USS Arkansas (BM-7)

The second USS Arkansas, was a single-turreted "New Navy" monitor and one of the last monitors built for the United States Navy. Arkansas was ordered on 4 May 1898 and awarded to Newport News Shipbuilding & Dry Dock Company on 11 October 1899.[1] She was laid down just over a month later on 14 November 1899. Arkansas was launched almost a year later on 10 November 1900, sponsored by Mary L. Macon;[2] but not commissioned for another two years, on 28 October 1902,[3] with Commander Charles E. Vreeland in command.[2]

This last class of monitors had been designed and built because of public demand for coastal defense before the Spanish–American War. By the time they were built and commissioned their purpose had passed. They didn't fit into the Navy's new purpose and so they bounced around from different assignments to another. Arkansas and her sisters were refitted as submarine tenders in 1913 because of their low freeboards.[4]

Uss Arkansas BM7
USS Arkansas (M-7), fitting out at Newport News Shipbuilding & Drydock Co., 1 July 1902. Her armament is completely installed and the ship is only four months away from commissioning. The ship in the background is the battleship Missouri.
History
United States
Name:
  • Arkansas (1899–1909)
  • Ozark (1909–1922)
Namesake:
Ordered: 4 May 1898
Awarded: 11 October 1899
Builder: Newport News Shipbuilding, Newport News, Virginia
Cost: $1,110,025 (hull and machinery)
Laid down: 14 November 1899
Launched: 10 November 1900
Sponsored by: Mary L. Macon
Acquired: 8 September 1902
Commissioned: 28 October 1902
Decommissioned: 20 August 1919
Renamed: Ozark, 2 March 1909
Identification:
Honors and
awards:
Mexican Service Medal
Fate: sold, 26 January 1922
General characteristics
Type: Arkansas-class monitor
Displacement:
  • 3,225 long tons (3,277 t) (standard)
  • 3,356 long tons (3,410 t) (full load)
Length:
Beam: 50 ft (15 m)
Draft: 12 ft 6 in (3.81 m) (mean)
Installed power:
Propulsion:
Speed:
  • 12.5 knots (23.2 km/h; 14.4 mph) (design)
  • 12.03 kn (22.28 km/h; 13.84 mph) (on trial)
Complement: 13 officers 209 men
Armament:
Armor:

Design

The Arkansas-class monitors had been designed to combine a heavy striking power with easy concealment and negligible target area. They had a displacement of 3,225 long tons (3,277 t; 3,612 short tons), measured 255 feetinch (77.75 m) in overall length, with a beam of 50 feet 1 inch (15.27 m) and a draft of 12 feet 6 inches (3.81 m). She was manned by a total crew of 13 officers and 209 men.[5]

Arkansas was powered by two vertical triple expansion engines driving two screw propellers with steam generated by four Thornycroft boilers.CITEREFShips'_Data1914 The engines in Arkansas were designed to produce 2,400 indicated horsepower (1,800 kW) with a top speed of 12.5 knots (23.2 km/h; 14.4 mph), however, on sea trials she was only able to produce 1,739 ihp (1,297 kW) with a top speed of 12.03 kn (22.28 km/h; 13.84 mph).CITEREFShips'_Data1914 Arkansas was designed to provide a range of 2,360 nautical miles (4,370 km; 2,720 mi) at 10 kn (19 km/h; 12 mph).[5]

The ship was armed with a main battery of two 12-inch (305 mm)/40 caliber guns, either Mark 3 or Mark 4, in a Mark 4 turret.[6][7][5] The secondary battery consisted of four 4-inch (100 mm)/50 caliber Mark 7 guns[8] along with three 6-pounder 57 mm (2.2 in) guns. The main belt armor was 11 in (280 mm) in the middle tapering to 5 in (130 mm) at the ends. The gun turrets were between 10 and 9 in (250 and 230 mm), with 11 to 9 in (280 to 230 mm) barbettes. Arkansas also had a 1.5 in (38 mm) deck.[5]

Service history

After shakedown, Arkansas' first duty was with the US Naval Academy in 1902 as an instruction and cruise ship for midshipmen. She was then assigned to the Coast Squadron, North Atlantic Fleet, and cruised off the east coast, in the Gulf of Mexico, and in the West Indies from 1903 to 1906. In 1906 she was once again assigned to the Naval Academy for instructional purposes until 1909.[2]

Ozark (M-7) in October, 1915, Pensacola, Florida.jpeg
Ozark (M-7) in October 1915, Pensacola, Florida.

Renamed Ozark, 2 March 1909, so her name could be used for the new USS Arkansas. She was assigned to the District of Columbia Naval Militia from 26 June 1910 to 6 March 1913, when she was recalled to the Norfolk Naval Yard to begin refitting, later that month, as a submarine tender. Ozark began her new duties as a tender on 12 July. In April 1914, Ozark participated in the United States occupation of Mexico, during the "Tampico Affair", which later made her sailors eligible for the Mexican Service Medal. On 13 October 1915, she arrived in New London, Connecticut, where the Navy established their first submarine base.[2]

World War I

Ozark was ordered to SubDiv 6, Atlantic Fleet, 6 April 1917 and soon proceeded back to Tampico, Mexico where she cruised off the coast protecting American and Allied shipping interests. She sailed for New Orleans, 18 December 1918, after which she cruised off Key West, Central America and the Panama Canal Zone.[2]

Post War

She returned to Hampton Roads 23 June 1919 and then on to Philadelphia, on 20 August, where she was decommissioned. When the US Navy went to two letter designators in 1920 she was redesignated BM-7 on 17 July. Ozark was sold, 26 January 1922 for scrapping.[2][9]

Notes

Citations
  1. ^ Ships' Data 1914, pp. 52–53.
  2. ^ a b c d e f Ford 2008.
  3. ^ Ships' Data 1914.
  4. ^ Friedman 1985, pp. 409, 411.
  5. ^ a b c d Friedman 1985, p. 452.
  6. ^ Friedman 2011.
  7. ^ DiGiulian & 12"/40 2015.
  8. ^ DiGiulian & 4"/50 2015.
  9. ^ Yarnall 2016.

Bibliography

Books

  • Friedman, Norman (1985). U.S. Battleships: An Illustrated Design History. Annapolis, Maryland: Naval Institute Press. ISBN 978-1-59114-247-8.
  • Ships' Data, U. S. Naval Vessels, 1911–. US Naval Department. 1 January 1914. Retrieved 29 August 2015.
  • "Table 21 – Ships on Navy List June 30, 1919". Congressional Serial Set. U.S. Government Printing Office: 769. 1921.
  • Friedman, Norman (2011). Naval Weapons of World War One. Seaforth Publishing. ISBN 978 1 84832 100 7. OCLC 751804655.

Online resources

External links

12"/40 caliber gun

The 12"/40 caliber gun (spoken as "twelve-inch-forty--caliber") were used for the primary batteries of the United States Navy's last class of monitors and the Maine-class and Virginia-class pre-dreadnought battleships.

Newport News Shipbuilding

Newport News Shipbuilding (NNS), a division of Huntington Ingalls Industries, is the largest industrial employer in Virginia, and sole designer, builder and refueler of United States Navy aircraft carriers and one of two providers of U.S. Navy submarines. Founded as the Chesapeake Dry Dock and Construction Co. in 1886, Newport News Shipbuilding has built more than 800 ships, including both naval and commercial ships. Located in the city of Newport News, their facilities span more than 550 acres (2.2 km2), strategically positioned in one of the great harbors of the East Coast.

The shipyard is a major employer, not only for the lower Virginia Peninsula, but also portions of Hampton Roads south of the James River and the harbor, portions of the Middle Peninsula region, and even some northeastern counties of North Carolina.

The shipyard is building the aircraft carriers USS John F. Kennedy (CVN-79) and USS Enterprise (CVN-80).In 2013, Newport News Shipbuilding began the deactivation of the first nuclear-powered aircraft carrier, USS Enterprise (CVN-65), which it also built.

Newport News Shipbuilding also performs refueling and complex overhaul (RCOH) work on Nimitz-class aircraft carriers. This is a four-year vessel renewal program that not only involves refueling of the vessel's nuclear reactors but also includes modernization work. The yard has completed RCOH for four Nimitz-class carriers (USS Nimitz, USS Dwight D. Eisenhower, USS Carl Vinson and USS Theodore Roosevelt). As of May 2016 this work was underway for the fifth Nimitz-class vessel, USS Abraham Lincoln. As of November 2017 this work was underway for the sixth Nimitz-class vessel, USS George Washington.

USS Arkansas

USS Arkansas may refer to one of these ships of the United States Navy named in honor of the 25th state.

USS Arkansas (1863), a screw steamer originally named the Tonawanda that served in the American Civil War. After that war she was renamed Tonowanda and lost off Key Largo in 1866.

USS Arkansas (BM-7), an Arkansas-class monitor with a single gun turret. She one of the last monitors of the U.S. Navy, commissioned in 1902, but having her name changed to the USS Ozark in 1906. Scrapped in 1922.

USS Arkansas (BB-33), one of two Wyoming-class battleships, commissioned in 1912. One of the oldest ships of World War II, and expended and wrecked in an atomic bomb test at Bikini Atoll in July 1946. That is where her wreckage still lies.

USS Arkansas (CGN-41), one of four Virginia-class nuclear-powered guided missile cruisers, commissioned in 1980 and decommissioned in 1998.

USS Arkansas (SSN-800), a future Virginia-class nuclear-powered attack submarine, announced in June 2016.See alsoCSS Arkansas

YO-160

The YO-160 was built in 1943 by the Concrete Ship Constructors of National City, California for the Maritime Commission. It was in active service as a fuel oil barge in the Pacific before being used as a part of the Nuclear weapon testing of Operation Crossroads at Bikini Atoll. It was 375 feet long with a displacement of 10,960 tons.

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