron 28. Other ships of Strike Group 8 were Bainbridge, Halyburton, Scranton, Vicksburg, and Gettysburg. In addition to supporting Operations Iraqi Freedom and Enduring Freedom, the strike group conducted maritime security operations including anti-piracy operations. On 16 May, Dwight D. Eisenhower became the first Nimitz-class carrier to dock pierside in Manama, Bahrain. The last carrier to moor pierside in Bahrain was Rendova in 1948. On 30 July 2009, Dwight D. Eisenhower returned to Naval Station Norfolk after an almost six-month long deployment.[19]

2010s

US Navy 110714-N-YC446-145 The aircraft carriers USS Enterprise (CVN 65) and USS Dwight D. Eisenhower (CVN 69) pass as Enterprise returns to homepo
Dwight D. Eisenhower (background) on post maintenance qualifications in the Atlantic Ocean, meets up with Enterprise returning from a cruise to the Mediterranean and Persian Gulf in 2011

On 2 January 2010, Dwight D. Eisenhower again deployed to the U.S. 5th and 6th Fleet areas of operation in the Middle East. She served as the flagship of the Dwight D. Eisenhower Carrier Strike Group commanded by Rear Admiral Philip S. Davidson. While in theater, the strike group provided security cooperation, forward naval presence, maritime security, and crisis response. In addition to Ike, the strike group was made up of Carrier Air Wing 7; Commander, Destroyer Squadron 28; the guided-missile cruiser Hué City; and guided-missile destroyers McFaul, Carney, and Farragut.[20][21] On 28 July 2010, Ike returned to her homeport in Norfolk.

The ship was placed in a planned incremental availability at Norfolk Naval Shipyard through June 2011. On 22 February 2013, Ike and Strike Group 8 departed for another Mediterranean and Mid-East deployment. After pulling into Marseille, France[22] in early March, the German Sachsen-class frigate FGS Hamburg (F220) became the first to fully integrate into an American Strike group. Hamburg, commanded by CDR (FKpt) Ralf Kuchler (GN), remained with the strike group while it operated with the 5th fleet.[23] On 6 August the ship began an ammunition offload in preparation for an upcoming docked planned incremental availability (DPIA) at Norfolk Naval Shipyard.[24] On 26 August 2014, the ship was moved to Berth 42-43 from Dry Dock #8 at Norfolk Naval Shipyard, and as of 4 February 2015, the DPIA was four months behind schedule, with the ship planned to remain in the yard until at least April 2015.[25] On 3 September 2015, the ship went back to sea.[26]

US Navy 040219-N-5821P-005 An E-2C Hawkeye makes an arrested landing aboard the aircraft carrier USS Kitty Hawk (CV 63)
An E-2C Hawkeye makes an arrested landing aboard the aircraft carrier USS Kitty Hawk (CV 63)

On 8 June 2016, Dwight D. Eisenhower and her Carrier Strike Group sailed the Atlantic Ocean into the U.S. 6th Fleet's area of operations (AoR) in support of U.S. national security interests in Europe.[27] On 22 November 2016, Military Times reported that since June 2016, when the ship entered the Persian Gulf after launching strikes from the eastern Mediterranean, the carrier's Captain, Paul Spedero, reported that sorties from Dwight D. Eisenhower had dropped nearly 1,100 bombs on ISIS targets in Iraq and Syria. Ike returned to homeport Norfolk December 30.[28]

On 18 March 2016, while she was sailing off the coast of Virginia, eight members of her deck crew were injured when the arresting gear cables failed and "came apart", during the routine landing of an E-2 Hawkeye aircraft. Six of the injured deck crew were flown by helicopter to nearby shore-based hospitals, while the other two remained and were treated aboard ship. None of the eight suffered life-threatening injuries. The Hawkeye immediately resumed flight and landed safely at Chambers Field, Norfolk Naval Station, with no reports of injuries to her crew or damage to the aircraft.[29]

In December 2016, the ship completed her 17th deployment to the Mediterranean and Persian Gulf in support of Operation Inherent Resolve. [30]

Overhauls

A U.S. Navy MH-60S Seahawk helicopter attached to Helicopter Sea Combat Squadron (HSC) 22 unloads ammunition onto the flight deck of the aircraft carrier USS Dwight D. Eisenhower (CVN 69) in the Atlantic Ocean 130806-N-FI568-009
A MH-60S Knighthawk helicopter unloads ammunition onto the flight deck of Dwight D. Eisenhower.
  • March 1978 to July 1978 - Post Shakedown Availability
  • January 1981 to May 1981 - Selected Restricted Availability
  • August 1982 to October 1982 - Selected Restricted Availability
  • October 1985 to April 1987 - Complex Overhaul - forward port sponson added; Mk-25 BPDM replaced with Mk-29; 3 CIWS added; SPS-49 search radar replaces SPS-43.
  • October 1988 to March 1989 - Selected Restricted Availability
  • October 1990 to January 1991 - Selected Restricted Availability
  • January 1993 to November 1993 - Selected Restricted Availability
  • October 1995 to January 1997 - Complex Overhaul - aft boarding dock added.
  • February 1999 to June 1999 - Planned Incremental Availability
  • May 2001 to March 2005 - Refueling and Complex Overhaul - bridle catcher removed; top two levels of island replaced; new antenna mast; new radar tower; 2 RAM replace 1 CIWS/1 Mk-29 at forward port sponson/aft starboard sponson; 2 CIWS at island/stern removed.
  • January 2008 to July 2008 - Planned Incremental Availability
  • September 2010 to June 2011 - Planned Incremental Availability
  • September 2013 to May 2015 - Planned Incremental Availability - 2 CIWS added; one on newly installed forward starboard sponson, one on newly installed aft port sponson.
  • August 2017 to November 2018 - Planned Incremental Availability

Eventual replacement

Dwight D. Eisenhower is scheduled to be eventually replaced around 2029 by the new USS Enterprise (CVN-80), a Gerald R. Ford class carrier, that as of fall 2018, is in the steel cutting and fabrication stages of construction.[31]. The exact date of the ship's inactivation and decommissioning will likely depend on many factors, including Defense Department funding considerations.[32]

Awards

Dwight D. Eisenhower has earned a number of awards, including the Battle "E" in 1979, 1980, 1981, 1985, 1990, 1998, 1999, 2006 and 2012 as the most battle efficient carrier in the Atlantic Fleet. In 1999, she won the Marjorie Sterrett Battleship Fund Award for the Atlantic Fleet.

In popular culture

See also

References

  1. ^ a b "USS Dwight D. Eisenhower (CVN 69)". navysite.de. Retrieved 12 January 2015.
  2. ^ Polmar, Norman (2004). The Naval Institute guide to the ships and aircraft of the U.S. fleet. Naval Institute Press. p. 112. ISBN 978-1-59114-685-8.
  3. ^ a b c d e Evans, Mark L. (27 September 2006). "USS Dwight D. Eisenhower (CVN-69)". Dictionary of American Naval Fighting Ships. Washington, DC: Department of the Navy, Navy Historical Center. Retrieved 16 January 2016.
  4. ^ "Useful Links". US Navy. Retrieved 28 September 2018.
  5. ^ "USS Dwight D. Eisenhower History". US Navy. Retrieved 16 January 2016.
  6. ^ Dantone, J. J. (21 March 1989). "USS Dwight D. Eisenhower (CVN-69) Command History – Calendar Year 1988" (pdf). United States Navy. p. 17. Retrieved 16 January 2016.
  7. ^ "U.S.S. Eisenhower departs for Haiti with 10th Mountain soldiers". National Archives. September 14, 1994.
  8. ^ "History of 1st Brigade Combat Team, 10th Mountain Division". U.S Army, Fort Drum. 2010.
  9. ^ a b "Navy moves to put women on submarines". NBC News. Associated Press. 13 October 2009. Retrieved 12 January 2014.
  10. ^ Nicholson, David (29 April 1995). "Contestants Go Overboard for Their Turn at Treasure". Newport News Daily Press. Retrieved 12 January 2015.
  11. ^ Dorsey, Jack (28 September 2006). "Overhauled Eisenhower prepares for deployment after six years off". The Virginian-Pilot. Archived from the original on 5 October 2006. Retrieved 13 October 2006.
  12. ^ Capaccio, Tony (19 December 2006). "Abizaid Wants Additional Navy Carrier in Persian Gulf (Update1)". Bloomberg News. Archived from the original on 29 June 2012. Retrieved 12 January 2015.
  13. ^ DeYoung, Karen (8 January 2007). "U.S. Strike in Somalia Targets Al-Qaeda Figure". Washington Post. Retrieved 12 January 2015.
  14. ^ "Navy tries to block fleeing jihadists from Somalia". Air Force Times. 3 January 2007. Archived from the original on 9 January 2007. Retrieved 4 January 2007.
  15. ^ "Ramage, Bunker Hill keeping an eye on Somalia". MarineTimes.com. 4 January 2007. Archived from the original on 10 July 2007. Retrieved 4 January 2007.
  16. ^ "Ethiopian troops to stay in Somalia weeks". Reuters. 2 January 2007. Archived from the original on 31 March 2007.
  17. ^ "Tensions High in Persian Gulf Over British Captives". ABCNews.com. 29 March 2007. Retrieved 12 January 2015.
  18. ^ Wiltrout, Kate (7 October 2008). "Navy identifies sailor hit by plane, killed on Eisenhower". The Virginian-Pilot. Retrieved 12 January 2015.
  19. ^ Prince, Adam (22 February 2009). "Eisenhower Carrier Strike Group Deploys" (PDF). USS Dwight D. Eisenhower (CVN 69). Retrieved 23 February 2009.
  20. ^ "Dwight D. Eisenhower CSG deploys". Navy Times. Associated Press. 2 January 2010. Retrieved 12 January 2015.
  21. ^ Vaughn, Tyra (3 January 2010). "Eisenhower strike group deploys to Middle East for 6 months". dailypress.com. Retrieved 3 January 2010.
  22. ^ Adda, Karim (8 March 2013). "USS Eisenhower docks in Marseille". Demotix. Archived from the original on 23 September 2015. Retrieved 12 January 2015.
  23. ^ Gorman, Timothy (3 April 2013). "Hamburg First German Ship to Deploy in U.S. Carrier Strike Group". U.S. Navy. Retrieved 12 January 2015.
  24. ^ Fiallos, Luis (8 August 2013). "Ike Begins Ammo Offload". U.S. Navy. Retrieved 12 January 2015.
  25. ^ "CV Locations". www.gonavy.jp. Retrieved 19 February 2018.
  26. ^ Knight, Matt (3 September 2015). "The USS Dwight D. Eisenhower releases time-lapse video of the carrier's return to the sea". NewsChannel3. Retrieved 5 October 2015.
  27. ^ "Dwight D. Eisenhower Carrier Strike Group Enters US 6th Fleet". 8 June 2016. Retrieved 12 June 2016.
  28. ^ "U.S. airstrikes from carrier Eisenhower top 1,000 against ISIS in Iraq and Syria". Militarytimes. 22 November 2016.
  29. ^ "Navy: 8 sailors aboard carrier USS Eisenhower hurt during landing". military.com. 10 February 2018.
  30. ^ "Daily Press: Family, friends greet 'Mighty Ike' sailors after busy deployment. 30 December 2016".
  31. ^ "First cut of steel kicks off construction of the aircraft carrier Enterprise at Newport News Shipbuilding". wktr.com. 21 August 2017. Retrieved 29 September 2018.
  32. ^ O'Rourke, Ronald (26 July 2012). "Navy Ford (CVN-78) Class Aircraft Carrier Program: Background and Issues for Congress" (PDF). Congressional Research Service. Retrieved 12 January 2015.
  33. ^ Feeney, Mark (8 August 2013). "Disney wings it with 'Planes'". The Boston Globe. Retrieved 12 January 2015.
  34. ^ "Popular Mechanics for Kids - Aircraft Carriers". Hulu.com. Archived from the original on 26 July 2014. Retrieved 17 July 2014.
  35. ^ Brown, Don (2009). Defiance. Zondervan. ISBN 1410406644.

References

External links

AN/SPS-43

The AN/SPS-43 was a long-range air-search United States Navy radar system introduced in March 1961 that had a range of 500+ km. This radar could provide bearing and distance information, but no altitude information. The small-ship antenna (Type SPS-29) looked like a bedspring. Larger ships used the 12.8 m wide SPS-37 antenna - about twice as wide and half the height of the SPS-29 antenna - and designed with a much narrower beam. Targets were much more accurately displayed when using the -37 antenna. The -43 operated at VHF frequency - somewhat unusual for any radar - mostly in the bandwidth of television channel 13. The main difference to the SPS-37 was the greatly improved ECCM performance, as the AN/SPS-43 could jump between 20 different frequencies to frustrate jamming attempts. A sea-skimming missile could be detected at a range distance of 30 km, a large high-flying aircraft at 500 km.The SPS-43 also included MTI (Moving Target Indication) which enabled the operator to eliminate all stationary targets from his screen, but this was notoriously unreliable in practice given that it was, along with the rest of the electronics, entirely a vacuum-tube design. Vacuum tubes, operating at temperatures requiring cooling - or least properly ventilated cabinets - suffer varying temperatures in operation, so maintaining the constant output pulse leading edge - phase-coherency - (required for proper delay-line timing) was well-nigh impossible. Some operators took it upon themselves to bore a small hole in the front panel of the MTI timing cabinet through which to insert a screwdriver, enabling adjustment of a critical potentiometer without having to open and close the cabinet. This prevented the resulting heat loss and subsequent heat buildup which threw off all adjustments. Even this enterprising idea was of little help. SPS-43 MTIs went largely unused in regular operation.

Typically, the -43 would detect the range and bearing of a target at long range, the target would then be picked up by a 3-D radar such as the AN/SPS-30 (or later the AN/SPS-48), which, assuming the target to be hostile would present the target information to a fire-control radar like the AN/SPG-55. The -55 was a very directional radar that would lock on to a target, which then would cause a missile to launch and "ride the beam" to the target.

49 SPS-43 radars were produced and mostly installed on aircraft carriers and World War II-cruisers converted to guided missile cruisers. Also a few amphibious command ships received the radar. The last ship to be equipped with SPS-43 was USS Dwight D. Eisenhower (CVN-69).U.S. Navy shipboard radar systems were maintained by the Navy Electronics Technician (Radar), or ETR.

The -43 radar system has been replaced by newer systems, such as the AN/SPS-49.

Carrier Air Wing Seven

Carrier Air Wing Seven (CVW-7) is a United States Navy aircraft carrier air wing based at Naval Air Station Oceana, Virginia. The air wing is attached to the aircraft carrier USS Abraham Lincoln (CVN-72) which is the flagship of Carrier Strike Group Twelve. The Tail Code of aircraft assigned to CVW-7 is AG.

Carrier Air Wing Three

Carrier Air Wing Three (CVW-3), known as the "Battle Axe", is a United States Navy aircraft carrier air wing based at Naval Air Station Oceana, Virginia. The wing was created on 1 July 1938 and has seen service in World War II, Korea, the Cuban Missile Crisis, Vietnam, Lebanon, against Libya, and since September 11, 2001. As of 2012, the air wing is routinely embarked aboard USS Harry S. Truman as part of Carrier Strike Group 10. Captain Sara A. Joyner, USN, became the first woman to lead a U.S. Navy carrier air wing when she took command of Carrier Air Wing Three on 7 January 2013. As of June 2016, it is embarked on USS Dwight D. Eisenhower.

French submarine Casabianca (S603)

Casabianca is a Rubis-class nuclear attack submarine of the French Navy. Laid down in 1981, she was launched in 1984 and commissioned in 1987.

Unlike her five sister ships, Casabianca is not named after a precious stone; she is named after the Redoutable-class submarine Casabianca of the Second World War. This Casabianca escaped Toulon during the scuttling of the fleet there on 27 November 1942, afterwards joining the Allies. The submarine served with distinction in the Mediterranean under Capitaine de frégate Jean L'Herminier, particularly in the liberation of Corsica.

The boat is the third of the Rubis class. Between 1993 and June 1994, the boat undertook a major refitting which upgraded the boat to the level of Améthyste, arming the latter for anti-submarine as well as anti-surface ship warfare. The boat's underwater endurance is 60 days, dictated by food supplies. The boat is designed to operate at seas 220 days per year, and is thus staffed by two crews that relay each other from one patrol or exercise to the next.Among Casabianca's operational highlights are revolved around being the first French submarine to visit the naval base at Severomorsk, home of the Russian Northern Fleet, in 2003; and patrols in the Mediterranean and in the Indian Ocean as part of the fleet surrounding the aircraft carrier Charles de Gaulle, such as in 2007.During the Péan inter-allied maneuvers of 1998, Casabianca managed to "sink" USS Dwight D. Eisenhower and her Ticonderoga-class escort cruiser Anzio during a simulated attack.

German frigate Hamburg

Hamburg is a Sachsen-class frigate of the German Navy.

Gonzo Station

Gonzo Station was a U.S. Navy acronym for "Gulf of Oman Naval Zone of Operations" or "Gulf of Oman Northern Zone." It was used to designate an area of carrier-based naval operations by the U.S. Navy and U.S. Marine Corps in the Indian Ocean during the 1979-1981 Iranian Hostage Crisis and the so-called Tanker War between the United States and the Islamic Republic of Iran.

Multilple aircraft carriers, their associated air wings and carrier battle groups, and associated sea-based and land-based task forces and task groups served on Gonzo Station. The USS Midway (CV-41) initiated the longest at-sea record for any U.S. warship since World War II by being at-sea for 93 consecutive days. It was the first on-scene carrier at the beginning of the Iranian Hostage Crisis, followed shortly thereafter by USS Kitty Hawk (CV-63), with both carriers executing simultaneous air operations and carrier presence in the vicinity of one another off the southern coast of Iran.

USS Nimitz (CV-68), exceeded the USS Midway's record at sea days in May 1980 with 144 days at sea - for which the crew received the Navy Expeditionary Medal. In 1984 the USS Midway was on station for 111 days. Subsequent deployments by other carriers (USS America (CV-66), USS Kitty Hawk (CV-63), et al.) dwindled the earlier records with over 180 days, or 6 months on-station.

Several U.S. Navy carriers from both the Atlantic Fleet and Pacific Fleet served repeated deployments to/on Gonzo Station, including the USS Ranger (CV-61), USS Midway (CV-41), USS Enterprise (CVN-65), USS America (CV-66), USS Independence (CV-62), USS Kitty Hawk (CV-63), USS Constellation (CV-64), USS Coral Sea (CV-43), USS Nimitz (CVN-68) and USS Dwight D. Eisenhower (CVN-69). While replenishment ships normally rotated on and off line in order to resupply, USS Roanoke (AOR-7) served in formation 180 days, and USS Shasta (AE-33) served in formation for 78 days.

In 1980, the USS Dwight D. Eisenhower (CVN-69) served 315 days of deployed sea time with a consecutive 154-day line period (Jul 1980 - Dec 1980). This was the largest American Fleet dispatched to the Indian Ocean since World War II.

HSC-7

HSC-7 Helicopter Sea Combat Squadron Seven, also known as the Dusty Dogs, is a United States Navy helicopter squadron located at Naval Station Norfolk. They are attached to Carrier Air Wing Three and deploy aboard USS Dwight D. Eisenhower.

Newport News Shipbuilding

Newport News Shipbuilding (NNS), a division of Huntington Ingalls Industries, is the largest industrial employer in Virginia, and sole designer, builder and refueler of United States Navy aircraft carriers and one of two providers of U.S. Navy submarines. Founded as the Chesapeake Dry Dock and Construction Co. in 1886, Newport News Shipbuilding has built more than 800 ships, including both naval and commercial ships. Located in the city of Newport News, their facilities span more than 550 acres (2.2 km2), strategically positioned in one of the great harbors of the East Coast.

The shipyard is a major employer, not only for the lower Virginia Peninsula, but also portions of Hampton Roads south of the James River and the harbor, portions of the Middle Peninsula region, and even some northeastern counties of North Carolina.

The shipyard is building the aircraft carriers USS John F. Kennedy (CVN-79) and USS Enterprise (CVN-80).In 2013, Newport News Shipbuilding began the deactivation of the first nuclear-powered aircraft carrier, USS Enterprise (CVN-65), which it also built.

Newport News Shipbuilding also performs refueling and complex overhaul (RCOH) work on Nimitz-class aircraft carriers. This is a four-year vessel renewal program that not only involves refueling of the vessel's nuclear reactors but also includes modernization work. The yard has completed RCOH for four Nimitz-class carriers (USS Nimitz, USS Dwight D. Eisenhower, USS Carl Vinson and USS Theodore Roosevelt). As of May 2016 this work was underway for the fifth Nimitz-class vessel, USS Abraham Lincoln. As of November 2017 this work was underway for the sixth Nimitz-class vessel, USS George Washington.

USS John L. Hall

USS John L. Hall (FFG-32), twenty-sixth ship of the Oliver Hazard Perry class of guided-missile frigates, was named for Admiral John L. Hall, Jr. (1891–1978). Her mission is to provide in-depth protection for military and merchant shipping, amphibious task forces, and underway replenishment groups.

Ordered from Bath Iron Works, Bath, Maine, on 23 January 1978 as part of the FY78 program, John L. Hall was laid down on 5 January 1981, launched on 24 July 1981, and commissioned on 26 June 1982.

On 20 June 1989, only a few days following the change of command from Commander Terry W. Moore to Commander Bruce P. McClure, John L. Hall got underway with USS Spruance for a transit of the Atlantic Ocean to participate in Anti-Submarine Warfare Operations (Operation ROJO) in the north and east Atlantic Ocean. Operation ROJO lasted 41 days. While underway, the ships were under the command of Destroyer Squadron 32. The operation was a great success as both ships held contact on two Soviet submarines for an extended period of time.

On 8 March 1990, John L. Hall deployed to the Mediterranean Sea. Noteworthy operations included Operation Fox Chase and Operation World Cup in which the ship successfully tracked a Soviet Victor I-class submarine for extended periods of time on both occasions. On 07 August 1990, during deployment Med 2-90 and serving with the Eisenhower Battle Group as part of the United States Sixth Fleet, USS John L. Hall, under the command of Commander Bruce P. McClure, sortied from Haifa Bay for Port Said. With Iraq's invasion of Kuwait, John L. Hall was called to transit the Suez Canal along with USS Ticonderoga, USS Scott, USNS Neosho, USS Suribachi and USS Dwight D. Eisenhower in support of Operation Desert Shield. John L. Hall's participation included "gate guard" duties to support the United Nation's sanctions against Iraq and anti-air coverage for U.S. Navy assets. The ship also escorted USNS Neosho through the Straits of Bab-el-Mandeb to Djibouti for her shore bunkering before returning through the Strait to refuel the Eisenhower Battle Group in the Red Sea. During the deployment, USS John L. Hall held over 200 hours of contact time with submerged submarines using the SQR 19 towed array sonar, and over 800 hours of flight time with the LAMPS MK III SH-60B helicopter detachment from HSL-46.

On 28 August 2005, under the command of Commander David Geisler, she sailed from her home port, NS Pascagoula, Mississippi, along with sister ship Stephen W. Groves under threat from Hurricane Katrina.

In 2007, she remained active, commanded by Commander Augustus P. Bennet, assigned to Destroyer Squadron 14, and homeported at Naval Station Mayport, Florida. In August 2008, while underway to avoid Tropical Storm Fay, the scheduled change of command occurred with Commander Derek Lavan assuming command of the vessel.

21 April 2010, seen docked in Sevastopol (UA).On 22 June 2010, then CO Commander Herman Pfaeffle was relieved of command after striking a pier on 16 April 2010 in Batumi in the republic of GeorgiaOn 9 March 2012, the John L. Hall was decommissioned at Naval Station Mayport.

In November 2012 she was still at the Philadelphia Navy Yard.

VAK-208

VAK-208 was a U.S. Navy Tactical Aerial Refueling Squadron. The squadron was established on 30 July 1970 as a Tactical Electronic Warfare Squadron 208 (VAQ-208), redesignated as VAK-208 on 1 October 1979 and disestablished on 30 September 1989.

VAW-121

Carrier Airborne Early Warning Squadron 121 (VAW-121), also known as the "Bluetails", is an Airborne Early Warning (AEW) and Command and control (C2) squadron operating the E-2D Hawkeye based at NAS Norfolk. Currently a part of Carrier Air Wing 7, they deploy aboard USS Abraham Lincoln.

VAW-123

Carrier Airborne Early Warning Squadron 123 (VAW-123) is based at Naval Station Norfolk, flying the E-2C Hawkeye. They are attached to Carrier Air Wing Three (CVW-3) while deployed aboard USS Dwight D. Eisenhower. The squadron nickname is the Screwtops.

VAW-125

Carrier Airborne Early Warning Squadron 125 (VAW-125), known as the "Torch Bearers" or "Tigertails", was established on 1 October 1968, at Naval Air Station Norfolk. The squadron's initial supporting command was Carrier Air Wing Three (CVW-3) deploying aboard USS Saratoga.The squadron is equipped with the E-2 Hawkeye. It was the first east coast squadron with E-2B's in 1968, among the first to operate the E-2C in 1975, receiving the E-2C 2000 in its first operational year in 2003, and the first unit to operate the E-2D Advanced Hawkeye in 2014.

VFA-103

Strike Fighter Squadron 103 (VFA-103), nicknamed the Jolly Rogers is an aviation unit of the United States Navy established in 1952. VFA-103 flies the F/A-18F Super Hornet and is based at Naval Air Station Oceana, Virginia (US). The squadron's radio callsign is Victory and it is assigned to Carrier Air Wing Seven.

VFA-131

Strike Fighter Squadron 131 (VFA-131), also known as the "Wildcats", is a United States Navy F/A-18E Super Hornet fighter squadron stationed at Naval Air Station Oceana. Their radio call sign alternates between "Wildcat" and "Cougar" and their aircraft tail code is AC.

VFA-136

Strike Fighter Squadron 136 (VFA-136) also known as the "Knighthawks" is a United States Navy strike fighter squadron based at Naval Air Station Lemoore, California. The "Knighthawks" are an operational fleet squadron flying the F/A-18E Super Hornet. They are attached to Carrier Air Wing One (CVW-1) and homeported at NAS Lemoore. Their tailcode AB and their radio callsign is Gunstar.

VFA-143

Strike Fighter Squadron 143 (VFA-143), also known as the "Pukin Dogs," is a United States Navy strike fighter squadron based at Naval Air Station Oceana, Virginia. The Pukin Dogs are an operational fleet squadron and flying the F/A-18E Super Hornet. They are currently attached to Carrier Air Wing Seven and USS Harry S. Truman. They are currently at their homeport of NAS Oceana. Their radio callsign is Taproom.

VFA-204

Strike Fighter Squadron 204 (VFA-204), also known as the "River Rattlers", is a U.S. Navy Reserve strike fighter squadron flying the F/A-18A+ Hornet. The squadron is based out of Naval Air Station Joint Reserve Base New Orleans and is part of the United States Navy Reserve's Tactical Support Wing. Their radio callsign is River and their tail code is AF.

VFA-83

Strike Fighter Squadron 83 (VFA-83), also known as the "Rampagers", are a United States Navy F/A-18E Super Hornet fighter squadron stationed at Naval Air Station Oceana. They are a part of Carrier Air Wing 3, their tailcode is AC and their radio callsign is Ram.

Nimitz subclass
Theodore Roosevelt subclass
Ronald Reagan subclass

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