USS Arizona Memorial

The USS Arizona Memorial, at Pearl Harbor in [Honolulu], Hawaii, marks the resting place of 1,102 of the 1,177 sailors and Marines killed on USS Arizona during the Japanese surprise attack on Pearl Harbor on December 7, 1941 and commemorates the events of that day. The attack on Pearl Harbor and the island of Oahu led to the United States' direct involvement in World War II.

The memorial, built in 1962, has been visited by more than two million people annually.[1] Accessible only by boat, it straddles the sunken hull of the battleship without touching it. Historical information about the attack, shuttle boats to and from the memorial, and general visitor services are available at the associated USS Arizona Memorial Visitor Center, which opened in 1980 and is operated by the National Park Service. The battleship's sunken remains were declared a National Historic Landmark on May 5, 1989.[2]

The USS Arizona Memorial is one of several sites in Hawaii that are part of the Pearl Harbor National Memorial.

USS Arizona Memorial
USS Arizona Memorial (aerial view)
USS Arizona Memorial
LocationPearl Harbor
Nearest cityHonolulu, Hawaii
Coordinates21°21′54″N 157°57′0″W / 21.36500°N 157.95000°WCoordinates: 21°21′54″N 157°57′0″W / 21.36500°N 157.95000°W
Area10.50 acres (4.25 ha)
EstablishedMay 30, 1962
Visitors1,556,808 (in 2005)
Governing bodyU.S. Navy
National Park Service
WebsiteWorld War II Valor in the Pacific National Monument
The USS Arizona (BB-39) burning after the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor - NARA 195617 - Edit
USS Arizona sinking and burning during the attack on Pearl Harbor, December 7, 1941

Memorial

USS Arizona (BB-39) wreck in the 1950s
Arizona in the 1950s.

Conception and funding

During and following the end of World War II, Arizona's wrecked superstructure was removed and efforts began to erect a memorial at the remaining submerged hull. Robert Ripley, of Ripley's Believe It or Not! fame, visited Pearl Harbor in 1942. Six years later, in 1948, he did a radio broadcast from Pearl Harbor in which he stated "I am sure that all my listeners will join with me in tribute to the heroes of Pearl Harbor."

Following that broadcast, with the help of his longtime friend Doug Storer, he got in contact with the Department of the Navy. He wrote letters to Rear Admiral J.J. Manning of the Bureau of Yards and Docks regarding his desire for a permanent memorial.

Letter from RADM J.J. Manning to Robert Ripley
A letter RAdm J.J. Manning to Robert Ripley regarding the need for a permanent Pearl Harbor memorial

While Ripley's original idea for a memorial was disregarded due to the cost, the Navy continued with the idea of creating a memorial. The Pacific War Memorial Commission was created in 1949 to build a permanent memorial in Hawaii. Admiral Arthur W. Radford, commander of the Pacific Fleet, attached a flag pole to the main mast of Arizona in 1950, and began a tradition of hoisting and lowering the flag. In that same year a temporary memorial was built above the remaining portion of the deckhouse.[3] Radford requested funds for a national memorial in 1951 and 1952, but was denied because of budget constraints during the Korean War.

The Navy placed the first permanent memorial, a 10-foot (3 m)-tall basalt stone and plaque, over the mid-ship deckhouse on December 7, 1955.[4] President Dwight D. Eisenhower approved the creation of a National Memorial in 1958. Enabling legislation required the memorial, budgeted at US$500,000, be privately financed; however, $200,000 of the memorial cost was government subsidized.

Principal contributions[5] to the memorial included:

During planning stages, the memorial's purpose was the subject of competing visions. Some were eager to keep it a tribute to the sailors of Arizona, while others expected a dedication to all who died in the Pacific theater.[8] In the end, the legislation authorizing and funding the memorial (HR 44, 1961) declared that Arizona would "be maintained in honor and commemoration of the members of the Armed Forces of the United States who gave their lives to their country during the attack on Pearl Harbor, Hawaii, on December 7, 1941."[9][8]

Design

USS Arizona Memorial

The national memorial was designed by Honolulu architect Alfred Preis, who was detained at Sand Island at the start of the war as an enemy of the country, because of his Austrian birth.[10] The United States Navy specified the memorial be in the form of a bridge floating above the ship and accommodating 200 people.

The 184-foot-long (56 m) structure has two peaks at each end connected by a sag in the center of the structure. It represents the height of American pride before the war, the nation's sudden depression after the attack and the rise of American power to new heights after the war. Critics initially called the design a "squashed milk carton".[11]

The architecture of the USS Arizona Memorial is explained by Preis as, "Wherein the structure sags in the center but stands strong and vigorous at the ends, expresses initial defeat and ultimate victory ... The overall effect is one of serenity. Overtones of sadness have been omitted, to permit the individual to contemplate his own personal responses ... his innermost feelings."[12]

Description

US Navy 021205-N-3228G-003 A participant of the upcoming Dec. 7th USS Arizona commemoration ceremony, scans the 1177 names of Arizona crewmembers on the huge marble wall in the shrine room of the memorial prior to rehearsal
"To the Memory of the Gallant Men Here Entombed and their shipmates who gave their lives in action on December 7, 1941, on the U.S.S. Arizona"
— inscription in marble with the names of Arizona's honored dead

The national memorial has three main parts: entry, assembly room, and shrine. The central assembly room features seven large open windows on either wall and ceiling, to commemorate the date of the attack. Rumor says the 21 windows symbolically represents a 21-gun salute or 21 Marines standing at eternal parade rest over the tomb of the fallen, but guides at the site will confirm this was not the architect's intention. The memorial also has an opening in the floor overlooking the sunken decks. It is from this opening that visitors can pay their respects by tossing flowers in honor of the fallen sailors. In the past, leis were tossed in the water, but because string from leis poses a hazard to sea life, leis now are placed on guardrails in front of the names of the fallen.

One of Arizona's three 19,585-pound (8,884 kg) anchors is displayed at the visitor center's entrance. (One of the other two is at the Arizona State Capitol in Phoenix.) One of the two ship's bells is in the visitor center. (Its twin is in the clock tower of the Student Memorial Center at the University of Arizona in Tucson.)

The shrine at the far end is a marble wall that bears the names of all those killed on Arizona, protected behind velvet ropes. To the left of the main wall is a small plaque which bears the names of thirty or so crew members who survived the 1941 sinking. Any surviving crew members of Arizona (or their families on their behalf) can have their ashes interred within the wreck by U.S. Navy divers[13]

History

The USS Arizona Memorial was formally dedicated on May 30, 1962 (Memorial Day) by Texas Congressman and Chairman of Veteran Affairs Olin E. Teague and Governor John A. Burns.

It was listed on the National Register of Historic Places on October 15, 1966. While the wreck of USS Arizona was declared a National Historic Landmark in 1989, the memorial does not share this status. Rather, it is listed separately from the wreck on the National Register of Historic Places. The joint administration of the memorial by the United States Navy and the National Park Service was established on September 9, 1980.

USS Arizona oil seepage
The "tears of the Arizona". Oil slick visible on water's surface above the sunken battleship.

Oil leaking from the sunken battleship can still be seen rising from the wreckage to the water's surface. This oil is sometimes referred to as "the tears of the Arizona"[14][15] or "black tears."[16] In a National Geographic feature published in 2001, concerns were expressed that the continued deterioration of the Arizona's bulkheads and oil tanks from saltwater corrosion could pose a significant environmental threat from a rupture, resulting in a significant release of oil.[17] The National Park Service states it has an ongoing program that closely monitors the submerged vessel's condition.

The Park Service, as part of its Centennial Initiative celebrating its 100th anniversary in 2016, developed a "mobile park" to tour the continental United States to increase exposure of the park. The mobile park also collected oral histories of the attack on Pearl Harbor.[18] [19]

USS Missouri

Arizona Memorial at Pearl Harbor, Hawaii
The USS Missouri and USS Arizona memorials.

Upon the deck of the battleship USS Missouri in Tokyo Bay, the Japanese surrendered to United States General Douglas MacArthur and Admiral Chester W. Nimitz, ending World War II. In 1999, Missouri was moved to Pearl Harbor from the United States west coast and docked behind, and in line, with USS Arizona, placing it perpendicular to the USS Arizona Memorial. The pairing of the two ships became an evocative symbol of the beginning and end of the United States' participation in the war.

USS Arizona Memorial staff initially criticized the placement of Missouri, saying the large battleship would "overshadow" the Arizona Memorial. To guard against this perception, Missouri was placed well back of the Arizona Memorial, and positioned in Pearl Harbor to prevent those participating in military ceremonies on Missouri's aft decks from seeing the Arizona Memorial. The decision to have Missouri's bow face the Memorial was intended to convey that Missouri now watches over the remains of Arizona so that those interred within Arizona's hull may rest in peace. These measures have helped preserve the identities of the Arizona Memorial and the Missouri Memorial, thereby improving the public's perception of having Arizona and Missouri in the same harbor.[20]

Visiting the memorial

Pearl Harbor Visitors Center
An observation site with interpretive materials; Battleship Row is in the distance
USSArizonaSurvivor
December 2006: 65 years after the attack on Pearl Harbor, retired Lieutenant Commander Joseph Langdell, a USS Arizona survivor, recalls the experience at the memorial

The visitor center operated by the National Park Service is free to the public and has a museum with exhibits about the Pearl Harbor attack, such as the ship's bell from Arizona.

Access to the USS Arizona Memorial is by U.S. Navy boat, for which a numbered ticket, obtained at the visitor center and valid for a designated departure time, is required. More than one million people visit the memorial each year.[1] Because of the large number of visitors and the limited number of boat departures, the 4,500 tickets available each day are often fully allocated by mid-morning.[21] Before boarding the boat for the short trip to the Memorial, visitors view a 23-minute documentary film depicting the attack on Pearl Harbor. Touring of the Memorial is self-guided. The National Park Service Web site provides visitor information, including hours of operation and ticketing advisories.

USSArizona Bridge Bowfin Stadium
USS Arizona and museum (center left) and the Admiral Clarey Bridge

A one-hour audio tour of the Memorial and Center exhibits, narrated by actress Jamie Lee Curtis, whose father, Tony Curtis was a World War II and Navy veteran, is available for rent at the visitor center. On the center's grounds along the shoreline are more exhibits and a "Remembrance Circle". Nearby is USS Bowfin, a World War II diesel submarine, which may be toured with separate, paid admission. The battleship USS Missouri and the Pacific Aviation Museum Pearl Harbor may also be visited, but require a bus ride to Ford Island.

On May 6, 2018, boat transportation to the memorial was suspended after one of the vessel operators noticed a crack on its outside. Although repairs were made, the cracks reappeared. The memorial was closed on May 26, 2018, and remained closed until fall 2019, when it was announced it will be re-opening to the public on September 1, 2019. However, boat tours around the memorial and the other ships on Battleship Row continue to be made.[22][23]

Honors

USS Abraham Lincoln (CVN-72) manning rails for USS Arizona
Crew of USS Abraham Lincoln (left) manning the rails near USS Missouri and the USS Arizona Memorial

Every United States Navy, Coast Guard, and Merchant Marine vessel entering Pearl Harbor participates in the tradition of "manning the rails." Personnel serving on these ships stand at attention at the ship's guard rails and salute the USS Arizona Memorial in solemn fashion as their ship slowly glides into port.

President Barack Obama and Japanese Prime Minister Shinzo Abe visit the USS Arizona Memorial. (31150731523)
USPACOM Commander Admiral Harry Harris, U.S. President Barack Obama, Japanese Prime Minister Shinzō Abe, and a U.S. Navy sailor render honors at the USS Arizona Memorial, 27 December 2016.

Arizona is no longer in commission, but is an active U.S. military cemetery. As survivors of the attack on Arizona pass away, many choose either to have their ashes scattered in the water over the ship, or to have their urns placed within the well of the barbette of Turret No. 4.[24] As a special tribute to the ship and her lost crew, the United States flag flies from the flagpole, which is attached to the severed mainmast of the sunken battleship.[25] The Arizona memorial is one of the nine major historical sites incorporated into the wide-ranging World War II Valor in the Pacific National Monument, established by Congress in 2008 and dedicated on December 7, 2010.[10]

Since it was formally dedicated in 1962, every U.S. President has made a pilgrimage to the memorial, presenting a wreath and scattering flowers over Arizona in honor of the Americans who perished there.[26] On December 27, 2016, Japanese Prime Minister Shinzō Abe visited the memorial with President Barack Obama and paid respects to fallen service members there. Abe is the first Prime Minister of Japan to visit the USS Arizona memorial, 75 years after the Japanese attack. The visit was hailed by President Obama as "a historic gesture of reconciliation."[27]

See also

References

  1. ^ a b "Remembering Pearl Harbor: The USS Arizona Memorial". U.S. National Park Service. Archived from the original on March 15, 2008. Retrieved May 9, 2008.
  2. ^ "Arizona, USS (battleship) (shipwreck)". National Historic Landmark summary listing. National Park Service. Archived from the original on May 13, 2008. Retrieved June 21, 2008.
  3. ^ After The Battle magazine, Issue 38
  4. ^ Bergman, p. 37.
  5. ^ Arizona Memorial Museum Association. "Creating the Memorial". AMMA website. Archived from the original on July 24, 2009. Retrieved October 8, 2009.
  6. ^ "Samuel Glenn Fuqua". Recipients, World War II (A-F). Medal of Honor. United States Army Center of Military History. July 16, 2007.
  7. ^ "How Elvis Helped Save the USS Arizona Memorial". USNI News. author=US Naval Institute Staff. December 7, 2016.
  8. ^ a b Bergman, Teresa (2013). Exhibiting Patriotism: Creating and Contesting Interpretations of American Historic Sites. Left Coast Press. p. 39. ISBN 9781598745979.
  9. ^ Pub.L. 87–201
  10. ^ a b Bergman, p. 36.
  11. ^ Treena Shapiro (May 27, 2002). "Arizona Memorial seen as a dedication to peace". Honolulu Star-Bulletin.
  12. ^ "USS Arizona Memorial - History & Culture". National Park Service. September 18, 2006.
  13. ^ "USS Arizona Interments". USS Arizona Preservation Project 2004. December 18, 2007. Archived from the original on January 23, 2012. Retrieved December 5, 2011.
  14. ^ Horst Bendzulla. "The Tears of the Arizona". Artist's website. Archived from the original on May 11, 2009. Retrieved October 8, 2009.
  15. ^ Christine Hansen (September–October 2007). "Little Big Store". Hana Hou! Vol. 10, No. 4. Retrieved October 8, 2009.
  16. ^ Tritten, Larry (December 7, 2003). "`Black Tears' Still Shed For U.S.S. Arizona". South Florida Sun-Sentinel. Retrieved November 28, 2011.
  17. ^ "Oil and Honor at Pearl Harbor". National Geographic. June 2001. Retrieved January 2, 2008.
  18. ^ Bomar, Mary A. (August 2007). "Summary of Park Centennial Strategies" (PDF). National Park Service. Retrieved February 15, 2008.
  19. ^ "Pearl Harbor Oral Histories, Part 1" (HTML). C-SPAN. June 1, 2009.
  20. ^ Gregg K. Kakesako (October 15, 1997). "Will 'Mighty Mo' be too much?". Honolulu Star-Bulletin.
  21. ^ "Plan Your Visit (USS Arizona Memorial)". National Park Service. Retrieved April 4, 2008.
  22. ^ "The USS Arizona Memorial at Pearl Harbor will stay closed through fall. Still, there's plenty to do at the World War II site". Los Angeles Times. July 31, 2018. Retrieved August 18, 2018.
  23. ^ "Frequently Asked Questions - World War II Valor in the Pacific". National Park Service. Retrieved March 31, 2019.
  24. ^ "USS Arizona Interments". World War II Valor in the Pacific National Monument. National Park Service.
  25. ^ "USS Arizona Memorial (National Park Service website)". Retrieved May 9, 2010.
  26. ^ Adamski, Mary (October 22, 2003). "Isles a stopover and vacation spot for presidents". Honolulu Star-Advertiser. Retrieved December 12, 2017.
  27. ^ "Obama, Abe remember Pearl Harbor dead in historic Arizona Memorial visit". Honolulu Star-Advertiser. December 27, 2016. Retrieved February 1, 2017.

External links

Admiral Clarey Bridge

Admiral Clarey Bridge, also known as the Ford Island Bridge, is a pontoon bridge, commonly called a floating concrete drawbridge, providing access to Ford Island, a United States Navy installation situated in the middle of Pearl Harbor. The bridge provides access to Ford Island's historic sites to the public via tour bus and provides access to O'ahu for US military families housed on the island. Before the completion of the bridge, the island's residents were required to use ferry boats operated by Naval personnel that operated on an hourly basis. The bridge is one of only a few floating bridges and its floating moveable span is the largest worldwide. Its namesake, Admiral Bernard A. Clarey, was one of the Navy's most decorated officers.

Alfred Preis

Alfred Preis (February 2, 1911 – March 29, 1993) was an Austrian-born American architect best known for designing the USS Arizona Memorial in Pearl Harbor.

Attack on Pearl Harbor in popular culture

The attack on Pearl Harbor has received substantial attention in popular culture in multiple media and cultural formats including film, architecture, memorial statues, non-fiction writing, historical writing, and historical fiction. Today, the USS Arizona Memorial on the island of Oahu honors the dead. Visitors to the memorial reach it via boats from the naval base at Pearl Harbor. The memorial was designed by Alfred Preis, and has a sagging center but strong and vigorous ends, expressing "initial defeat and ultimate victory". It commemorates all lives lost on December 7, 1941.Although December 7 is known as National Pearl Harbor Remembrance Day it is not a federal holiday in the United States. The nation does however pay homage remembering the thousands injured and killed when attacked by the Japanese in 1941 and on Pearl Harbor Day the American flag should be flown at half-staff until sunset. Schools and other establishments in many places around the country do observe lowering the American flag to half-staff out of respect. Ceremonies are held annually at Pearl Harbor itself, attended each year by some of the ever-dwindling number of elderly veterans who were there on the morning of the attack.The naval vessel where the war ended on September 2, 1945—the last U.S. Navy battleship ever built, USS Missouri—is now a museum ship moored in Pearl Harbor, with its bow barely 1,000 feet (300 meters) southwest of the Arizona memorial. The last surviving vessels from the attack are also museum ships, the US Coast Guard cutter USCGC Taney, which is located in the Inner Harbor of Baltimore, Maryland, and the US Navy tug Hoga at the Arkansas Inland Maritime Museum.

Battleship Row

Battleship Row was the grouping of eight U.S. battleships in port at Pearl Harbor, Hawaii, when the Japanese attacked on 7 December 1941. These ships bore the brunt of the Japanese assault. They were moored next to Ford Island when the attack commenced. The ships were Arizona, California, Maryland, Nevada, Oklahoma, Pennsylvania, Tennessee, and West Virginia. A repair ship (former coal ship), Vestal, was also present, moored next to Arizona.

Ford Island

Ford Island (Hawaiian: Poka ʻAilana) is an islet in the center of Pearl Harbor, Oahu, in the U.S. state of Hawaii. It has been known as Rabbit Island, Marín's Island, and Little Goats Island, and its native Hawaiian name is Mokuʻumeʻume. The island had an area of 334 acres (135 ha) when it was surveyed in 1825, which was increased during the 1930s to 441 acres (178 ha) with fill dredged out of Pearl Harbor by the United States Navy to accommodate battleships.

It was the site of an ancient Hawaiian fertility ritual, which was stopped by Christian missionaries during the 1830s. The island was given by Kamehameha I to Spanish deserter Francisco de Paula Marín, and later returned to the monarchy. After the island was bought at auction by James Isaac Dowsett and sold to Caroline Jackson, it became the property of Dr. Seth Porter Ford by marriage and was renamed Ford Island. After Ford's death, his son sold the island to the John Papa ʻĪʻī estate and it was converted into a sugarcane plantation.

In 1916, part of Ford Island was sold to the U.S. Army for use by an aviation division in Hawaii, and by 1939 it was taken over by the U.S. Navy as a station for battleship and submarine maintenance. From the 1910s to the 1940s, the island continued to grow as a strategic center of operations for the U.S. Navy in the Pacific Ocean. Ford Island was at the center of the attack on Pearl Harbor and on the U.S. Pacific Fleet by the Imperial Japanese fleet on December 7, 1941. It was designated a National Historic Landmark in 1964, and as of 2011 the National Trust for Historic Preservation has listed the island as one of the United States' most-endangered historic sites.By the late 1990s, hundreds of millions of dollars had been invested in real estate development and infrastructure, including a new bridge. Ford Island continues to serve an active role in the Pacific, hosting military functions at the Pacific Warfighting Center and civilian functions at NOAA's Pacific Tsunami Warning Center. The island has been featured in films such as Tora! Tora! Tora! and Pearl Harbor and receives tourists from the U.S. and abroad at the USS Arizona memorial and the USS Missouri museum.

Glendale Veterans War Memorial

Glendale Veterans War Memorial also known as the Glendale USS Arizona Memorial (2002) is a monument to United States veterans of all wars. It is located on the lawn in front of the Glendale Public Library at 5959 West Brown Street, Glendale, Arizona. It was created by artist Joe Tyler with assistance from ceramist Scott Cisson and sculptor Sylvania Anderson. The monument includes pieces of the USS Arizona, a battleship sunk at the Battle of Pearl Harbor, December 7, 1941.

List of memorials

This is a list of noted memorials

9/11 Memorial Project - Los Angeles

Arlington House, The Robert E. Lee Memorial at Arlington National Cemetery in Arlington County, Virginia.

National Chiang Kai-shek Memorial Hall

Cihu Presidential Burial Place located in Cihu in northern Taiwan, is a mausoleum built to temporarily place Chiang Kai-shek's corpse waiting for relocation to mainland China.

Civil Rights Memorial

Columbine Memorial located in Littleton, Colorado is dedicated to the 13 people killed by Eric Harris and Dylan Klebold in the 1999 Columbine High School massacre.

Commando Memorial is a monument in Scotland dedicated to the men of the original British Commando Forces raised during World War II.

Fallen Astronaut, located on the surface of the Moon, is a memorial to all the astronauts and cosmonauts who perished in the "Space Race" (to that point in time).

The Founder's Memorial, a memorial in Abu Dhabi dedicated to Sheikh Zayed bin Sultan Al Nahyan, the first President of the United Arab Emirates.

Grant's Tomb is a mausoleum with the remains of former U.S. President Ulysses S. Grant located in New York City.

Great Pyramid of Giza completed in 2570 BC, is the tomb of the 4th dynasty Egyptian Pharaoh Khufu (also known under his Greek name Cheops).

Gyrowheel Monument at Schönau an der Brend

Ho Chi Minh's preserved body is in a glass coffin on display in his mausoleum in Hanoi's Ba Dinh Square.

Tugu Negara war memorial of Malaysia

India Gate war memorial or the National monument of India in Delhi, India was built in the memory of more than 90,000 Indian soldiers who lost their lives during Afghan Wars and World War I. It is now a memorial to the soldiers who fell in the wars since India's independence, including the 1965 and the Indo-Pakistani War of 1971, the Sino-Indian War of 1962, and those who fell in peacekeeping operations.

National Taiwan Democracy Memorial Hall (Chiang Kai-Shek Memorial Hall)

Jatiyo Smriti Soudho in Savar, Bangladesh.

Jefferson Memorial located on the West Potomac Park, in Washington D.C. is a memorial to American President Thomas Jefferson.

John Lennon Peace Monument was unveiled in Chavasse Park, Liverpool, England, by Cynthia and Julian Lennon, on October 9, 2010, to celebrate John Lennon's 70th Birthday. The monument is inscribed with the words “Peace on Earth for the Conservation of Life – In Honour of John Lennon 1940 – 1980”.

Kranji War Memorial in Singapore, is the burial ground for over 4,500 allied servicemen who died during World War II, and also commemorates over 25,000 servicemen whose bodies were never recovered.

Laboe Naval Memorial

Lenin's Tomb, Moscow, Lenin's embalmed corpse is on display in a climate-controlled glass box. Also home to Joseph Stalin's body, later removed as part of destalinization.

Lincoln Memorial located on the National Mall in Washington D.C. is a memorial to American President Abraham Lincoln.

Maiwand Lion located in Reading, in England, and commemorating the Battle of Maiwand.

Mamayev Kurgan

Mao Zedong's Mausoleum located at Tiananmen Square in Beijing, China with Mao's corpse embalmed and on permanent display.

Mausoleum of Yugoslavian Soldiers in Olomouc

Mémorial de la Déportation commemorates the 200,000 French victims of Nazi concentration camps.

Memorial of Rebirth in Bucharest, Romania, commemorating the victims of the Romanian Revolution of 1989

Memorial stone to the victims of fascism at Hitler's birthplace in Braunau am Inn.

Memorial to the Murdered Jews of Europe in Berlin was opened in 2005 and commemorates the Jewish victims of the Holocaust perpetrated by Nazi Germany.

Memorial to the Fallen Heroes (Nay Pyi Taw) in Myanmar

Monumento Nacional de Santa Cruz del Valle de los Caidos

Oklahoma City National Memorial

Ostlandkreuz at Geislingen

Ostlandkreuz at Schorndorf

Piskarevskoye Memorial Cemetery in St Petersburg, where the victims of the 900-Day Siege are interred.

Ruckenkreuz at Blaubeuren

San Jacinto Monument

Statue of Hope - Wilson Memorial, Friendship, Indiana

Strawberry Fields Memorial - dedicated to former Beatle, John Lennon in Central Park, New York City.

Sun Yat-sen Memorial Hall

Taj Mahal located in Agra in northern India, is a tomb constructed by Mughal emperor Shah Jahan in memory of his wife Mumtaz Mahal.

Tomb of the Unknown Soldier in Arlington National Cemetery and many others, so named, around the world.

UFO-Memorial Ängelholm at Ängelholm, Sweden

USS Arizona Memorial, located at Pearl Harbor, Hawaii, The monument memorializes the resting place of 1,102 sailors killed on the USS Arizona during the Attack on Pearl Harbor.

Voortrekker Monument

Victoria Memorial (India) is a memorial of Queen Victoria of the United Kingdom, who also carried the title of Empress of India, located in Calcutta, India

Völkerschlachtdenkmal, Leipzig, Germany, Europe's largest memorial

Washington Monument is a memorial to the first President of the United States, George Washington

World Trade Center Memorial

Yad Kennedy, Israel, is a memorial to John F. Kennedy, President of the United States.

Yad Vashem, Israel, is Israel's memorial to the holocaust. The section of the Righteous among the Nations specifically remembers non-Jews who risked their lives to save Jews during the Holocaust

Vietnam Memorial, is a memorial in Washington, D.C, giving the names of all veterans who died in the Vietnam War.

Wallace Monument, is a monument to commemorate the 13th century Scottish resistance hero, William Wallace, who was eventually executed by the English in 1305.

Ho Chi Minh Mausoleum, is a memorial of Ho Chi Minh, the founder of Vietnam.

List of national memorials of the United States

National memorial is a designation in the United States for an officially recognized area that memorializes a historic person or event. As of May 2019 the National Park Service (NPS), an agency of the Department of the Interior, owns and administers thirty memorials as official units and provides assistance for five more, known as affiliated areas, that are operated by other organizations. Congress has also designated several additional independently operated sites as national memorials. Another six memorials have been authorized and are in the planning or construction stages. Memorials need not be located on a site directly related to the subject, and many, such as the Lincoln Memorial, do not have the word "national" in their titles.

The earliest and perhaps most recognizable is the uniquely designated Washington Monument, which was completed in 1884 and transferred to the NPS in 1933. The most recently named is the National Veterans Memorial and Museum, so designated by Congress and dedicated in 2018. The Pearl Harbor National Memorial was created out of the World War II Valor in the Pacific National Monument in 2019 and was previously just the USS Arizona Memorial. The NPS national memorials are in 15 states and the District of Columbia. Washington, D.C., has the most, eleven, followed by Pennsylvania and New York, each with three. The affiliated areas are in four states (two additional beyond those with NPS memorials) and the Northern Mariana Islands, while the other sites are in nine states (five additional), the District of Columbia, and Midway Atoll.

Among the NPS national memorials and affiliated areas, nine celebrate US presidents, eleven recognize other historic figures, six commemorate wars, five memorialize disasters, and five represent early exploration. Ten of the nineteen non-NPS memorials commemorate wars or veterans, another six represent groups of people who died for related reasons, and two relate to Native American history. Several major war memorials are located on or near the National Mall, contributing to the national identity. The historic areas within the National Park System are automatically listed on the National Register of Historic Places."National Memorial" is omitted below in the names of sites that include it; others may separate the two words or just use "Memorial", and there is also one international memorial included. Self-appellations by private organizations, such as the George Washington Masonic National Memorial, that are not officially designated are not listed here, as Congress has reserved the right to create national memorials.

Manning the rail

Manning the rail is a method of saluting or rendering honors used by naval vessels. The custom evolved from that of manning the yards, which dates from the days of sail. On sailing ships, men stood evenly spaced on all the yards (the spars holding the sails) and gave three cheers to honor distinguished persons. Today the crew are stationed along the rails and superstructure of a ship when honors are rendered.

The United States Navy prescribes manning the rail as a possible honor to render to the President of the United States and for the heads of state of foreign nations. A similar but less formal ceremony is to have the crew "at quarters" when the ship is entering or leaving port.Manning the rail is also the traditional way to honor the USS Arizona Memorial when it is passed by all U.S. Navy, U.S. Coast Guard, and U.S. Merchant Marine vessels. More recently, as foreign military vessels are entering Pearl Harbor for joint military exercises, foreign sailors have participated in the traditional manning the rails. Other notable instances occurred on July 24th 1997 when the guided missile destroyer Ramage and frigate Halyburton rendered honors to the Constitution during her 200th birthday celebration, and on September 14, 2001, when the crew of the German destroyer Lütjens manned the rails as they approached the destroyer USS Winston Churchill and displayed an American flag and a banner reading "We Stand By You".

Mini Rover ROV

The Mini Rover ROV was the world's first small, low cost remotely operated underwater vehicle (ROV) when it was introduced in early 1983. After a demonstration to industry professionals, in the Spring of 1984, it made a significant entry to the remotely operated vehicle market. It is a self-propelled, tethered, free swimming vehicle that was designed and built by Chris Nicholson of Deep Sea Systems International, Inc. (DSSI). The Mini Rover ROV entered the ROV market at a price of $26,850 when the next lowest cost ROV was $100,000. Nicholson built the first Mini Rover ROV in his garage in Falmouth, MA. It was 26 inches long and weighed 55 pounds. It could be carried on airplanes as luggage.The Mini Rover ROV has been involved in many undersea expeditions including the 1989 3D filming of the SS Edmund Fitzgerald and the 1989 and 1990 Pearl Harbor Project with the National Park Service and National Geographic to survey the USS Arizona Memorial.In the 1989 James Cameron film, The Abyss, the Mini Rover MKII ROV is credited as "Little Geek".The size and portability of the Mini Rover ROV made it easily deployable for emergency situations anywhere in the world. On November 2, 1999, a Mini Rover ROV was on board the USNS Mohawk (T-ATF-170) at the scene of the October 31, 1999, EgyptAir Flight 990 crash site to be used to identify target locations.Benthos, Inc. (Teledyne Benthos) acquired exclusive designs, trademarks, marketing and manufacturing rights for the Mini Rover ROV from DSSI in 1987. Benthos had been manufacturing and servicing the Mini Rover ROV for DSSI since 1984.

National Pearl Harbor Remembrance Day

National Pearl Harbor Remembrance Day, also referred to as Pearl Harbor Remembrance Day or Pearl Harbor Day, is observed annually in the United States on December 7, to remember and honor the 2,403 citizens of the United States who were killed in the Japanese surprise attack on Pearl Harbor in Hawaii on December 7, 1941.

On August 23, 1994, the United States Congress, by Pub.L. 103–308, 108 Stat. 1169, designated December 7 of each year as National Pearl Harbor Remembrance Day. On November 29, President Bill Clinton issued a proclamation declaring December 7, 1994, the first National Pearl Harbor Remembrance Day. It became 36 U.S.C. § 129 (Patriotic and National Observances and Ceremonies) of the United States Code.On Pearl Harbor Day, the American flag should be flown at half-staff until sunset to honor those who died as a result of the attack on U.S. military forces in Hawaii. Pearl Harbor Day is not a federal holiday – government offices, schools, and businesses do not close. Some organizations may hold special events in memory of those killed or injured at Pearl Harbor.

Oahu

Oʻahu (pronounced [oˈʔɐhu]) anglicized Oahu (), known as "The Gathering Place", is the third-largest of the Hawaiian Islands. It is home to roughly one million people—about two-thirds of the population of the U.S. state of Hawaii. The state capital, Honolulu, is on Oʻahu's southeast coast. Including small associated islands such as Ford Island and the islands in Kāneʻohe Bay and off the eastern (windward) coast, its area is 596.7 square miles (1,545.4 km2), making it the 20th-largest island in the United States.Oʻahu is 44 miles (71 km) long and 30 miles (48 km) across. Its shoreline is 227 miles (365 km) long. The island is composed of two separate shield volcanoes: the Waiʻanae and Koʻolau Ranges, with a broad "valley" or saddle (the central Oʻahu Plain) between them. The highest point is Kaʻala in the Waiʻanae Range, rising to 4,003 feet (1,220 m) above sea level.

Pearl Harbor National Memorial

Pearl Harbor National Memorial is a unit of the National Park System of the United States on the island of Oahu, Hawaii. The John D. Dingell, Jr. Conservation, Management, and Recreation Act, signed by Donald Trump on March 12, 2019, removed the site from the World War II Valor in the Pacific National Monument. It has an area of 21.3 acres (0.086 km2).

The site commemorates the events of the Attack on Pearl Harbor on December 7, 1941, which killed over 2,400 Americans and sank twelve ships. The site includes the USS Arizona Memorial, the USS Utah memorial, the USS Oklahoma memorial, six chief petty officer bungalows on Ford Island, mooring quays F6, F7, and F8, which formed part of Battleship Row, and the visitor center at Halawa Landing.

A visitor center and park features galleries on the Pacific theater of World War II, a theater showing a film about the attack, and memorial sculpture. Visitors may take a ferry to the Arizona memorial.

Nearby are the USS Missouri memorial, USS Bowfin museum, and Pearl Harbor Aviation Museum, which are designated historic attractions within the Pearl Harbor Naval Complex.

Pearl Harbor Survivors Association

The Pearl Harbor Survivors Association (PHSA), founded in 1958 and recognized by the United States Congress in 1985, was a World War II veterans organization whose members were on Pearl Harbor or three miles or less offshore during the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor, on December 7, 1941. The PHSA was officially disbanded at the end of December 2011 with a membership of about 2,700 members nationally.

The PHSA, which was incorporated in the State of Missouri, held Federal Charter 99-119 under Title 36 of the United States Code. The PHSA National Insignia bearing the name Pearl Harbor Survivors Association was registered at the U.S. Patent Office. The PHSA's motto read:

Remember Pearl Harbor—Keep America Alert!

Pearlridge

Pearlridge (formerly Pearlridge Center) is the second largest shopping center in Hawaiʻi, after Ala Moana, and is Hawaiʻi's largest enclosed shopping center, located in ʻAiea. Opened in 1972 and expanded in 1976, the enclosed mall is split into three "phases" (Uptown, Downtown, and Phase Three) and overlooks historic Pearl Harbor and the USS Arizona Memorial. The property includes the only monorail in Hawaiʻi, the only emergency clinic located on mall property (Pali Momi Medical Center), and an eight-story office complex (Pearlridge Office Center). The mall is owned by WP Glimcher. It is on land owned by Kamehameha Schools.

USS Arizona (BB-39)

USS Arizona was a Pennsylvania-class battleship built for and by the United States Navy in the mid-1910s. Named in honor of the 48th state's recent admission into the union, the ship was the second and last of the Pennsylvania class of "super-dreadnought" battleships. Although commissioned in 1916, the ship remained stateside during World War I. Shortly after the end of the war, Arizona was one of a number of American ships that briefly escorted President Woodrow Wilson to the Paris Peace Conference. The ship was sent to Turkey in 1919 at the beginning of the Greco-Turkish War to represent American interests for several months. Several years later, she was transferred to the Pacific Fleet and remained there for the rest of her career.

Aside from a comprehensive modernization in 1929–1931, Arizona was regularly used for training exercises between the wars, including the annual Fleet Problems (training exercises). When an earthquake struck Long Beach, California, on 10 March 1933, the Arizona's crew provided aid to the survivors. In July 1934, the ship was featured in a James Cagney film, Here Comes the Navy, about the romantic troubles of a sailor. In April 1940, she and the rest of the Pacific Fleet were transferred from California to Pearl Harbor, Hawaii, as a deterrent to Japanese imperialism.

Arizona was bombed during the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor on 7 December 1941. After a bomb detonated in a powder magazine, the battleship exploded violently and sank, with the loss of 1,177 officers and crewmen. Unlike many of the other ships sunk or damaged that day, Arizona was irreparably damaged by the force of the magazine explosion, though the Navy removed parts of the ship for reuse. The wreck still lies at the bottom of Pearl Harbor and the USS Arizona Memorial. Dedicated on 30 May 1962 to all those who died during the attack, the memorial straddles but does not touch the ship's hull.

USS Arizona salvaged artifacts

Some of the USS Arizona salvaged artifacts, taken from the wreck of that battleship after it exploded and sank in the Attack on Pearl Harbor, are displayed in several locations in the U.S. State of Arizona. The term "marine salvage" refers to the process of recovering a ship, its cargo, or other property after a shipwreck. This is a list of those artifacts recovered from the shipwreck. These artifacts are on display in the Arizona State Capitol Museum, the Carl T. Hayden Veterans Administration Medical Center and in the Wesley Bolin Memorial Plaza, all of which are located in Phoenix. One of two salvaged bells of USS Arizona is on display in the University of Arizona Student Union Memorial Center in Tucson, and Glendale Veterans War Memorial in the city of Glendale, Arizona is constructed using material from the wreck of the battleship. Also included in this list of salvaged artifacts is a piece of steel salvaged from USS Arizona on display at the USS South Dakota Memorial in Sioux Falls, South Dakota. Another piece of steel from the Arizona is housed at the Veterans Memorial Museum in Laurel, Mississippi.

USS Benfold

USS Benfold (DDG-65) is an Arleigh Burke-class destroyer in the United States Navy.

Benfold is a multi-mission platform capable of AAW (Anti-Aircraft Warfare) with the powerful AEGIS combat systems suite and anti-aircraft missiles, ASW (Anti-submarine warfare), with towed sonar array, anti-submarine rockets, ASUW (Anti-surface warfare) with a Harpoon missile launcher, and strategic land strike using Tomahawk missiles. Benfold was one of the first ships fitted with the Aegis Ballistic Missile Defense System and during the 2010 Stellar Daggers exercise was the first ship to simultaneously engage a ballistic missile and a cruise missile.Former Benfold commanding officers include ADM Mark Ferguson, VADM Thomas H. Copeman III, and author D. Michael Abrashoff.

USS Bowfin (SS-287)

USS Bowfin (SS/AGSS-287), a Balao-class submarine, was a boat of the United States Navy named for the bowfin fish. Since 1981, she has been open to public tours at the USS Bowfin Submarine Museum and Park in Pearl Harbor, Hawaii, next to the USS Arizona Memorial Visitor Center.

Bowfin was laid down by the Portsmouth Naval Shipyard at Kittery, Maine, on 23 July 1942, and launched on 7 December 1942 by Mrs. Jane Gawne, wife of Captain James Gawne, and commissioned on 1 May 1943, Commander Joseph H. Willingham in command.

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