USA-193, also known as NRO launch 21 (NROL-21 or simply L-21), was a U.S. military reconnaissance satellite (radar imaging) launched on 14 December 2006.[2] It was the first launch conducted by the United Launch Alliance.[3] Owned by the National Reconnaissance Office (NRO), the craft's precise function and purpose were classified.

The satellite malfunctioned shortly after deployment and was intentionally destroyed 14 months later on 21 February 2008 by a modified SM-3 missile fired from the warship USS Lake Erie, stationed west of Hawaii.[4][5] The event highlighted growing distrust between the U.S. and China, and was viewed by some to be part of a wider "space race" involving the U.S., China, and Russia.[6]

It was the first launch by United Launch Alliance since it was formed in December 2006, and the first Delta II launch since ULA acquisition.

Delta II 7920 launch with NROL-21
Delta II launching USA-193, Vandenberg Air Force Base, 2006
OperatorUS National Reconnaissance Office
COSPAR ID2006-057A
Mission durationCommunications lost after orbit achieved
Spacecraft properties
Launch mass2,300 kilograms (5,100 lb)[1]
Start of mission
Launch date14 December 2006, 21:00:00 UTC
RocketDelta II 7920-10
Launch siteVandenberg SLC-2W
End of mission
DisposalDestroyed by ASAT
Destroyed21 February 2008
Orbital parameters
Reference systemGeocentric
RegimeLow Earth
Perigee242 kilometers (150 mi)
Apogee257 kilometers (160 mi)
Epoch21 February 2008


USA-193 was part of the NRO's Future Imagery Architecture, which was begun in 1997 to produce a fleet of inexpensive reconnaissance satellites, but has become the agency's most spectacular failure.[7] USA-193 was initially developed by Boeing, which won the contract in 1999, beating out Lockheed Martin with proposals for innovative electro-optics and radar. But after cost overruns, delays, and parts failures, NRO sent the contract to Lockheed, which built USA-193 around the Boeing radar design.[7] Lockheed Martin and Boeing both supported the launch, the first in the joint effort known as the United Launch Alliance.[8]

USA-193 weighed about 5,000 pounds (2,268 kg),[1] with a body thought to be 15 feet (5 m) long and 8 feet (2 m) wide, estimates based on the maximal Delta II payload. With the radar antenna extended, USA-193 was about the size of a basketball court (~30 × 15 m).[9]

Launch data

USA-193 (NROL-21) launch patch

Malfunction and orbital decay

The satellite entered orbit, but lost contact with the ground within hours.[1]

In late January 2008, reports from anonymous U.S. officials indicated a U.S. spy satellite, later confirmed as USA-193,[1] was in a deteriorating orbit and was expected to crash onto Earth within weeks.[16][17] This came as no surprise to amateur satellite watchers, who had been predicting the deorbit of the satellite for some time.[18]

Hazardous materials on-board

Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) reports indicate that the satellite contained the hazardous materials hydrazine and beryllium.[19] Though there was some speculation that the satellite might have a "nuclear" power core,[20] i.e. a radioisotope thermoelectric generator, the FEMA report indicates otherwise.

On 29 January 2008 an Associated Press story quoted U.S. Air Force General Gene Renuart as saying that contingency plans were being made, since intact pieces of the satellite "might re-enter into the North American area".[21]

In respecting the Liability Convention, the United States vowed to pay for any damage or destruction caused by their failed satellite.[22]


Planning for the destruction of USA-193 with a missile reportedly began on 4 January 2008, with President Bush approving the plan on February 12,[23] at an expected cost of $40 million to $60 million.[24] The task force had as its goal to "rupture the fuel tank to dissipate the approximately 1,000 pounds (453 kg) of hydrazine, a hazardous fuel, which could pose a danger to people on Earth, before it entered into Earth's atmosphere".[25]

SM-3 launch to destroy the NRO-L 21 satellite
Launch of the SM-3 missile that intercepted USA-193

On 14 February 2008, U.S. officials announced the plan to destroy USA-193 before atmospheric reentry, stating that the intention was "saving or reducing injury to human life". They said that if the hydrazine tank fell to Earth, it "could spread a toxic cloud roughly the size of two football fields".[26] General James Cartwright confirmed that the United States Navy was preparing to launch an SM-3 missile to destroy the satellite, at an altitude of 130 nautical miles (240 km), shortly before it entered Earth's atmosphere.[1]

On February 21, 03:26 GMT an SM-3 missile was fired from the Ticonderoga-class missile cruiser USS Lake Erie and intercepted USA-193 about 133 nautical miles (247 kilometers)[25] above the Pacific Ocean. The satellite was traveling with a velocity of about 17,500 mph (around 28,000 km/h, or 7.8 km/s). The velocity of the impact was about 22,000 mph. The Department of Defense expressed a "high degree of confidence" that the fuel tank was hit and destroyed.[27] The satellite's remnants were expected to burn up over the course of the next 40 days, with most of the satellite's mass re-entering the atmosphere within 48 hours of the missile strike.[25][28]

U.S. officials denied that the action was intended to prevent sensitive technology falling into foreign hands[1] and also denied that it was a response to the 2007 Chinese anti-satellite missile test.[29] This was not the first time the United States shot down one of its own satellites; the Air Force had shot down a satellite as early as 1985.[30]

SM-3 intercepting NROL-21-20080220
Break-up of USA-193 following interception by the SM-3 missile

Although the U.S. had objected to the earlier Chinese test of an anti-satellite (ASAT) weapon, U.S. officials said there was "no parallel" with that test. The Chinese test destroyed a target in a high, stable orbit, leaving a large amount of space debris in orbit, while the destruction of USA-193 in a much lower orbit would create debris that would likely deorbit within weeks.[1][31]


The Russian government claimed that this exercise was a test of the U.S. missile defense program.[31] The defense ministry of Russia accused the U.S. of using hydrazine as a cover for the test of an ASAT. It also noted that extraordinary measures had never before been needed to deal with the many spacecraft that had fallen to Earth.[31] Indeed, the New York Times had paraphrased Gordon Johndroe, spokesman for the United States National Security Council, as stating that 328 objects had deorbited (controlled and uncontrolled) in the previous five-year period.[32] However, U.S. officials maintained that the large quantity of hydrazine on board made USA-193 a special case.[1] According to General Kevin P. Chilton, when President Bush was briefed on the situation, the danger that shooting down the satellite would be perceived as an ASAT test was brought up, and President Bush made his decision based on the dangers of an uncontrolled reentry.[33]

Other observers dismiss the threat of the hydrazine, suggesting that the effect of the cloud, when diluted over a large area, would likely be mild: "The hydrazine tank is a 1-meter sphere containing about 400 liters of hydrazine. The stated hazard area is about 2 hectares, something like 1/10,000,000,000 of the area under the orbit. The potential for actual harm is unbelievably small."[34] Other analyses, such as those cited by Yousaf Butt, show the hydrazine tank burning up in the upper atmosphere.[35][36][37]

Two examples of uncontrolled atmospheric re-entries causing (or almost causing) damage are the 1978 re-entry of Cosmos 954, a Soviet satellite, which landed in Canada and spread dangerous amounts of nuclear fuel from its onboard reactor over large tracts of land, and Skylab's 1979 re-entry, which rattled windows and dropped small pieces of debris onto buildings in Esperance, Western Australia (no significant monetary damage resulted, but the U.S. was symbolically fined $400 for littering).[38] No weapon existed in 1978 to bring down Cosmos 954, and a Soviet anti-satellite weapon (Istrebitel Sputnik), the first of its kind, was declared operational only ten days before Skylab re-entered the atmosphere, and was not capable of directing the space station's descent.

Before the destruction of USA-193, Pentagon officials repeatedly denied that it was meant to bolster the U.S. missile defense program. Six days after USA-193's destruction, Defense Secretary Robert M. Gates said, "the mission's success shows that U.S. plans for a missile-defense system are realistic" though in the same statement it was confirmed that the weapons and systems used for this mission will not retain their ASAT capability, and will be reconfigured back to their original purpose as tactical missiles.[39]


The destruction of USA 193 created 174 pieces of orbital debris that were cataloged by the U.S. military.[40] While most of this debris re-entered the Earth's atmosphere within a few months, a few pieces lasted slightly longer due to the fact that they were thrown into higher orbits. The final piece of USA 193 debris did not re-enter until 28 October 2009.[40]

The launch of at least one other satellite was postponed to avoid space debris from USA-193. An Atlas V launch hot line recording indicated the debris would delay the launch of a different National Reconnaissance Office satellite (NRO L-28) as "a precautionary measure."[41]

Catalogue IDs


Delta II-NROL-21-Vandenberg-20061214

Delta II launched carrying USA-193, Vandenberg Air Force Base, California, USA, December 2006

Delta II-Vandenberg-20061214-NROL-21

Delta II leaving Vandenberg, December 2006

SM-3 launch-USS Lake Erie-20080220

Fire Controlman 2nd Class Andrew Jackson launches the RIM-161 Standard missile 3 that destroyed USA-193, 20 February 2008

SM-3 ignition for a satellite destruction mission

Missile launching from the USS Lake Erie, on 20 February 2008

Cartwright and England follow the progress of USA 193

Vice Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff U.S. Marine Gen. James E. Cartwright (left), and Deputy Defense Secretary Gordon R. England follow the progress of the Standard Missile-3.

SM-3 climbs into the sky for a satellite destruction mission

Missile launches off the USS Lake Erie.

Night launch of a RIM-161 Standard SM-3

SM-3 before launching to destroy the NRO-L 21 satellite

Standard Missile III SM-3 RIM-161 test launch 04017005

Closeup of SM-3 launching

SM-3 launch to destroy the NRO-L 21 satellite

Launch of the SM-3 missile that intercepted USA-193

See also


  1. ^ a b c d e f g h Jeffrey, James; Cartwright, James; Griffin, Michael D. (14 February 2008). "DoD News Briefing". U.S. Department of Defense. Retrieved 17 February 2019.
  2. ^ a b c "USA 193". National Space Science Data Center Archive. Retrieved 18 February 2011.
  3. ^ "United Launch Alliance set for takeoff". Metro Denver Economic Development Corporation. Archived from the original on 1 April 2009. Retrieved 22 February 2008.
  4. ^ "US shoots down rogue satellite". News24. 21 February 2008. Archived from the original on 22 February 2008. Retrieved 22 February 2008.
  5. ^ Shanker, Thom (21 February 2008). "Missile Strikes a Spy Satellite Falling From Its Orbit". The New York Times. Retrieved 18 February 2011.
  6. ^ Wingfield, Brian (21 February 2008). "A New Space Race?". Forbes. Retrieved 18 February 2011.
  7. ^ a b Taubman, Philip (11 November 2007). "In Death of Spy Satellite Program, Lofty Plans and Unrealistic Bids". The New York Times. Retrieved 20 February 2008.
  8. ^ "E-305 New Radar Capability". Retrieved 20 February 2008.
  9. ^ Covault, Craig (6 February 2008). "Falling Radar Satellite Adds to NRO Troubles". Aviation Week. Archived from the original on 21 May 2011. Retrieved 23 February 2008.
  10. ^ "Table of Recent Launches (NROL-21)". Jonathan's Space Report. 26 December 2006. Retrieved 18 February 2011.
  11. ^ Stewart, Erica (18 December 2006). "Vandenberg successfully launches Delta II". Air Force Space Command. 30th Space Wing Public Affairs. Archived from the original on 2 March 2008. Retrieved 22 February 2008.
  12. ^ "USA 193: Trajectory Details". National Space Science Data Center. Archived from the original on 23 September 2008. Retrieved 22 February 2008.
  13. ^ Harwood, William (14 February 2008). "US plans to fire missile at falling spy satellite". Spaceflight Now. Retrieved 17 February 2019.
  14. ^ Molczan, Ted (11 February 2008). "TJM obs of 2008 Feb 11 UTC; USA 193 elements". Retrieved 17 February 2019.
  15. ^ Molczan, Ted (19 February 2008). "Updated elements of USA 193". Retrieved 17 February 2019.
  16. ^ "Satellite could plummet to Earth". BBC News. 27 January 2008. Retrieved 18 February 2011.
  17. ^ "U.S. Spy Satellite, Power Gone, May Hit Earth". The New York Times. 27 January 2008. Retrieved 18 February 2011.
  18. ^ Molczan, Ted (27 January 2007). "USA 193 elements from observations". Retrieved 17 February 2019.
  19. ^ FEMA (2008). "Memorandum To America's First Responder Community" (PDF). Fire Service Resources Network. Retrieved 17 February 2019.
  20. ^ Harris, Paul (27 January 2008). "US warns out-of-control spy satellite is plunging to Earth". The Guardian. Retrieved 22 February 2008.
  21. ^ Baldor, Lolita C. (29 January 2008). "Large spy satellite could hit North America". NBC News. Associated Press. Retrieved 17 February 2019.
  22. ^ Nebehay, Stephanie (15 February 2008). "U.S. vows to pay for damage caused by satellite". Reuters. Retrieved 22 February 2008.
  23. ^ Burns, Robert (15 February 2008). "Satellite Shootdown Plan Began in Jan". Associated Press. Archived from the original on 2 March 2008. Retrieved 22 February 2008.
  24. ^ McIntyre, Jamie; Mount, Mike (15 February 2008). "Attempt to shoot down spy satellite to cost up to $60 million". CNN. Retrieved 5 February 2011.
  25. ^ a b c "DoD Succeeds In Intercepting Non-Functioning Satellite" (Press release). U.S. Department of Defense. 20 February 2008. Retrieved 20 February 2008.
  26. ^ Mount, Mike (15 February 2008). "Officials: U.S. to try to shoot down errant satellite". CNN. Retrieved 17 February 2019.
  27. ^ "Response team formed to recover satellite debris". CTV Television Network. 21 February 2008. Archived from the original on 29 June 2011. Retrieved 21 February 2008.
  28. ^ "Navy missile hits dying spy satellite, says Pentagon". CNN. 21 February 2008. Retrieved 17 February 2019.
  29. ^ Roberts, Kristin (14 February 2008). "Pentagon plans to shoot down disabled satellite". Reuters. Retrieved 17 February 2019.
  30. ^ Shiga, David (20 January 2007). "Anti-satellite weapon used simple technology". New Scientist. Retrieved 22 February 2008.
  31. ^ a b c "US spy satellite plan 'a cover'". BBC News. 17 February 2008. Retrieved 17 February 2019.
  32. ^ Schwartz, John (5 February 2008). "Satellite Spotters Glimpse Secrets, and Tell Them". The New York Times. Retrieved 17 February 2019.
  33. ^ Oberg, James (25 August 2008). "Assessing the hazards of space hydrazine, and the media reportage of it". The Space Review. Retrieved 17 February 2018.
  34. ^ Shachtman, Noah (15 February 2008). "Experts Scoff at Sat Shoot-Down Rationale (Updated)". Retrieved 17 February 2019.
  35. ^ Butt, Yousaf (2 September 2008). "On the technical study of USA-193's fuel tank reentry". The Space Review. Retrieved 17 February 2019.
  36. ^ Butt, Yousaf (21 August 2008). "Technical Comments on the U.S. Satellite Shootdown". Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists. Retrieved 17 February 2019.
  37. ^ Kelley, Robert L.; Rochelle, William C. (August 2008). Atmospheric Reentry of a Hydrazine Tank (PDF) (Report). NASA. Retrieved 17 February 2019 – via Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists.
  38. ^ Siemer, Hannah (17 April 2009). "Littering fine paid". The Esperance Express. Archived from the original on 24 January 2011. Retrieved 23 September 2011.
  39. ^ Chivers, Tom (21 February 2008). "Out-of-control satellite destroyed over Pacific". The Daily Telegraph. Retrieved 28 February 2011.
  40. ^ a b Data retrieved from the U.S. military's public satellite catalog maintained at "Space Track". Retrieved 12 August 2013.
  41. ^ "Rocket Delayed to Avoid Space Debris". USA Today. 28 February 2008. Retrieved 17 February 2019.
  42. ^ a b "SATCAT search". CelesTrak. Retrieved 17 February 2019.

External links

193 (number)

193 (one hundred [and] ninety-three) is the natural number following 192 and preceding 194.

1987 FINA Synchronised Swimming World Cup

The 3rd FINA Synchronised Swimming World Cup was held 1987 in Cairo, Egypt. It featured swimmers from 10 nations, swimming in three events: Solo, Duet and Team.

1993 FINA Synchronised Swimming World Cup

The 6th FINA Synchronised Swimming World Cup was held July 7–10, 1993 in Lausanne, Switzerland. It featured swimmers from 11 nations, swimming in three events: Solo, Duet and Team.

2017 World Weightlifting Championships – Men's 77 kg

The Men's 77 kg competition at the 2017 World Weightlifting Championships was held on 2 December 2017.

Anti-satellite weapon

Anti-satellite weapons (ASAT) are space weapons designed to incapacitate or destroy satellites for strategic military purposes. Several nations possess operational ASAT systems. Although no ASAT system has yet been utilised in warfare, a few nations have shot down their own satellites to demonstrate their ASAT capabilities in a show of force. Only the United States, Russia, China, and India have demonstrated this capability successfully.

Cape Cod Air Force Station

Cape Cod Air Force Station is a U.S. Air Force station located in the northwest corner of Joint Base Cape Cod, United States, on Flatrock Hill in Massachusetts. It consists of one PAVE PAWS radar station and is in continuous operation.

The facility became operational April 4, 1980 as Cape Cod Missile Early Warning Station, but was renamed Cape Cod Air Force Station on January 5, 1982.The facility became home to the 6th Space Warning Squadron after the closure of the North Truro Air Force Station in North Truro, Massachusetts.

Copper Harbor Front Range Light

The Copper Harbor Front Range Light is in Copper Harbor, Michigan.

While the Copper Harbor Light effectively illuminated the area of the harbor, it failed to guide mariners through the narrow opening of rocks at its entrance. Construction on the range lights were completed in 1869.

According to US Government publication, "The American Practical Navigator", Chapter 5:

Range lights are light pairs that indicate a specific line of position when they are in line. The higher rear light is placed behind the front light. When the mariner sees the lights vertically in line, he is on the range line. If the front light appears left of the rear light, the observer is to the right of the range line; if the front appears to the right of the rear, the observer is left of the range line.[1]

It is considered to be iconic, and has been the subject of memorabilia.

Future Imagery Architecture

Future Imagery Architecture (FIA) was a program to design a new generation of optical and radar imaging US reconnaissance satellites for the National Reconnaissance Office (NRO). In 2005 NRO director Donald Kerr recommended the project's termination, and the optical component of the program was finally cancelled in September 2005 by Director of National Intelligence John Negroponte. FIA has been called by The New York Times "perhaps the most spectacular and expensive failure in the 50-year history of American spy satellite projects." Despite the optical component's cancellation, the radar component, known as Topaz, has continued, with four satellites in orbit as of February 2016.

Kessler syndrome

The Kessler syndrome (also called the Kessler effect, collisional cascading or ablation cascade), proposed by the NASA scientist Donald J. Kessler in 1978, is a scenario in which the density of objects in low Earth orbit (LEO) is high enough that collisions between objects could cause a cascade where each collision generates space debris that increases the likelihood of further collisions. One implication is that the distribution of debris in orbit could render space activities and the use of satellites in specific orbital ranges impractical for many generations.

List of USA satellites

This is a list of satellites and spacecraft which have been given USA designations by the United States Air Force. These designations have been applied to most US military satellites since 1984, and replaced the earlier OPS designation. It is comparable to the Soviet/Russian Kosmos designation.

As of December 2018, USA designations have been assigned to 290 space missions. Note that there is not always a one-to-one mapping between launch vehicles and mission spacecraft. This can occasionally result in gaps when maintaining records that incorrectly make that assumption, such as the "missing" entries for USA-163 (which are, symmetrically, contemporary with confusion over "splitting" spacecraft tracks).

Operation Burnt Frost

Operation Burnt Frost was the code name given to the military operation to intercept and destroy a non-functioning U.S. National Reconnaissance Office (NRO) satellite named USA-193. The launch occurred on 20 February 2008 at approximately 10:26 p.m. EST from the USS Lake Erie, which used a Standard Missile-3 (SM-3) to shoot down the satellite. Only a few minutes after launch, the SM-3 intercepted its target and successfully completed its mission, by neutralizing the potential dangers the errant satellite originally imposed. While the threat was mitigated, Operation Burnt Frost has received much scrutiny from other countries, mainly China and Russia.


QuickBird was a high-resolution commercial earth observation satellite, owned by DigitalGlobe launched in 2001 and decayed in 2015. It was the first satellite in a constellation of three scheduled to be in orbit by 2008. QuickBird used Ball Aerospace's Global Imaging System 2000 (BGIS 2000). The satellite collected panchromatic (black and white) imagery at 61 centimeter resolution and multispectral imagery at 2.44- (at 450 km) to 1.63-meter (at 300 km) resolution, as orbit altitude is lowered during the end of mission life.At this resolution, detail such as buildings and other infrastructure are easily visible. However, this resolution is insufficient for working with smaller objects such as a license plate on a car. The imagery can be imported into remote sensing image processing software, as well as into GIS packages for analysis.

Contractors include Ball Aerospace & Technologies, Kodak and Fokker Space.

RIM-161 Standard Missile 3

The RIM-161 Standard Missile 3 (SM-3) is a ship-based missile system used by the United States Navy to intercept short- and intermediate-range ballistic missiles as a part of Aegis Ballistic Missile Defense System. Although primarily designed as an anti-ballistic missile, the SM-3 has also been employed in an anti-satellite capacity against a satellite at the lower end of low Earth orbit. The SM-3 is primarily used and tested by the United States Navy and also operated by the Japan Maritime Self-Defense Force.

Satellite watching

Satellite watching or satellite spotting is a hobby which consists of the observation and tracking of artificial satellites that are orbiting Earth. People with this hobby are variously called satellite watchers, trackers, spotters, observers, etc. Since satellites outside Earth's shadow reflect sunlight, those especially in low Earth orbit may visibly glint (or "flare") as they traverse the observer's sky, usually during twilight.


P78-1 or Solwind was a United States satellite launched aboard an Atlas F rocket from Vandenberg Air Force Base in California on February 24, 1979. The satellite operated until it was destroyed in orbit on September 13, 1985 to test the ASM-135 ASAT anti-satellite missile.

Speed skiing at the 1992 Winter Olympics

Speed skiing was a demonstration sport at the 1992 Winter Olympics. The venue was in Les Arcs, about 60 km from the host city Albertville. Michael Prufer, a 31-year-old medical doctor from Savoie, improved his own 1988 world record by 5.558 km/h. Philippe Goitschel, the nephew of French ski champion Marielle Goitschel, was second and the American Jeffrey Hamilton was third. The competition was, however, marred by the death of Nicolas Bochatay from Switzerland, who died while free skiing the morning of the finals.

Tarja Mulari from Finland achieved a top speed of 219.245 km/h, breaking the previous women's world record of 214.723 km/h.

Suborbital spaceflight in 2008

A number of Suborbital spaceflights were conducted during 2008. These consist mostly of sounding rocket missions and missile tests, and include other flights such as an ASAT firing. Between the start of the year and 16 July, at least 43 publicly announced suborbital spaceflights were conducted, the first of them on 11 January.

Synchronised swimming at the 1986 World Aquatics Championships

These are the results from the synchronised swimming competition at the 1986 World Aquatics Championships.

Ticonderoga-class cruiser

The Ticonderoga class of guided-missile cruisers is a class of warships in the United States Navy, first ordered and authorized in the 1978 fiscal year. The class uses passive phased-array radar and was originally planned as a class of destroyers. However, the increased combat capability offered by the Aegis Combat System and the AN/SPY-1 radar system, together with the capability of operating as a flagship, were used to justify the change of the classification from DDG (guided missile destroyer) to CG (guided-missile cruiser) shortly before the keels were laid down for Ticonderoga and Yorktown.

Ticonderoga-class guided-missile cruisers are multi-role warships. Their Mk 41 VLS can launch Tomahawk cruise missiles to strike strategic or tactical targets, or fire long-range antiaircraft Standard Missiles for defense against aircraft or anti-ship missiles. Their LAMPS III helicopters and sonar systems allow them to perform antisubmarine missions. Ticonderoga-class ships are designed to be elements of carrier battle groups or amphibious ready groups, as well as performing missions such as interdiction or escort. With upgrades to their AN/SPY-1 phased radar systems and their associated missile payloads as part of the Aegis Ballistic Missile Defense System, members of this class have, in successive tests, repeatedly demonstrated their proficiency as mobile anti-ballistic missile and anti-satellite weaponry platforms.

Of the 27 completed vessels, 19 were built by Ingalls Shipbuilding and eight by Bath Iron Works (BIW). All but one (Thomas S. Gates) of the ships in the class are named for noteworthy events in U.S. military history, and at least twelve share their names with World War II-era aircraft carriers. In 2016, 22 ships were still active and expected to serve for 35 years since commissioning.

Research and

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