A Uniform Resource Locator (URL), colloquially termed a web address, is a reference to a web resource that specifies its location on a computer network and a mechanism for retrieving it. A URL is a specific type of Uniform Resource Identifier (URI), although many people use the two terms interchangeably.[a] URLs occur most commonly to reference web pages (http), but are also used for file transfer (ftp), email (mailto), database access (JDBC), and many other applications.
Most web browsers display the URL of a web page above the page in an address bar. A typical URL could have the form
http://www.example.com/index.html, which indicates a protocol (
http), a hostname (
www.example.com), and a file name (
Uniform Resource Locators were defined in RFC 1738 in 1994 by Tim Berners-Lee, the inventor of the World Wide Web, and the URI working group of the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF), as an outcome of collaboration started at the IETF Living Documents Birds of a feather session in 1992.
The format combines the pre-existing system of domain names (created in 1985) with file path syntax, where slashes are used to separate directory and filenames. Conventions already existed where server names could be prefixed to complete file paths, preceded by a double slash (
Berners-Lee later expressed regret at the use of dots to separate the parts of the domain name within URIs, wishing he had used slashes throughout, and also said that, given the colon following the first component of a URI, the two slashes before the domain name were unnecessary.
An early (1993) draft of the HTML Specification referred to "Universal" Resource Locators. This was dropped some time between June 1994 (RFC 1630) and October 1994 (draft-ietf-uri-url-08.txt).
Every HTTP URL conforms to the syntax of a generic URI. The URI generic syntax consists of a hierarchical sequence of five components:
URI = scheme:[//authority]path[?query][#fragment]
where the authority component divides into three subcomponents:
authority = [userinfo@]host[:port]
This is represented in a syntax diagram as:
The URI comprises:
:), consisting of a sequence of characters beginning with a letter and followed by any combination of letters, digits, plus (
+), period (
.), or hyphen (
-). Although schemes are case-insensitive, the canonical form is lowercase and documents that specify schemes must do so with lowercase letters. Examples of popular schemes include
irc. URI schemes should be registered with the Internet Assigned Numbers Authority (IANA), although non-registered schemes are used in practice.[b]
:), followed by an at symbol (
@). Use of the format
username:passwordin the userinfo subcomponent is deprecated for security reasons. Applications should not render as clear text any data after the first colon (
:) found within a userinfo subcomponent unless the data after the colon is the empty string (indicating no password).
/). A path is always defined for a URI, though the defined path may be empty (zero length). A segment may also be empty, resulting in two consecutive slashes (
//) in the path component. A path component may resemble or map exactly to a file system path, but does not always imply a relation to one. If an authority component is present, then the path component must either be empty or begin with a slash (
/). If an authority component is absent, then the path cannot begin with an empty segment, that is with two slashes (
//), as the following characters would be interpreted as an authority component. The final segment of the path may be referred to as a 'slug'.
?), containing a query string of non-hierarchical data. Its syntax is not well defined, but by convention is most often a sequence of attribute–value pairs separated by a delimiter.
#). The fragment contains a fragment identifier providing direction to a secondary resource, such as a section heading in an article identified by the remainder of the URI. When the primary resource is an HTML document, the fragment is often an
idattribute of a specific element, and web browsers will scroll this element into view.
A web browser will usually dereference a URL by performing an HTTP request to the specified host, by default on port number 80. URLs using the
https scheme require that requests and responses will be made over a secure connection to the website.
Internet users are distributed throughout the world using a wide variety of languages and alphabets and expect to be able to create URLs in their own local alphabets. An Internationalized Resource Identifier (IRI) is a form of URL that includes Unicode characters. All modern browsers support IRIs. The parts of the URL requiring special treatment for different alphabets are the domain name and path.
The domain name in the IRI is known as an Internationalized Domain Name (IDN). Web and Internet software automatically convert the domain name into punycode usable by the Domain Name System; for example, the Chinese URL
xn-- indicates that the character was not originally ASCII.
The URL path name can also be specified by the user in the local writing system. If not already encoded, it is converted to UTF-8, and any characters not part of the basic URL character set are escaped as hexadecimal using percent-encoding; for example, the Japanese URL
http://example.com/%E5%BC%95%E3%81%8D%E5%89%B2%E3%82%8A.html. The target computer decodes the address and displays the page.
Protocol-relative links (PRL), also known as protocol-relative URLs (PRURL), are URLs that have no protocol specified. For example,
//example.com will use the protocol of the current page, either HTTP or HTTPS.
http://www.example.comis a URL, while
.0portions of dot-decimal notation to be dropped or raw integer IP addresses to be used.
The College Football Playoff (CFP) is an annual postseason knockout tournament to determine a national champion of the NCAA Division I Football Bowl Subdivision (FBS), the highest level of college football competition in the United States. The inaugural tournament was held at the end of the 2014 NCAA Division I FBS football season which was won by Ohio State. Four teams play in two semifinal games, and the winner of each semifinal advances to the College Football Playoff National Championship game.A 13-member committee selects and seeds the four teams to take part in the CFP. This system differs from the use of polls or computer rankings that had previously been used to select the participants for the Bowl Championship Series (BCS), the title system used in FBS from 1998 to 2013. The current format is a Plus-One system, an idea which became popular as an alternative to the BCS after the 2003 and 2004 seasons ended in controversy.The two semifinal games rotate among six major bowl games, referred to as the New Year's Six: the Rose Bowl, Sugar Bowl, Orange Bowl, Cotton Bowl, Fiesta Bowl, and Peach Bowl. In addition to the four teams selected for the playoff, the final CFP rankings are used to help determine the participants for the other four New Year's Six bowls that are not hosting the semifinals that year. The semifinal games, which take place on the same day, are usually scheduled on Friday, Saturday, or Monday close to or on New Years Day, with flexibility allowed to ensure that they are not in conflict with other bowl games traditionally held on New Year's Day. The National Championship game is then played on the first Monday that is six or more days after the semifinals.The venue of the championship game is selected based on bids submitted by cities, similar to the Super Bowl or NCAA Final Four. The winner of the game is awarded the College Football Playoff National Championship Trophy. Playoff officials commissioned a new trophy that was unconnected with the previous championship systems, such as the AFCA "crystal football" trophy which had been regularly presented after the championship game since the 1990s (as the AFCA was contractually obligated to name the BCS champion as the Coaches Poll champion).As the NCAA does not organize or award an official national championship for FBS football (instead merely recognizing the decisions made by any of a number of independent major championship selectors), the CFP's inception in 2014 marked the first time a major national championship selector in college football was able to determine their champion by using a bracket competition.Communist state
A Communist state (sometimes referred to as Marxist–Leninist state or workers' state) is a state that is administered and governed by a single party, guided by Marxist–Leninist philosophy, with the aim of achieving communism.There have been several instances of Communist states with functioning political participation processes involving several other non-party organisations, such as trade unions, factory committees and direct democratic participation. The term "Communist state" is used by Western historians, political scientists and media to refer to these countries. However, contrary to Western usage, these states do not describe themselves as "communist" nor do they claim to have achieved communism—they refer to themselves as Socialist or Workers' states that are in the process of constructing socialism.Communist states are typically administered by a single, centralised party apparatus, although some provide the impression of multiple political parties but these are all solely in control by that centralised party. These parties usually are Marxist–Leninist or some variation thereof (including Maoism in China), with the official aim of achieving socialism and progressing toward a communist society. These states are usually termed by Marxists as dictatorships of the proletariat, or dictatorships of the working class, whereby the working class is the ruling class of the country in contrast to capitalism, whereby the bourgeoisie is the ruling class.Creative Commons
Creative Commons (CC) is an American non-profit organization devoted to expanding the range of creative works available for others to build upon legally and to share. The organization has released several copyright-licenses known as Creative Commons licenses free of charge to the public. These licenses allow creators to communicate which rights they reserve, and which rights they waive for the benefit of recipients or other creators. An easy-to-understand one-page explanation of rights, with associated visual symbols, explains the specifics of each Creative Commons license. Creative Commons licenses do not replace copyright, but are based upon it. They replace individual negotiations for specific rights between copyright owner (licensor) and licensee, which are necessary under an "all rights reserved" copyright management, with a "some rights reserved" management employing standardized licenses for re-use cases where no commercial compensation is sought by the copyright owner. The result is an agile, low-overhead and low-cost copyright-management regime, benefiting both copyright owners and licensees.
The organization was founded in 2001 by Lawrence Lessig, Hal Abelson, and Eric Eldred with the support of Center for the Public Domain. The first article in a general interest publication about Creative Commons, written by Hal Plotkin, was published in February 2002. The first set of copyright licenses was released in December 2002. The founding management team that developed the licenses and built the Creative Commons infrastructure as we know it today included Molly Shaffer Van Houweling, Glenn Otis Brown, Neeru Paharia, and Ben Adida.In 2002 the Open Content Project, a 1998 precursor project by David A. Wiley, announced the Creative Commons as successor project and Wiley joined as CC director. Aaron Swartz played a role in the early stages of Creative Commons, as did Matthew Haughey.As of May 2018 there were an estimated 1.4 billion works licensed under the various Creative Commons licenses. Wikipedia uses one of these licenses. As of May 2018, Flickr alone hosts over 415 million Creative Commons licensed photos.Creative Commons is governed by a board of directors. Their licenses have been embraced by many as a way for creators to take control of how they choose to share their copyrighted works.DJ Khaled
Khaled Mohamed Khaled (born November 26, 1975), better known by his stage name DJ Khaled, is an American DJ, record producer, media personality, and record executive. He was a radio host for the Miami-based urban music radio station WEDR "99 Jamz" and the DJ for the hip hop group Terror Squad. From 2004 to 2006, Khaled assisted in the production of the hip-hop albums Real Talk by Fabolous, True Story by Terror Squad, and All or Nothing and Me, Myself, & I by Fat Joe.In 2006, Khaled released his debut studio album Listennn... the Album. He went on to release We the Best (2007), We Global (2008), Victory (2010), We the Best Forever (2011), Kiss the Ring (2012) and Suffering from Success (2013). In 2009, Khaled became the president of record label Def Jam South, and he is also the CEO and founder of We the Best Music Group. Khaled released his eighth studio album, I Changed a Lot, on October 23, 2015. In July 2016, he released his ninth studio album Major Key, and on June 23, 2017, his tenth studio album, Grateful, was released.
In November 2018, together with Floyd Mayweather Jr.; DJ Khaled agreed to a settlement payment with the Security and Exchange Commission (SEC), after having been charged with failing to report a promotional $50,000 payment from Centra Tech Inc. for touting its so-called initial coin offering (ICO) on his social media accounts.Digital object identifier
In computing, a Digital Object Identifier or DOI is a persistent identifier or handle used to uniquely identify objects, standardized by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO). An implementation of the Handle System, DOIs are in wide use mainly to identify academic, professional, and government information, such as journal articles, research reports and data sets, and official publications though they also have been used to identify other types of information resources, such as commercial videos.
A DOI aims to be "resolvable", usually to some form of access to the information object to which the DOI refers. This is achieved by binding the DOI to metadata about the object, such as a URL, indicating where the object can be found. Thus, by being actionable and interoperable, a DOI differs from identifiers such as ISBNs and ISRCs which aim only to uniquely identify their referents. The DOI system uses the indecs Content Model for representing metadata.
The DOI for a document remains fixed over the lifetime of the document, whereas its location and other metadata may change. Referring to an online document by its DOI is supposed to provide a more stable link than simply using its URL. But every time a URL changes, the publisher has to update the metadata for the DOI to link to the new URL. It is the publisher's responsibility to update the DOI database. If they fail to do so, the DOI resolves to a dead link leaving the DOI useless.
The developer and administrator of the DOI system is the International DOI Foundation (IDF), which introduced it in 2000. Organizations that meet the contractual obligations of the DOI system and are willing to pay to become a member of the system can assign DOIs. The DOI system is implemented through a federation of registration agencies coordinated by the IDF. By late April 2011 more than 50 million DOI names had been assigned by some 4,000 organizations, and by April 2013 this number had grown to 85 million DOI names assigned through 9,500 organizations.Eazy-E
Eric Lynn Wright (September 7, 1964 – March 26, 1995), known professionally as Eazy-E, was an American rapper, record producer, and entrepreneur. Dubbed the "Godfather of Gangsta Rap", he gained prominence for his work with N.W.A, where he has been credited for pushing the boundaries of lyrical and visual content in mainstream popular music.
Born and raised in Compton, Eazy-E faced several legal troubles before founding the Ruthless Records record label in 1986. After beginning a short solo career, where he worked heavily with Ice Cube and Dr. Dre, the trio came together to form the group N.W.A later that year. As a member of the group, he released the controversial album, Straight Outta Compton (1988), which tackled many socio-political issues. The album has been regarded as one of the greatest albums of all-time, and one of the most influential in the genre. The group released their final studio album three years later, and disbanded shortly after, due to long-standing financial disputes.
Eazy-E then resumed his solo career, where he released two EPs, which drew inspiration from funk music, contemporary hip-hop, and comedians. He also engaged in a high-profile feud with Dr. Dre, before being hospitalized with AIDS in 1995. He died a month after his hospitalization.Emma Roberts
Emma Rose Roberts (born February 10, 1991) is an American actress and singer. After making her film debut as Kristina Jung in the crime film Blow (2001), Roberts gained recognition for her lead role as Addie Singer on the Nickelodeon television series Unfabulous (2004–2007). She released her debut studio album Unfabulous and More in 2005. Roberts then appeared in numerous films, including Aquamarine (2006), Nancy Drew (2007), Wild Child (2008), Hotel for Dogs (2009), Valentine's Day (2010), It's Kind of a Funny Story (2010), and The Art of Getting By (2011).
Looking for more mature roles, Roberts obtained starring roles in the films Lymelife (2009), 188.8.131.52. (2010), Scream 4 (2011), Adult World (2013), We're the Millers (2013), Palo Alto (2013), The Blackcoat's Daughter (2015), and Nerve (2016). She starred in the lead role of Chanel Oberlin on the Fox horror-comedy series Scream Queens (2015–2016), and appeared in four seasons of the FX horror anthology series American Horror Story.File Transfer Protocol
The File Transfer Protocol (FTP) is a standard network protocol used for the transfer of computer files between a client and server on a computer network.
FTP is built on a client-server model architecture using separate control and data connections between the client and the server. FTP users may authenticate themselves with a clear-text sign-in protocol, normally in the form of a username and password, but can connect anonymously if the server is configured to allow it. For secure transmission that protects the username and password, and encrypts the content, FTP is often secured with SSL/TLS (FTPS) or replaced with SSH File Transfer Protocol (SFTP).
The first FTP client applications were command-line programs developed before operating systems had graphical user interfaces, and are still shipped with most Windows, Unix, and Linux operating systems. Many FTP clients and automation utilities have since been developed for desktops, servers, mobile devices, and hardware, and FTP has been incorporated into productivity applications, such as HTML editors.HTTPS
Hypertext Transfer Protocol Secure (HTTPS) is an extension of the Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP) for secure communication over a computer network, and is widely used on the Internet. In HTTPS, the communication protocol is encrypted using Transport Layer Security (TLS), or, formerly, its predecessor, Secure Sockets Layer (SSL). The protocol is therefore also often referred to as HTTP over TLS, or HTTP over SSL.
The principal motivation for HTTPS is authentication of the accessed website and protection of the privacy and integrity of the exchanged data while in transit. It protects against man-in-the-middle attacks. The bidirectional encryption of communications between a client and server protects against eavesdropping and tampering of the communication. In practice, this provides a reasonable assurance that one is communicating without interference by attackers with the website that one intended to communicate with, as opposed to an impostor.
Historically, HTTPS connections were primarily used for payment transactions on the World Wide Web, e-mail and for sensitive transactions in corporate information systems. Since 2018, HTTPS is used more often by web users than the original non-secure HTTP, primarily to protect page authenticity on all types of websites; secure accounts; and keep user communications, identity, and web browsing private.Lamar Jackson
Lamar Demeatrice Jackson Jr. (born January 7, 1997) is an American football quarterback for the Baltimore Ravens of the National Football League (NFL). He played college football at Louisville and was selected 32nd overall by the Ravens in the first round of the 2018 NFL Draft. At Louisville, Jackson won the Heisman Trophy, Maxwell Award, and Walter Camp Award and was a unanimous All-American as a sophomore in 2016.Lloyd Bridges
Lloyd Vernet Bridges Jr. (January 15, 1913 – March 10, 1998) was an American film, stage and television actor who starred in a number of television series and appeared in more than 150 feature films. He was the father of actors Beau Bridges and Jeff Bridges.
He started his career as a contract performer for Columbia Pictures, appearing in classics such as A Walk In The Sun, High Noon, Little Big Horn, and Sahara. By the end of his career, he had re-invented himself and demonstrated a gifted comedic talent in such parody films as Airplane!, Hot Shots!, and Jane Austen's Mafia! He acted in the role of "The President" in the comedy film Hot Shots! Part Deux.
Among other honors, Bridges was a two-time Emmy Award nominee. He received a star on the Hollywood Walk of Fame on February 1, 1994.Michelin Guide
Michelin Guides (French: Guide Michelin [ɡid miʃ.lɛ̃]) are a series of guide books published by the French tire company Michelin for more than a century. The term normally refers to the annually published Michelin Red Guide, the oldest European hotel and restaurant reference guide, which awards up to three Michelin stars for excellence to a select few establishments. The acquisition or loss of a star can have dramatic effects on the success of a restaurant. Michelin also publishes a series of general guides to cities, regions, and countries, the Green Guides.Percent-encoding
Percent-encoding, also known as URL encoding, is a mechanism for encoding information in a Uniform Resource Identifier (URI) under certain circumstances. Although it is known as URL encoding it is, in fact, used more generally within the main Uniform Resource Identifier (URI) set, which includes both Uniform Resource Locator (URL) and Uniform Resource Name (URN). As such, it is also used in the preparation of data of the application/x-www-form-urlencoded media type, as is often used in the submission of HTML form data in HTTP requests.Pornhub
Pornhub is a Canadian pornographic video sharing website and the largest pornography site on the Internet. Pornhub was launched in Montreal, providing professional and amateur photography since 2007. Pornhub also has offices and servers in San Francisco, Houston, New Orleans and London. In March 2010, Pornhub was bought by Manwin (now known as MindGeek), which owns numerous other pornographic websites.Republic of the Congo
The Republic of the Congo (pronunciation French: République du Congo, Kongo: Repubilika ya Kôngo), also known as Congo-Brazzaville, the Congo Republic or simply the Congo, is a country in Central Africa. It is bordered by five countries: Gabon to the west; Cameroon to the northwest; the Central African Republic to the northeast; the Democratic Republic of the Congo to the southeast; the Angolan exclave of Cabinda to the south; and the Atlantic Ocean to the southwest.
The region was dominated by Bantu-speaking tribes at least 3,000 years ago, who built trade links leading into the Congo River basin. Congo was formerly part of the French colony of Equatorial Africa. The Republic of the Congo was established on the 28th of November 1958 but gained independence from France in 1960. In 1970, the People's Republic of the Congo was established as a Marxist–Leninist one-party state; this lasted until 1991. The sovereign state has had multi-party elections since 1992, although a democratically elected government was ousted in the 1997 Republic of the Congo Civil War, and President Denis Sassou Nguesso, who first came to power in 1979, has ruled for 33 of the past 38 years.
The Republic of the Congo has become the fourth-largest oil producer in the Gulf of Guinea, providing the country with a degree of prosperity despite political and economic instability in some areas and unequal distribution of oil revenue nationwide. Congo's economy is heavily dependent on the oil sector, and economic growth has slowed considerably since the post-2015 drop in oil prices.Spirit
A spirit is a supernatural being, often, but not exclusively, a non-physical entity; such as a ghost, fairy, or angel. The concepts of a person's spirit and soul, often also overlap, as both are either contrasted with or given ontological priority over the body and both are believed to survive bodily death in some religions, and "spirit" can also have the sense of "ghost", i.e. a manifestation of the spirit of a deceased person. In English Bibles, "the Spirit" (with a capital "S"), specifically denotes the Holy Spirit.
Spirit is often used metaphysically to refer to the consciousness or personality.
Historically, it was also used to refer to a "subtle" as opposed to "gross" material substance, as in the famous last paragraph of Sir Isaac Newton's Principia Mathematica.Uniform Resource Identifier
A Uniform Resource Identifier (URI) is a string of characters that unambiguously identifies a particular resource. To guarantee uniformity, all URIs follow a predefined set of syntax rules, but also maintain extensibility through a separately defined hierarchical naming scheme (e.g. "http://").
Such identification enables interaction with representations of the resource over a network, typically the World Wide Web, using specific protocols. Schemes specifying a concrete syntax and associated protocols define each URI. The most common form of URI is the Uniform Resource Locator (URL), frequently referred to informally as a web address. More rarely seen in usage is the Uniform Resource Name (URN), which was designed to complement URLs by providing a mechanism for the identification of resources in particular namespaces.Vivek Oberoi
Vivek Oberoi (born Vivekanand Oberoi on 3 September 1976) is an Indian film actor, philanthropist and entrepreneur. He predominantly appears in Hindi films. He has portrayed a variety of characters and has won many awards, including two Filmfare Awards from five nominations. He is the son of Bollywood actor Suresh Oberoi.
He made his Hindi film debut with Ram Gopal Varma's super-hit Company (2002). His performance in the film earned him several awards including the Filmfare Awards for Best Male Debut and Best Supporting Actor. Following this he achieved wider success for his performances in the 2002 romantic drama Saathiya, the 2004 comedy Masti, the 2005 natural horror Kaal and the 2007 biographical action Shootout at Lokhandwala.
Oberoi garnered critical appreciation for portraying a ghost in the 2003 anthology slasher horror fantasy Darna Mana Hai, a wealthy young man who unwillingly enters politics in the 2004 political thriller Yuva, a local village boy torn between Karma (the noble deed) and Dharma (the duty) in the 2005 musical Kisna: The Warrior Poet, a character based on William Shakespeare's Cassio in the 2006 crime film Omkara, a Muslim American war journalist in the 2009 romantic thriller Kurbaan and Paritala Ravindra in the 2010 biographical political action thriller Rakta Charitra. His biggest commercial successes include the comedy Grand Masti and the superhero Krrish 3 (both 2013).
In addition to his acting career, Oberoi is noted for his philanthropic work. He was awarded the Good Samaritan Award from Rotary International for his work with Project Hope and the Red and White Bravery Award in 2006 for helping re-build a village which was hit severely by tsunami. He has also founded The Yashodhara Oberoi Foundation (YOF). Oberoi serves as the World Health Organization's anti-tobacco spokesperson. He has been involved in projects such as Project Devi, Cancer Patients Aid Association and Banyan, which works towards rehabilitating mentally challenged homeless women. He has also participated stage shows, and featured as a talent judge for three seasons of the reality show India's Best Dramebaaz. He has often turned up on PETA's annual list of Sexiest Vegetarians and is the founder of
KARRM Infrastructures. He is married to Priyanka Alva with whom he has a son and a daughter.