USS Arleigh Burke (DDG-51), named for Admiral Arleigh A. Burke, USN (1901–1996), is the lead ship of the Arleigh Burke-class guided missile destroyers. She was laid down by the Bath Iron Works company at Bath, Maine, on 6 December 1988, and launched on 16 September 1989 by Mrs. Roberta (Gorsuch) Burke. The Admiral was present in person at her commissioning ceremony on 4 July 1991, which was held on the waterfront in downtown Norfolk, Virginia.
Arleigh Burke's designers incorporated many lessons learned by the Royal Navy during the Falklands campaign and from the Ticonderoga-class guided-missile cruisers. The Ticonderoga-class cruisers were becoming too expensive to continue building, and were too difficult to upgrade. Arleigh Burke's design includes what is now better known as stealth technology, which improves the ship's ability to evade anti-ship missiles. She also uses a slightly downgraded version of the Aegis combat system, which allows for launching, tracking, and evading missiles simultaneously. Her all-steel construction provides good protection for her superstructure, while her Collective Protection System allows her to operate in environments contaminated by chemical, biological, or radiological materials.
|USS Arleigh Burke (DDG-51)|
USS Arleigh Burke (DDG-51) underway in the Mediterranean Sea in March 2003
|Namesake:||Arleigh Albert Burke|
|Ordered:||2 April 1985|
|Builder:||Bath Iron Works|
|Laid down:||6 December 1988|
|Launched:||16 September 1989|
|Commissioned:||4 July 1991|
|Homeport:||NAVSTA Norfolk, Virginia, U.S.|
|Motto:||Fast and Feared|
|Status:||in active service|
|Class and type:||Arleigh Burke-class destroyer|
|Length:||505 ft (154 m)|
|Beam:||66 ft (20 m)|
|Draft:||31 ft (9.4 m)|
|Propulsion:||4 General Electric LM2500-30 gas turbines, two shafts, 100,000 total shaft horsepower (75 MW)|
|Speed:||>30 knots (56 km/h; 35 mph)|
|Sensors and |
|Electronic warfare |
|Aircraft carried:||2 Sikorsky MH-60R helicopters can be embarked|
Even before Arleigh Burke was commissioned, the Commander, Operational Test and Evaluation Force, was involved in the initial phases of testing. New systems, operated by fleet sailors ashore, were examined at land-based test facilities. The combat systems testing took place at the Combat System Engineering Development Site in Moorestown, New Jersey. The propulsion plant testing occurred at the Gas Turbine Ship Land-Based Engineering Site in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. These test results supported the acquisition decision to begin limited production of the ship class.
After being commissioned, and throughout 1992, Arleigh Burke conducted extensive testing at sea. As is often the case with new ship classes, U.S. Navy officers and shipyard engineers encountered a number of problems with some shipboard systems that required the attention of this warship's design and production agencies. An additional phase of testing was added to verify the effectiveness of the modifications made to these systems – modifications incorporated into later destroyers of the Arleigh Burke class.
Following her initial operational testing, Arleigh Burke was deployed to the Mediterranean Sea and the Adriatic Sea in 1993, serving as the "Green Crown" during Operation Provide Promise. During her second deployment in 1995, Arleigh Burke steamed in the Mediterranean Sea as the "Red Crown" in support of the No-Fly Zone over Bosnia and Herzegovina. During her third cruise, in 1998, she steamed in the Mediterranean Sea, Adriatic Sea, Red Sea, and Black Sea, as a participant in numerous American and Allied exercises. During her fourth cruise in 2000–2001, Arleigh Burke saw service in the Mediterranean and Red Seas and in the Persian Gulf, enforcing United Nations sanctions against Iraq and conducting exercises with allied naval partners.
On her fifth deployment in 2003, Arleigh Burke and the other units of the USS Theodore Roosevelt-led carrier battle group participated in Operation Enduring Freedom and Operation Iraqi Freedom. During this wartime cruise, Arleigh Burke fired Tomahawk missile strikes against targets in Iraq, escorted merchant ships and naval auxiliaries through geographic choke-points, and carried out "leadership interdiction" operations in the northern Arabian Sea. She also undertook counter-piracy missions in the Gulf of Aden. This cruise, which lasted from January through June 2003, saw Arleigh Burke at sea over 92 percent of the time.
In March 2003 she was assigned to Destroyer Squadron 2.
Arleigh Burke has earned one Navy Unit Commendation, three Meritorious Unit Commendations, three Battle Efficiency E Awards, the National Defense Service Medal, the Armed Forces Expeditionary Medal, the Kuwait Liberation Medal, and five Sea Service Deployment Ribbons.
In May 2007, Arleigh Burke ran what the Navy called a "soft aground" off Cape Henry Light at the entrance to the Chesapeake Bay. Her captain, Commander Esther J. McClure, was relieved of her command shortly thereafter as a result of "loss of confidence in her ability to command".
In 2009, Arleigh Burke was deployed to the eastern coast of Africa in support of AFRICOM's Africa Partnership Station. The ship represented the United States during a port visit on the island nation of Seychelles where they played a role in securing a status of forces agreement between the two countries.
In August 2010, Arleigh Burke entered the BAE Systems Ship Repair shipyard in Norfolk, Virginia for DDG Modernization, a program to upgrade the ship's systems and to extend the service life to 40 years.
The Shield outlined in blue and gold stands for the achievements in battle of Admiral Burke against the naval power of Japan. The fist and mace symbolize the offensive and defensive power of the new destroyer. The mace, also a symbol of authority, represents Admiral Burke's service as Chief of Naval Operations. It also refers to Admiral Marc Mitscher, an influential figure and mentor for whom Admiral Burke served as Chief of Staff. Admiral Burke's Destroyer Squadron 23, represented by the border of 23 ovals, was the only United States Destroyer Squadron awarded a Presidential Unit Citation, signified by the canton of blue, yellow, and red. The ovals also refer to the year 1923 in which Midshipman Burke graduated from the United States Naval Academy at Annapolis. Twenty-three also reflects Admiral Burke's distinguished service on the staff of the Chief of Naval Operations as (OP-23).
The mounted figure of Saint George recalls Admiral Burke's celebrated victory in the Battle of Cape St. George over Japanese naval forces. His mantle bears a gold cross for the Navy Cross awarded to the Admiral. The birch branch on the helmet represents Admiral Burke himself, a reference to his name derived from his Scandinavian heritage.
The red sea dragon symbolizes Japanese naval power assaulted by forces under Captain Burke's command. It is gorged with the two gold stars he was awarded for outstanding service. The lance impaling the dragon signifies ordnance on target. The capabilities of the new destroyer, the most powerful and survivable ever built, are signified by the full armor and equipment of the warrior Saint George. The Admiral's nickname "31-Knot Burke" is recalled by the number "31" on the horse.
The motto of the ship is "Fast and Feared". The ship's crest was designed by Mr. John Sproston of the Institute of Heraldry following a personal interview with Admiral Burke. The crest can also be found on a USPS postage stamp honoring Admiral Burke that was issued in 2010.
Africa Partnership Station (or APS) is an international initiative developed by United States Naval Forces Europe-Africa, which works cooperatively with U.S. and international partners to improve maritime safety and security in Africa as part of US Africa Command's Security Cooperation program.
Africa Partnership Station, or APS, is a strategic program designed to build the skills, expertise and professionalism of African militaries, coast guards and mariners. APS is not limited to one ship or platform nor is it delivered only at certain times. The program is delivered in many forms including ship visits, aircraft visits, training teams, and Seabee construction projects throughout most of the year. APS is part of a long-term commitment on the part of all participating nations and organizations from Africa, the United States, Europe, and South America.
APS activities consist of joint exercises, port visits, hands-on practical courses, professional training and community outreach with the coastal nations of Africa. The focus is on building maritime capacity of the nations and increasing the level of cooperation between them to improve maritime safety and security. The goal is to improve the ability of the nations involved to extend the rule of law within their territorial waters and exclusive economic zones and better combat illegal fishing, human smuggling, drug trafficking, oil theft and piracy. APS also works to increase maritime safety by teaching skills that enhance a nation's ability to respond to mariners in distress.
The first APS deployment was from November 2007 to April 2008. Countries visited included Senegal, Togo, Ghana, São Tomé and Príncipe, Cameroon, Liberia, Gabon, and Equatorial Guinea and included USS Fort McHenry (LSD-43) and HSV Swift, with an international staff embarked in Fort McHenry. The time in between major deployments was covered by mobile training team visits, maritime patrol aircraft exercises and port visits by individual naval vessels.
During the summer and fall of 2008 two ships began what was at the time called a LEDET, or Law Enforcement Detachment. These ships were US Coast Guard Cutter Dallas (USCGC Dallas (WHEC-716)) and USS Leyte Gulf (CG-55). These missions were designed to bring African law enforcement officials onboard US ships, in concert with Coast Guard personnel, in order to conduct the first real-time operations, building upon the many skills and capabilities acquired on previous training visits.
USS Nashville (LPD-13) was the second large amphibious ship to deploy to Africa under Africa Partnership Station; it deployed from February 2009 to May 2009. The Nashville was the largest ship to perform the APS mission in 2009. APS Nashville visited Senegal, Ghana, Gabon, Cameroon, and Nigeria, spending one to two weeks in each port. APS Nashville's embarked staff had a larger international flavor with military members from Nigeria, Cameroon, Senegal, Ghana, Gabon, Italy, Portugal, Cape Verde, Sierra Leone, Togo, Equatorial Guinea, Kenya, UK, France, Germany, Spain, Denmark, Malta and Brazil.
In February 2009 APS expanded to South and East Africa when the USS Robert G. Bradley (FFG-49) visited Mozambique, Tanzania and Kenya.
Over the summer of 2009 (after USS Nashville completed her APS mission) other ships continued the initiative. USS Arleigh Burke (DDG-51) visited East Africa, bringing APS once again to the East coast of Africa and expanding the range of cooperative training. At the same time HSV Swift and the US Coast Guard Cutter Legare (USCGC Legare) continued the APS mission in West and Central Africa. While APS Swift conducted a series of training, humanitarian and outreach missions in the west, Legare led and participated in the first African Maritime Law Enforcement Partnership or AMLEP (the name used to replace the LEDETs mentioned above). While on the mission with members of the Sierra Leone Maritime Wing APS Legare made a significant impact when the joint mission boarded a Taiwanese vessel illegally fishing with thousands of dollars of fish. More recently (April 2015),
the USNS Spearhead and its embarked detachment of U.S. Navy Sailors, civil service mariners and U.S., Spanish and British Marines conducted a portion of Spearhead’s support to Africa Partnership Station while in Port Gentil, Gabon.
In the Fall of 2009 the first APS mission led by a non-US country commenced when the Dutch Rotterdam class amphibious transport dock Johan De Witt conducted the mission with US, Portuguese and Belgian Sailors and Marines embarked as training teams, and with Seabees and other subject matter experts. The ship conducted port visits to Senegal, Liberia, Sierra Leone and Ghana.
In winter and spring of 2010 APS again made banner deployments. This time USS Gunston Hall (LSD-44) visited West and Central Africa and a 2-ship flotilla will visit East Africa at virtually the same time. The East Africa mission will include USS Nicholas (FFG-47) and HSV Swift.Arleigh
Arleigh may refer to:
Arleigh Burke (1901–1996), admiral of the United States Navy
Arleigh Burke class destroyer
USS Arleigh Burke (DDG-51)
Arleigh McCree (1939–1986), Officer in Charge of the Firearms and Explosives Unit of the Los Angeles Police Department
Arleigh Winston Scott GCMG, GCVO 1900–1976 Governor-General of Barbados, (1967–1976)Arleigh Burke
Arleigh Albert Burke (October 19, 1901 – January 1, 1996) was an admiral of the United States Navy who distinguished himself during World War II and the Korean War, and who served as Chief of Naval Operations during the Eisenhower and Kennedy administrations.
USS Arleigh Burke (DDG-51), the lead ship of its class of Aegis-equipped guided missile destroyers, was commissioned in Burke's honor in 1991, during his lifetime.Arleigh Burke-class destroyer
The Arleigh Burke class of guided missile destroyers (DDGs) is a United States Navy class of destroyer built around the Aegis Combat System and the SPY-1D multifunction passive electronically scanned array radar. The class is named for Admiral Arleigh Burke, an American destroyer officer in World War II, and later Chief of Naval Operations. The class leader, USS Arleigh Burke, was commissioned during Admiral Burke's lifetime.
These warships were designed as multimission destroyers, able to fulfill the strategic land strike role with Tomahawk missiles; antiaircraft warfare (AAW) role with powerful Aegis radar and surface-to-air missiles; antisubmarine warfare (ASW) with towed sonar array, anti-submarine rockets, and ASW helicopter; and antisurface warfare (ASuW) with Harpoon missile launcher. With upgrades to their AN/SPY-1 phased radar systems and their associated missile payloads as part of the Aegis Ballistic Missile Defense System, the ships of this class have also begun to demonstrate some promise as mobile antiballistic missile and anti-satellite weaponry platforms. Some versions of the class no longer have the towed sonar, or Harpoon missile launcher. Their hull and superstructure were designed to have a reduced radar cross-section.The first ship of the class was commissioned on 4 July 1991. With the decommissioning of the last Spruance-class destroyer, USS Cushing, on 21 September 2005, the Arleigh Burke-class ships became the U.S. Navy's only active destroyers, until the Zumwalt class became active in 2016. The Arleigh Burke class has the longest production run for any post-World War II U.S. Navy surface combatant. Besides the 62 vessels of this class (comprising 21 of Flight I, 7 of Flight II and 34 of Flight IIA) in service by 2016, up to a further 42 (of Flight III) have been envisioned.
With an overall length of 505 to 509 feet (154 to 155 m), displacement ranging from 8,315 to 9,200 tons, and weaponry including over 90 missiles, the Arleigh Burke class are larger and more heavily armed than most previous ships classified as guided missile cruisers.Henry L. Garrett III
Henry Lawrence Garrett III (born June 24, 1939) served as the 68th Secretary of the Navy from May 15, 1989, to June 26, 1992, in the administration of George H. W. Bush. Before leading the Department of the Navy, he served as General Counsel of the Department of Defense.John Morgan (admiral)
John Gabe Morgan, Jr. is a retired Vice Admiral in the United States Navy.Military of Mauritius
Mauritius does not have a standing army. All military, police, and security functions are carried out by 10,000 active-duty personnel under the command of the Commissioner of Police. The 8,000-member National Police Force is responsible for domestic law enforcement. The 1,500-member Special Mobile Force (SMF) and the 500-member National Coast Guard are the only two paramilitary units in Mauritius. Both units are composed of police officers on lengthy rotations to those services.Nevin Carr
Rear Admiral Nevin Palmer Carr, Jr. is a retired U.S. Navy admiral who served as Chief of Naval Research.Ship identifier
A ship identifier refers to one of several types of identifiers used for maritime vessels. An identifier may be a proper noun (La Niña); a proper noun combined with a standardized prefix based on the type of ship (eg. RMS Titanic); a serial code; a unique, alphanumeric ID (eg. A123B456C7); or an alphanumeric ID displayed in international signal flags (eg. , representing U6CH). Some identifiers are permanent for a ship while others may be changed at the owners' discretion although regulatory agencies will need to approve the change. Modern ships will usually have several identifiers.
In addition to proper nouns, types of ship identifiers include:
Code letters – an identifier for a ship that is displayed on vessels by ICS flags representing the letters of the alphabet and numbers 0–9, eg. the flags (from top to bottom) represented the identifier "USMW"
Hull number or Hull Identification Number (HIN) – a number used as an identifier for civilian and naval vessels, national/regional subtypes include:
Craft Identification Number – a permanent unique fourteen-digit alphanumeric identifier issued to all marine vessels in Europe
ENI number (European Number of Identification or European Vessel Identification Number) – a unique, eight-digit identifier for ships capable of navigating on inland European waters that is attached to a hull for its entire lifetime, independent of the vessel's current name or flag
Naval Registry Identification Number – United States until 1920s, replaced by hull classification symbol system
IMO number – a unique identifier issued by the International Maritime Organization (IMO) for ships
Maritime call sign – an identifier used during radio transmissions, used mainly during verbal transmissions and sometimes incorporating a vessel's MMSI
Maritime Mobile Service Identity (MMSI) – a unique, nine-digit identifier used over radio frequencies to identify a vessel, used mainly for automated, non-verbal transmissions
Official number – a ship identifier number assigned to merchant ships by their country of registration, this system has been superseded by the IMO number system
Ship name – a proper noun chosen at the shipowner's discretion; may change several times during the vessel's lifetime
Ship class – a common name for a group of ships with similar design, usually named for the first vessel of the class, e.g. "Nimitz-class aircraft carrier"
Ship prefix – a combination of letters, usually abbreviations, used in front of the name or hull number of a civilian or naval ship, e.g. "HMS", "MV", "RV", "SS", or "USS"; naval prefix systems include:
Hull classification symbol (List of U.S. hull classifications) – United States since 1920s, replaced the Naval Registry Identification Number system
Hull classification symbol (Canada)
Pennant number – United Kingdom and Commonwealth countriesTripod mast
The tripod mast is a type of mast used on warships from the Edwardian era onwards, replacing the pole and lattice mast. Tripod masts are notable for using three large (usually cylindrical) support columns spread out at angles to brace each other.USS Carl M. Levin
USS Carl M. Levin (DDG-120) will be a United States Navy Arleigh Burke-class Flight IIA guided missile destroyer, the 70th overall for the class. The ship will be named for Carl Levin, a former United States Senator and Chairman of the United States Senate Committee on Armed Services.The contract for the ship, along with the name, was first announced in a press release from General Dynamics, parent company of Bath Iron Works, on 31 March 2016. The official designation of DDG 120 as the Carl M. Levin by Secretary of the Navy Ray Mabus was announced on 11 April 2016.USS Cayuga
Three ships in the United States Navy have been named USS Cayuga for one of the six Iroquois tribes.
USS Cayuga (1861) was a screw steamer launched in 1861 and served during the American Civil War.
The tug USS Powhatan, acquired by the Navy in 1898, was renamed USS Cayuga in 1917 and served under that name until sold in 1928. As Cayuga, she was later assigned hull number YT-12.
USS Cayuga (LST-1186) was an amphibious ship launched in 1969 and decommissioned in 1994.USS John Basilone
USS John Basilone (DDG-122) is a planned United States Navy Arleigh Burke-class Flight IIA guided missile destroyer, the 72nd overall for the class. The ship will be named for United States Marine Corps Gunnery sergeant John Basilone, who received the nation's highest military award for valor, the Medal of Honor, for heroism during the Guadalcanal Campaign in World War II. Basilone was the only enlisted Marine to receive both the Medal of Honor and the Navy Cross in World War II.This is the second United States Navy vessel to be named after Basilone. The first, USS Basilone (DD-824), was a Gearing-class destroyer commissioned in 1949 and decommissioned in 1977.USS John Finn
USS John Finn (DDG-113) is an Arleigh Burke-class destroyer. The contract to build her was awarded to Ingalls Shipbuilding of Pascagoula, Mississippi, on 15 June 2011.
Ingalls has been a subsidiary of Huntington Ingalls Industries since its acquisition in April 2001.
Prior to the award, Ingalls had constructed 28 Arleigh Burke-class destroyers, the last one of which was USS William P. Lawrence. On 15 February 2011, Secretary of the Navy Ray Mabus announced the ship's name to be John Finn after John William Finn; the names of four other ships were also disclosed.USS Lenah H. Sutcliffe Higbee
USS Lenah H. Sutcliffe Higbee (DDG-123) is a planned United States Navy Arleigh Burke-class Flight IIA guided missile destroyer, the 73rd overall for the class. She will be named for Chief Nurse Lenah H. Sutcliffe Higbee (1874–1941), a pioneering Navy nurse who served as Superintendent of the U.S. Navy Nurse Corps during World War I.Ingalls Shipbuilding was awarded the contract for Lenah H. Sutcliffe Higbee in June 2013, and began fabrication of the vessel in January 2017. The ship's keel was laid in a ceremony at the Ingalls shipyards on 14 November 2017.USS Rafael Peralta
USS Rafael Peralta (DDG-115) is the 65th ship of its class and an Arleigh Burke-class destroyer. The destroyer can operate with a Carrier Strike Group (CSG), Expeditionary Strike Group (ESG), as an element of a Surface Action Group (SAG), or independently. The ship can conduct a variety of missions in support of national military strategy. From peacetime presence and crisis management to sea control and power projection, 115 will be capable of carrying out Integrated Air and Missile Defense (IAMD), Undersea Warfare (USW), Surface Warfare (SW), and Strike Warfare STW in multi-threat environments.The $679.6 million contract to build her was awarded on 26 September 2011 to Bath Iron Works of Bath, Maine. On 15 February 2012, Secretary of the Navy Ray Mabus announced the ship's named to be Rafael Peralta in honor of Marine Rafael Peralta, who was petitioned for the Medal of Honor for shielding several Marines from a grenade in November 2004 during the Iraq War; however, he was posthumously awarded the Navy Cross instead, after doubts regarding the exact sequence of events prior to his death were raised.USS Ralph Johnson
Ralph Johnson (DDG-114) is an Arleigh Burke-class destroyer. The contract to build her was awarded on 26 September 2011 to Ingalls Shipbuilding of Pascagoula, Mississippi. On 15 February 2012, Secretary of the Navy Ray Mabus announced the ship's named to be Ralph Johnson in honor of Marine Ralph H. Johnson, who was posthumously awarded the Medal of Honor for shielding two fellow Marines from a grenade in March 1968 during the Vietnam War. The contract was worth $697.6 million fixed price, and was also the 30th Arleigh Burke-class destroyer contract issued to Ingalls Shipbuilding.Ralph Johnson will be the 64th ship of the Arleigh Burke class of destroyers, the first of which, USS Arleigh Burke (DDG-51), was commissioned in July 1991. With 75 ships planned to be built in total, the class has the longest production run for any U.S. Navy surface combatant. As an Arleigh Burke-class ship, Ralph Johnson's roles included anti-aircraft, anti-submarine, and anti-surface warfare, as well as strike operations. During it long production run, the class was built in three flights—Flight I (DDG-51–DDG-71), Flight II (DDG-72–DDG-78), and Flight IIA (DDG-79– ). Ralph Johnson will be a Flight IIA ship, and as such, will feature several improvements in terms of ballistic missile defence, an embarked air wing, and the inclusion of mine-detecting ability.In 2008, the U.S. Navy decided to restart production of the Arleigh Burke class as orders for the Zumwalt-class destroyer was reduced from ten to three. The first three ships (DDG-113—DDG-115) ordered following the product decision are known as the "restart" ships, while "technology insertion" ships (DDG-116—DDG-123) are expected to incorporate certain elements of Arleigh Burke class Flight III, which in turn will run from DDG-124 onwards. As a "restart" ship, Ralph Johnson will primarily feature upgraded electronics; she was originally scheduled to be delivered in August 2016, but construction was delayed and delivery is scheduled for late 2017 after her sea trials are completed in the middle of the year.The warship arrived at the Port of Charleston's Columbus Street Terminal on March 19, 2018 and was commissioned on March 24, 2018.USS Thomas Hudner
USS Thomas Hudner (DDG-116) is an Arleigh Burke-class destroyer. The $663 million contract to build her was awarded on 28 February 2012 to Bath Iron Works of Bath, Maine. On 7 May 2012, Secretary of the Navy Ray Mabus announced the ship name would be Thomas Hudner in honor of U.S. naval aviator Thomas Hudner, who was awarded the Medal of Honor for his actions in trying to save the life of his wingman, Ensign Jesse L. Brown, during the Battle of Chosin Reservoir in the Korean War.William R. Hawkins
William R. Hawkins is a conservative American author and scholar whose principal field of study is the interplay between economic policy and national security. He serves on the board of the Asia America Initiative, a non-profit organization dedicated to promoting democratic ideals, strengthening international security, and mediating in conflict-plagued areas throughout the Asia-Pacific region. In 1990 he won the Republican nomination for the United States Senate race in Tennessee, but lost in the general election to the Democratic incumbent Senator Al Gore, Jr. He is the author, with Erin Anderson, of The Open Borders Lobby and the Nation’s Security After 9/11, a book published by the Center for the Study of Popular Culture in 2004.He graduated from the University of Illinois at Urbana–Champaign in 1972 with a degree in political science and history, and received an M.A. in economics from the University of Tennessee in 1980. He served as president of the Hamilton Center for National Strategy from 1989 to 1994, and wrote a syndicated column for the Knight Ridder/Tribune Newswire from 1991 to 1995. He served as a senior adviser on economic policy and national security from 1995 to 1999 to Representative Duncan Hunter, chairman of the National Security Subcommittee on Military Procurement, U.S. House of Representatives. Between 1997 and 2000 he hosted "In the National Interest", a one-hour radio program which was broadcast by the Information and Entertainment America Network in more than 60 radio markets across the United States. Between 1999 and 2008 he was senior fellow at the U.S. Business and Industry Council Educational Foundation.He was a prominent critic of the so-called FSX deal in which the U.S. government agreed in 1987 to provide the Japanese aerospace industry with important American military technology to build a new generation of fighter planes for the Japanese defense establishment. He argued that Japan should instead buy American-made planes.
In the mid-1990s he opposed the Clinton administration's cuts in the U.S. defense budget.Hawkins has called the Sovremenny class destroyer ships "cruisers" and complained that the United States has built no "cruisers" since 1994, even though the USS Arleigh Burke (DDG-51) class destroyers are much larger and more capable than the Sovremenny and continue to be produced.
|Flight I ships|
|Flight II ships|
|Flight IIA ships|
|Flight III ships|