UNICEF

The United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF), originally known as the United Nations International Children's Emergency Fund, was created by the United Nations General Assembly on 11 December 1946, to provide emergency food and healthcare to children and mothers in countries that had been devastated by World War II. The Polish physician Ludwik Rajchman is widely regarded as the founder of UNICEF and served as its first chairman from 1946. On Rajchman's suggestion, the American Maurice Pate was appointed its first executive director, serving from 1947 until his death in 1965.[1][2] In 1950, UNICEF's mandate was extended to address the long-term needs of children and women in developing countries everywhere. In 1953 it became a permanent part of the United Nations System, and the words "international" and "emergency" were dropped from the organization's name, though it retained the original acronym, "UNICEF".[3]

UNICEF relies on contributions from governments and private donors. UNICEF's total income for 2015 was US$5,009,557,471. Governments contribute two-thirds of the organization's resources. Private groups and individuals contribute the rest through national committees. It is estimated that 92 per cent of UNICEF revenue is distributed to program services.[4] UNICEF's programs emphasize developing community-level services to promote the health and well-being of children. UNICEF was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize in 1965 and the Prince of Asturias Award of Concord in 2006.

Most of UNICEF's work is in the field, with a presence in 190 countries and territories. UNICEF's network of over 150 country offices, headquarters and other offices, and 34 National Committees carry out UNICEF's mission through programs developed with host governments. Seven regional offices provide technical assistance to country offices as needed.

UNICEF's Supply Division is based in Copenhagen and serves as the primary point of distribution for such essential items as vaccines, antiretroviral medicines for children and mothers with HIV, nutritional supplements, emergency shelters, family reunification, and educational supplies.[5] A 36-member executive board establishes policies, approves programs and oversees administrative and financial plans. The executive board is made up of government representatives who are elected by the United Nations Economic and Social Council, usually for three-year terms.

UNICEF
Emblem of the United Nations
UNICEF Logo
AbbreviationUNICEF
Formation11 December 1946
TypeFund
Legal statusActive
HeadquartersNew York City, United States
Head
Executive Director of the United Nations Children’s Fund
Henrietta H. Fore
Parent organization
United Nations General Assembly
United Nations Economic and Social Council
Websitewww.unicef.org
UN emblem blue.svg United Nations portal

Governance

Sudan Envoy - UNICEF Tent
UNICEF-care tent in Sudan

Each country office carries out UNICEF's mission through a unique program of cooperation developed with the host government. This five-year program focuses on practical ways to realize the rights of children and women. Regional offices guide this work and provide technical assistance to country offices as needed. Overall management and administration of the organization takes place at headquarters, where global policy on children is shaped. Guiding and monitoring all of UNICEF's work is an Executive Board made up of 36 members who are government representatives. They establish policies, approve programs and decide on administrative and financial plans and budgets. Executive Board's work is coordinated by the Bureau, comprising the President and four Vice-Presidents, each officer representing one of the five regional groups. These five officers, each one representing one of the five regional groups, are elected by the Executive Board each year from among its members, with the presidency rotating among the regional groups on an annual basis. As a matter of custom, permanent members of the Security Council do not serve as officers of the Executive Board. Office of the Secretary of the Executive Board supports and services the Executive Board. It is responsible for maintaining an effective relationship between the Executive Board and the UNICEF secretariat, and helps to organize the field visits of the Executive Board.[6][7][8]

1 school in a box
UNICEF School in a box contains basic educational items for one teacher and 40 students

UNICEF national committees

There are national committees in 38 [industrialized] countries, each established as an independent local non-governmental organization. The national committees raise funds from the public sector.

UNICEF is funded entirely by voluntary contributions,[9] and the National Committees collectively raise around one-third of UNICEF's annual income. This comes through contributions from corporations, civil society organizations around six million individual donors worldwide.

Promotion and fundraising

In the United States, Nepal and some other countries, UNICEF is known for its "Trick-Or-Treat for UNICEF" program in which children collect money for UNICEF from the houses they trick-or-treat on Halloween night, sometimes instead of candy.

UNICEF is present in 191 countries and territories around the world, but not involved in nine others (Bahamas, Brunei, Cyprus, Latvia, Liechtenstein, Malta, Mauritius, Monaco, and Singapore).[10]

Many people in developed countries first hear about UNICEF's work through the activities of one of the 36 National Committees for UNICEF. These non-governmental organizations (NGO) are primarily responsible for fundraising, selling UNICEF greeting cards and products, creating private and public partnerships, advocating for children's rights, and providing other support. The US Fund for UNICEF is the oldest of the national committees, founded in 1947.[11]

On 19 April 2007, Grand Duchess Maria Teresa of Luxembourg was appointed UNICEF Eminent Advocate for Children,[12] in which role she has visited Brazil (2007),[13] China (2008),[14] and Burundi (2009).[15]

In 2009, the British retailer Tesco used "Change for Good" as advertising, which is trademarked by UNICEF for charity usage but not for commercial or retail use. This prompted the agency to say, "it is the first time in Unicef's history that a commercial entity has purposely set out to capitalise on one of our campaigns and subsequently damage an income stream which several of our programs for children are dependent on". They went on to call on the public "who have children’s welfare at heart, to consider carefully who they support when making consumer choices".[16][17]

In 2013 William Armstrong was the first British male to take on the 1,600-kilometre (990 mi) JOGLE solo unaided challenge raising funds and creating a media frenzy at the time. Many ambassadors including Hollywood actor Ewan McGregor were big fans of his quest to promote UNICEF.

Sponsorship

Lionel Messi 31mar2007
Lionel Messi wearing a Barcelona shirt with the UNICEF logo in 2007

On 7 September 2006, an agreement between UNICEF and the Spanish Catalan association football club FC Barcelona was reached whereby the club would donate €1.5 million per year to the organization for five years. As part of the agreement, FC Barcelona would wear the UNICEF logo on the front of their uniforms in the colour yellow (as seen in the picture on the right of Lionel Messi).[18] This was the first time a football club sponsored an organization rather than the other way around. It was also the first time in FC Barcelona's history that they have had another organization's name across the front of their uniform. In 2016, the team signed a new four-year sponsorship deal with UNICEF guaranteeing the organization £1.58 million per year and free advertising.[19]

In January 2007 UNICEF struck a partnership with Canada's national tent pegging team. The team was officially re-flagged as "UNICEF Team Canada", and its riders wear UNICEF's logo in competition, and team members promote and raise funds for UNICEF's campaign against childhood HIV-AIDS.[20] When the team became the 2008 tent pegging world champions, UNICEF's flag was raised alongside the Canadian flag at the games, the first time in the history of international Grand Prix equestrian competition that a non-state flag has flown over the medal podium.[21]

The Swedish club Hammarby IF followed the Spanish and Canadian lead on 14 April 2007,[22] also raising funds for UNICEF and displaying the UNICEF name on their sportswear. The Danish football club Brøndby IF participated in a similar arrangement from 2008 to 2013.[23]

In 2007, Race driver Jacques Villeneuve has occasionally placed the UNICEF logo on the #27 Bill Davis Racing pickup truck in the NASCAR Craftsman Truck Series.[24]

Australian A-League club Sydney FC announced they would also enter into a partnership with UNICEF raising funds for children in the Asia-Pacific region, and would also display the UNICEF logo for the remainder of the 2011-12 A-League season.[25]

Race driver Jacques Villeneuve has occasionally placed the UNICEF logo on the #27 Bill Davis Racing pickup truck in the NASCAR Craftsman Truck Series.

In Botswana, UNICEF has funded the development of new state-of-the-art HIV/AIDS education for every schoolchild in Botswana from nonprofit organization TeachAIDS.[26]

UNICEF announced a landmark partnership with Scottish club Rangers F.C. UNICEF partnered with the Rangers Charity Foundation and pledged to raise £300,000 by 2011.[27]

In 2010, UNICEF created a partnership with Phi Iota Alpha, making them the first Greek Lettered Organization UNICEF has ever worked with. In 2011, Phi Iota Alpha raised over $20,000 for the Tap Project and the Trick or Treats for UNICEF Campaign.

In 2013, they agreed a contract with Greek association football champions Olympiacos F.C. who will show the organization's logo on the front of their shirts.

UNICEF Kid Power

Started in 2015, Kid Power is a division of UNICEF that was created as an effort to involve kids in helping other kids in need. UNICEF Kid Power developed the world's first Wearable for Good,[28] called Kid Power Bands,[29] which is a kids’ fitness tracker bracelet that connects to a smartphone app. The app lets users complete missions, which counts total steps and awards points. The points then unlock funding from partners, which is then used by UNICEF to deliver lifesaving packets of therapeutic food to severely malnourished children around the world.

Trick-or-Treat UNICEF box

Since 1950, when a group of children in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, donated $17 which they received on Halloween to help post-World War II victims, the Trick-or-Treat UNICEF box has become a tradition in North America during the fall.[30] These small orange boxes are handed to children at schools and other locations before 31 October. As of 2012, the Trick-or-Treat for UNICEF campaign has collected approximately C$91 million in Canada and over US$167 million in the U.S.[31]

Cartoons for Children's Rights

In 1994, UNICEF held a summit encouraging animation studios around the world to create individual animated spots demonstrating the international rights of children. Cartoons for Children's Rights is the collection of animated shorts based on UNICEF's Convention on the Rights of the Child.

Corporate partnership

To raise money to support its Education and Literacy Programs, UNICEF collaborates with companies worldwide – international as well as small- and medium-sized businesses.

Since 2004, the organization has been supported by Montblanc, working collaboratively to help the world's children getting better access to education.[32]

According to Vaccine News Daily, Merck & Co. partnered with UNICEF in June 2013 to decrease maternal mortality, HIV and tuberculosis prevalence in South Africa. Merck's program "Merck for Mothers" will give US$500 million worldwide for programs that improve health for expectant mothers and their children.[33]

In May 2010, Crucell N.V. announced an additional US$110 million award from UNICEF to supply its pentavalent pediatric vaccine Quinvaxem to the developing world.[34]

Corporate Social Responsibility

UNICEF works directly with companies to improve their business practices, bringing them in line with obligations under international law, and ensuring that they respect children's rights in the realms of the marketplace, workplace, and the community. In 2012, UNICEF worked with Save the Children and The United Nations Global Compact to develop the Children's Rights and Business Principles and now these guidelines form the basis UNICEF's advice to companies. UNICEF works with companies seeking to improve their social sustainability by guiding them through a due diligence process where issues throughout their supply chain, such as child labor, can be identified and actions to ratify them are put in place.[35]

Girl Star

The Girl Star[36] project is a series of films which documents stories of girls from the most disadvantaged communities across five northern states in India who, through via education, have managed to break socio-economic constraints to make a success of their lives and become self-sufficient. These young women have grown to become role models in their communities, inspiring younger girls to go to school and continue their education. They have selected professions from the most conventional such as teaching and nursing, to the most unconventional like archery, bee-keeping, scrap management, often entering what has traditionally been a man's domain. Girl Star is also one of UNICEF's most known projects.

Kids United

Kids United is a French musical group of four children (six children when the group was formed) born between 2000 and 2007. It has been created to support UNICEF campaigns and is sponsored by Hélène Ségara and Corneille, two Francophone singers. The first album Un monde meilleur (A better world) was launched on Universal Children's Day in 2015, it received gold certification in France. The second album Tout le bonheur du monde was even certified 2x platinum.

U-report

U-Report is a free SMS social monitoring tool and real-time information system for community participation, designed to strengthen community-led development, citizen engagement, and positive change. SMS polls and alerts are sent out to U-reporters and real-time response information is collected. Results and ideas are shared back with the community. Issues polled include among others health, education, water, sanitation and hygiene, youth unemployment, HIV/ AIDS, disease outbreaks; social welfare sectors. The initiative is currently operational in 41 countries and covers more than 3 million people.

Celebrity ambassadors

UNICEF Ambassadors are leaders in the entertainment industry, representing the fields of film, television, music, sports and beyond. They help raise awareness of the needs of children, and use their talent and fame to fund-raise, advocate, and educate on behalf of UNICEF.[37]

Facilities

UNICEF world warehouse gate
One of the gates to the old UNICEF World Warehouse
UNICEF Innocenti Research Centre
The UNICEF research centre in Florence

UNICEF World Warehouse

The old UNICEF World Warehouse is a large facility in Denmark, which hosts UNICEF deliverable goods as well as co-hosts emergency goods for United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR) and the International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies (IFRC). Until 2012 the facilities was a 25,000m2 warehouse at Marmormolen in Copenhagen. With construction of a 45,000m2 UN City that is to house all UN activities in Copenhagen under one roof,[38] the warehouse service has been relocated to outer parts of the Freeport of Copenhagen. The facility houses the UNICEF Supply Division which manages strategic transport hubs in Dubai, Panama and Shanghai.[39] The warehouse contains a variety of items, e.g., food supplements, water purification tablets, dietary and vitamin supplements, and the "School in a box" (illustrated above).

UNICEF Innocenti Research Centre

The UNICEF Innocenti Research Centre in Florence, Italy, was established in 1988. The centre, formally known as the International Child Development Centres, has as its prime objectives to improve international understanding of issues relating to children's rights, to promote economic policies that advance the cause of children, and to help facilitate the full implementation of the United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child in industrialized and developing countries.

The program for 2006–2008 was approved by UNICEF Executive Board in September 2005.

It reaffirms the centre's academic freedom and the focus of IRC's research on knowledge gaps, emerging questions and sensitive issues which are relevant to the realization of children's rights, in developing and industrialized countries. It capitalizes on IRC's role as an interface between UNICEF field experience, international experts, research networks and policy makers and is designed to strengthen the centre's institutional collaboration with regional academic and policy institutions, pursuing the following goals:

  • Generation and communication of strategic and influential knowledge on issues affecting children and the realization of their rights;
  • Knowledge exchange and brokering;
  • Support to UNICEF's advocacy, policy's and program development in support of the Millennium Agenda
  • Securing and strengthening the centre's institutional and financial basis.

Three interrelated strategies guide the achievement of these goals:

  • Evidence-based analysis drawing on quantitative and qualitative information, the application of appropriate methodologies, and the development of recommendations to assess and inform advocacy and policy action.
  • Enhanced partnerships with research and policy institutions and development actors, globally and at regional level, in developing and industrialized countries.
  • Communication and leveraging of research findings and recommendations to support policy development and advocacy initiatives through strategic dissemination of studies and contribution to relevant events and fora.[40]

Controversies

Adoption program

UNICEF has a policy preferring orphanages only be used as temporary accommodation for children when there is no alternative. UNICEF has historically opposed the creation of large-scale, permanent orphanages for children, preferring instead to find children places in their (extended) families and communities, wherever possible. This has led UNICEF to be skeptical of international adoption efforts as a solution to child care problems in developing countries; UNICEF has preferred to see children cared for in their birth countries rather than be adopted by foreign parents.[41][42]

A 2015 article in U.S. News & World Report magazine asserted UNICEF's intervention that on giving large cash payments to developing countries can lead to a cessation of international adoptions until all of its recommendations are in place, and have even labeled UNICEF a "villain" for the extent of its negative impact on orphans.[43] Elizabeth Bartholet and Paulo Barrozo have written in this context, encouraging adoption protocols to take on a more child-centric viewpoint.

Infant mortality

One concern is that the child mortality rate has not decreased in some areas as rapidly as had been planned, especially in Sub-Saharan Africa, where in 2013 "the region still has the highest child mortality rate: 92 deaths per 1000 live births".[44] and that "Globally, nearly half of under-five deaths are attributable to undernutrition."

In 2005, Richard Horton editor-in-chief of The Lancet, editorialized that "over 60% of these deaths were and remain preventable" and that the coverage levels for these interventions are "appallingly low in the 42 countries that account for 90% of child deaths".[45]

NSA surveillance

Documents released by Edward Snowden in December 2013 showed that UNICEF was among the surveillance targets of British and American intelligence agencies.[46]

See also

References

  1. ^ Y. Beigbeder, New Challenges for UNICEF: Children, Women and Human Rights (p. 12), Springer, 2001, ISBN 9780230595576
  2. ^ "Fifty years for children". Retrieved 9 July 2015.
  3. ^ "About UNICEF - FAQ". UNICEF. What does the acronym UNICEF stand for?. Retrieved 4 April 2017.
  4. ^ Charity Navigator Rating – United States Fund for UNICEF. Charitynavigator.org. Retrieved on 2012-03-26.
  5. ^ Luk Van Wassenhove; Joachim Mikalsen; Charles Delagarde (April 27, 2017). "Agility Under Pressure". Insead.
  6. ^ "How UNICEF works". UNICEF. Retrieved 2017-06-06.
  7. ^ "Home". UNICEF. Retrieved 2017-06-06.
  8. ^ "Bureau". UNICEF. Retrieved 2017-06-06.
  9. ^ Presentation – UNICEF’s Resource Development Architecture Key Trends and Challenges. UNICEF. Retrieved on 2014-10-21.
  10. ^ "Information by country". UNICEF. 2014-03-17. Retrieved 2014-08-03.
  11. ^ US Fund for UNICEF, unicefusa.org Archived October 24, 2007, at the Wayback Machine
  12. ^ Press center – HRH Grand Duchess of Luxembourg becomes Eminent Advocate for Children. UNICEF. Retrieved on 2012-03-26.
  13. ^ Brazil – UNICEF Eminent Advocate for Children visits AIDS projects in São Paulo. UNICEF. Retrieved on 2012-03-26.
  14. ^ China – Summer camp aims to help children in China affected by AIDS. UNICEF. Retrieved on 2012-03-26.
  15. ^ Burundi – Grand Duchess Maria Teresa of Luxembourg visits Burundi. UNICEF. Retrieved on 2012-03-26.
  16. ^ "Unicef accuses Tesco of misusing charity slogan". The Irish Times, July 25, 2009 (2009-07-07). Retrieved on 2012-03-26.
  17. ^ Tesco in clash with UNICEF – Irish, Business. Independent.ie. July 26, 2009. Retrieved on 2012-03-26.
  18. ^ "Futbol Club Barcelona, UNICEF team up for children in global partnership". UNICEF. 7 September 2006.
  19. ^ Pete Jenson (February 25, 2016). "Barcelona Sign New Four-Year Deal With Unicef and Will Next Target New Contracts for Neymar and Sergio Busquets". Daily Mail.
  20. ^ UNICEF Team Canada, maharaj.org
  21. ^ Newstrack India "International Tent Pegging", January 14, 2008
  22. ^ UNICEF, Hammarby strikes partnership, hammarbyfotboll.se (in Swedish)
  23. ^ "UNICEF". Retrieved 9 July 2015.
  24. ^ Diego Mejia (October 5, 2007). "Grapevine: Villenueuve to Race for UNICEF". Autosport.
  25. ^ "Sydney FC and UNICEF do the rights things to improve child rights throughout Asia". UNICEF. 20 February 2012. Retrieved 24 February 2012.
  26. ^ "UNICEF funds TeachAIDS work in Botswana". TeachAIDS. 2 June 2010. Retrieved 16 December 2010.
  27. ^ "International Charity Partner – UNICEF". Rangers Charity Foundation. 10 September 2010. Retrieved 4 May 2011.
  28. ^ "Digital Humanitarian Missions: UNICEF Kid Power". Wired Magazine.
  29. ^ "UNICEF Kid Power Bands". UNICEF Kid Power.
  30. ^ Smylie, James H. (2001-01-01). "Presbyterians initiated UNICEF's 'Trick-or-Treat' program 50 years ago". The Presbyterian Outlook. Archived from the original on 2010-11-28.
  31. ^ "Trick-or-Treat for UNICEF". unicefusa.org. Archived from the original on 23 April 2013.
  32. ^ "Montblanc | UNICEF's corporate partnerships". UNICEF. Retrieved 2014-08-03.
  33. ^ Rogers, Emma (June 4, 2013). "Merck for Mothers contributes to UNICEF's South African efforts". Vaccine News Daily. Retrieved 6 June 2013.
  34. ^ "Crucell announces new award of $110 million for paediatric vaccine Quinvaxem by UNICEF". Leiden Bio Science Park. May 10, 2010. Archived from the original on August 8, 2014.
  35. ^ "Corporate Social Responsibility - Home". UNICEF. Retrieved 2014-08-03.
  36. ^ "UNICEF India - Media centre - Girl Star Project". Unicef.org. 2007-11-22. Retrieved 2014-08-03.
  37. ^ "UNICEF Ambassadors". UNICEF:United States Fund. UNICEF. Retrieved 28 April 2016.
  38. ^ By & Havn. "FN Byen" (in Danish). Archived from the original on 2012-09-01. Retrieved 2012-07-06.
  39. ^ "Copenhagen warehouse - Supplies and Logistics - UNICEF". UNICEF. 5 June 2015. Retrieved 9 July 2015.
  40. ^ Innocenti Research Centre, UNICEF-irc.org
  41. ^ "Bartholet article on human rights and adoption" (PDF).
  42. ^ "Both Ends Burning". Retrieved 9 July 2015.
  43. ^ Peter Roff. "Bureaucracy Keeps Adopted Children Stuck in International Limbo - US News". US News & World Report. Retrieved 9 July 2015.
  44. ^ Danzhen You, Lucia Hug and Yao Chen, "Levels and Trends in Child Mortality: Report 2014: Estimates Developed by the UN Interagency Group for Child mortality Estimation" Archived 2015-08-14 at the Wayback Machine. Published by the United Nations Children's Fund, The World Bank, the World Health Organization and the United Nations Population Division, 2014. Retrieved August 1, 2015. p. 1.
  45. ^ Horton, Richard (2004). "UNICEF leadership 2005–2015: a call for strategic change". The Lancet. 364 (9451): 2071–2074. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(04)17560-0. PMID 15589292.
  46. ^ GCHQ and NSA targeted charities, Germans, Israeli PM and EU chief The Guardian 20 December 2013

External links

Awards and achievements
Preceded by
Martin Luther King, Jr.
Nobel Peace Prize Laureate
1965
Succeeded by
René Cassin
1968
2010 UNICEF Open

The 2010 UNICEF Open was a tennis tournament played on outdoor grass courts. It was the 21st edition of the UNICEF Open, and was part of the 250 Series of the 2010 ATP World Tour, and of the WTA International tournaments of the 2010 WTA Tour. Both the men's and the women's events took place at the Autotron park in Rosmalen, near 's-Hertogenbosch, Netherlands, from 13 June through 19 June 2010. Sergiy Stakhovsky and Justine Henin won the singles titles.

2011 UNICEF Open

The 2011 UNICEF Open was a tennis tournament played on outdoor grass courts. It was the 22nd edition of the UNICEF Open, and was part of the 250 Series of the 2011 ATP World Tour, and of the WTA International tournaments of the 2011 WTA Tour. Both the men's and the women's events took place at the Autotron park in Rosmalen, near 's-Hertogenbosch, Netherlands, from 12 June until 18 June 2011. Dmitry Tursunov and Roberta Vinci won the singles title.

2012 UNICEF Open

The 2012 UNICEF Open was a tennis tournament played on outdoor grass courts. It was the 23rd edition of the UNICEF Open, and was part of the 250 Series of the 2012 ATP World Tour, and of the WTA International tournaments of the 2012 WTA Tour. Both the men's and the women's events took place at the Autotron park in Rosmalen, near 's-Hertogenbosch, Netherlands, from 17 June until 23 June 2012. David Ferrer and Nadia Petrova won the singles titles.

Anne Makinda

Anne Semamba Makinda (born 26 July 1949) is a Tanzanian politician and the first female Speaker of the National Assembly of Tanzania, in office from 2010 to 2015. She was the last Chairman and the first President of UNICEF at the international level from 1993 to 1994.

Audrey Hepburn

Audrey Hepburn (born Audrey Kathleen Ruston; 4 May 1929 – 20 January 1993) was a British actress, model, dancer, and humanitarian. Recognised as a film and fashion icon, Hepburn was active during Hollywood's Golden Age. She was ranked by the American Film Institute as the third-greatest female screen legend in Golden Age Hollywood, and was inducted into the International Best Dressed List Hall of Fame.

Born in Ixelles, Brussels, Hepburn spent her childhood between Belgium, England, and the Netherlands. In Amsterdam, she studied ballet with Sonia Gaskell, before moving to London in 1948, continuing her ballet training with Marie Rambert, and then performing as a chorus girl in West End musical theatre productions. Following minor appearances in several films, Hepburn starred in the 1951 Broadway play Gigi, after being spotted by French novelist Colette, on whose work the play was based.

She shot to stardom after playing the lead role in Roman Holiday (1953), for which she was the first actress to win an Academy Award, a Golden Globe Award, and a BAFTA Award for a single performance. That same year, Hepburn won a Tony Award for Best Lead Actress in a Play for her performance in Ondine. She went on to star in a number of successful films, such as Sabrina (1954), The Nun's Story (1959), Breakfast at Tiffany's (1961), Charade (1963), My Fair Lady (1964), and Wait Until Dark (1967), for which she received an Academy Award, Golden Globe, and BAFTA nominations. Hepburn won three BAFTA Awards for Best British Actress in a Leading Role. In recognition of her film career, she was awarded the Lifetime Achievement Award from BAFTA, the Golden Globe Cecil B. DeMille Award, the Screen Actors Guild Life Achievement Award, and the Special Tony Award. She remains one of only 15 people who have won Academy, Emmy, Grammy, and Tony Awards.

Hepburn appeared in fewer films as her life went on, devoting much of her later life to UNICEF. She had contributed to the organisation since 1954, then worked in some of the poorest communities of Africa, South America and Asia between 1988 and 1992. She was awarded the Presidential Medal of Freedom in recognition of her work as a UNICEF Goodwill Ambassador in December 1992. A month later, Hepburn died of appendiceal cancer at her home in Switzerland at the age of 63.

Female genital mutilation

Female genital mutilation (FGM), also known as female genital cutting and female circumcision, is the ritual cutting or removal of some or all of the external female genitalia. The practice is found in Africa, Asia and the Middle East, and within communities from countries in which FGM is common. UNICEF estimated in 2016 that 200 million women living today in 30 countries—27 African countries, Indonesia, Iraqi Kurdistan and Yemen—have undergone the procedures.Typically carried out by a traditional circumciser using a blade, FGM is conducted from days after birth to puberty and beyond. In half the countries for which national figures are available, most girls are cut before the age of five. Procedures differ according to the country or ethnic group. They include removal of the clitoral hood and clitoral glans; removal of the inner labia; and removal of the inner and outer labia and closure of the vulva. In this last procedure, known as infibulation, a small hole is left for the passage of urine and menstrual fluid; the vagina is opened for intercourse and opened further for childbirth.The practice is rooted in gender inequality, attempts to control women's sexuality, and ideas about purity, modesty and beauty. It is usually initiated and carried out by women, who see it as a source of honour and fear that failing to have their daughters and granddaughters cut will expose the girls to social exclusion. Adverse health effects depend on the type of procedure; they can include recurrent infections, difficulty urinating and passing menstrual flow, chronic pain, the development of cysts, an inability to get pregnant, complications during childbirth, and fatal bleeding. There are no known health benefits.There have been international efforts since the 1970s to persuade practitioners to abandon FGM, and it has been outlawed or restricted in most of the countries in which it occurs, although the laws are poorly enforced. Since 2010 the United Nations has called upon healthcare providers to stop performing all forms of the procedure, including reinfibulation after childbirth and symbolic "nicking" of the clitoral hood. The opposition to the practice is not without its critics, particularly among anthropologists, who have raised difficult questions about cultural relativism and the universality of human rights.

Katherine Maher

Katherine Roberts Maher (born April 18, 1983) is the chief executive officer and executive director of the Wikimedia Foundation, a position she has held since June 2016. Previously she was chief communications officer. In addition to a background in the field of information and communications technology, Maher has worked in the non-profit and international sectors focusing on the use of technology to empower human rights and international development.

List of UNICEF Goodwill Ambassadors

This is a list of UNICEF Goodwill Ambassadors and Advocates, who work on behalf of the United Nations Children's Fund for children's rights.

Metropolitan New York Library Council

The Metropolitan New York Library Council (METRO) is a non-profit organization that specializes in providing research, programming, and organizational tools for New York City libraries, archives, and museums. The council was founded in 1964 under the Education Law of the State of New York.Member institutions include the Brooklyn Public Library, City University of New York Libraries, Columbia University, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, Mercy College, Museum of Modern Art, New York Botanical Garden, New York Public Library, New York University, Queens Library, Rockefeller University, Westchester Library System, Sotheby's Institute of Art, Scholastic, Inc., and UNICEF.

Orlando Bloom

Orlando Jonathan Blanchard Bloom (born 13 January 1977) is an English actor. After making his breakthrough as Legolas in The Lord of the Rings film series, he rose to fame by further appearing in epic fantasy, historical epic, and fantasy adventure films. He later reprised his role as Legolas in The Hobbit film series. His other roles include Will Turner in the Pirates of the Caribbean film series, and Paris in Troy (2004).

Bloom subsequently established himself as a leading man in Hollywood films such as Balian de Ibelin in Ridley Scott's Kingdom of Heaven (2005) and Elizabethtown (2005). He made his professional stage debut in West End's In Celebration at the Duke of York's Theatre in London in 2007 and starred in a Broadway adaption of Romeo and Juliet in 2013. In 2009, Bloom was named a UNICEF Goodwill Ambassador. In 2015 he received the BAFTA Britannia Humanitarian Award.

Peter Ustinov

Sir Peter Alexander Ustinov, ( or ; 16 April 1921 – 28 March 2004), was a British actor, voice actor, writer, dramatist, filmmaker, theatre and opera director, stage designer, screenwriter, comedian, humourist, newspaper and magazine columnist, radio broadcaster and television presenter. He was a fixture on television talk shows and lecture circuits for much of his career. An intellectual and diplomat, he held various academic posts and served as a Goodwill Ambassador for UNICEF and President of the World Federalist Movement.

Ustinov was the winner of numerous awards over his life, including two Academy Awards for Best Supporting Actor, Emmy Awards, Golden Globes and BAFTA Awards for acting and a Grammy Award for best recording for children, as well as the recipient of governmental honours from, amongst others, the United Kingdom, France and Germany. He displayed a unique cultural versatility that has frequently earned him the accolade of a Renaissance man. Miklós Rózsa, composer of the music for Quo Vadis and of numerous concert works, dedicated his String Quartet No. 1, Op. 22 (1950) to Ustinov.

In 2003, Durham University changed the name of its Graduate Society to Ustinov College in honour of the significant contributions Ustinov had made as chancellor of the university from 1992 until his death.

Priyanka Chopra

Priyanka Chopra Jonas (pronounced [priˈjʌŋkaː ˈtʃoːpɽaː]; born 18 July 1982) is an Indian actress, singer, film producer, and the winner of the Miss World 2000 pageant. One of India's highest-paid and most popular celebrities, Chopra has received numerous awards, including a National Film Award and five Filmfare Awards. In 2016, the Government of India honoured her with the Padma Shri, and Time named her one of the 100 most influential people in the world. In 2017 and 2018, Forbes listed her among the World's 100 Most Powerful Women.

Although Chopra initially aspired to study aeronautical engineering, she accepted offers to join the Indian film industry, which came as a result of her pageant wins, making her Bollywood debut in The Hero: Love Story of a Spy (2003). She played the leading lady in the box-office hits Andaaz (2003) and Mujhse Shaadi Karogi (2004) and received critical acclaim for her breakout role in the 2004 thriller Aitraaz. In 2006, Chopra established herself as a leading actress of Indian cinema with starring roles in the top-grossing productions Krrish and Don. Following a brief setback, she was praised for playing a troubled model in the drama Fashion (2008), which won her the National Film Award for Best Actress. Chopra gained wider recognition for portraying a range of characters in the films Kaminey (2009), 7 Khoon Maaf (2011), Barfi! (2012), Mary Kom (2014), and Bajirao Mastani (2015), and featured in the commercially successful sequels Don 2 (2011) and Krrish 3 (2013). From 2015 to 2018, she starred as Alex Parrish in the ABC thriller series Quantico, becoming the first South Asian to headline an American network drama series. Chopra has since played supporting roles in the Hollywood comedies Baywatch (2017) and Isn't It Romantic (2019).

As a philanthropist, Chopra has worked with UNICEF since 2006 and was appointed as the national and global UNICEF Goodwill Ambassador for Child Rights in 2010 and 2016, respectively. She promotes social causes such as environment, health and education, and women's rights, and is vocal about gender equality and feminism. As a recording artist, she has released three singles. She is also the founder of the production company Purple Pebble Pictures, which released the acclaimed Marathi comedy-drama Ventilator (2016). Despite maintaining privacy, Chopra's off-screen life is the subject of substantial media coverage. She is married to the American singer Nick Jonas.

Ralph Fiennes

Ralph Nathaniel Twisleton-Wykeham-Fiennes (; born 22 December 1962) is an English actor, film producer, and director. A Shakespeare interpreter, he first achieved success onstage at the Royal National Theatre.

Fiennes's portrayal of Nazi war criminal Amon Göth in Schindler's List (1993) earned him nominations for the Academy Award for Best Supporting Actor and Golden Globe Award for Best Supporting Actor, and he won the BAFTA Award for Best Actor in a Supporting Role. His performance as Count Almásy in The English Patient (1996) garnered him a second Academy Award nomination, for Best Actor, as well as BAFTA and Golden Globe nominations.

Since then, Fiennes has appeared in a number of notable films, including Quiz Show (1994), Strange Days (1995), The End of the Affair (1999), Red Dragon (2002), Maid in Manhattan (2002), The Constant Gardener (2005), In Bruges (2008), The Reader (2008), Clash of the Titans (2010), Great Expectations (2012) and The Grand Budapest Hotel (2014). He voiced Rameses in The Prince of Egypt (1998) and Alfred Pennyworth in The Lego Batman Movie (2017). Fiennes is also known for his roles in major film franchises such as the Harry Potter film series (2005–2011), in which he played Lord Voldemort, and the James Bond series, in which he has played Gareth Mallory / M, starting with the 2012 film Skyfall.

In 2011, Fiennes made his directorial debut with his film adaptation of Shakespeare's tragedy Coriolanus, in which he also played the title character. Fiennes won a Tony Award for playing Prince Hamlet on Broadway. Since 1999, Fiennes has served as an ambassador for UNICEF UK. One of the highest profile actors in contemporary British popular culture, Fiennes appeared on Debrett's 2017 list of the most influential people in the UK. Fiennes is an Honorary Associate of London Film School.

Roger Moore

Sir Roger George Moore (14 October 1927 – 23 May 2017) was an English actor best known for playing British secret agent James Bond in seven feature films from 1973 to 1985, beginning with Live and Let Die. He was appointed a UNICEF Goodwill Ambassador in 1991 and was knighted by Queen Elizabeth II in 2003 for services to charity. In 2007, he received a star on the Hollywood Walk of Fame for his work in television and film. In 2008, the French government appointed him a Commander of the Ordre des Arts et des Lettres.

Rosmalen Grass Court Championships

The Rosmalen Grass Court Championships, from 2018 on also known by its sponsored name "Libéma Open", is a professional tennis tournament held in the town of Rosmalen, on the outskirts of the city of 's-Hertogenbosch, the Netherlands. The men's and women's tennis matches are played on outdoors grass courts at the Autotron convention center, and constitute a stage on the ATP Tour and the WTA Tour.

In 1989 a two-group round robin invitational tournament with eight players was organized in Rosmalen which was won by Miloslav Mečíř. The next year, 1990, the tournament became part of the newly founded ATP Tour and was officially called the Continental Grass Court Championships. At the time of its founding it was the only grass court tournament in continental Europe. The tournament is a preparation event for the Wimbledon Championships and was held the week prior to Wimbledon until 2014. From 2015 onwards it is held the week following the French Open. In 1996 a women's singles and doubles event dubbed Wilkinson Championships was added to the tournament.

The men's tournament is currently part of the ATP World Tour 250 and the women's tournament is part of the WTA International Tournaments series. In the past it was also known by previously sponsored names Ricoh Open, Heineken Trophy, Ordina Open, UNICEF Open and Topshelf Open.

Selena Gomez

Selena Marie Gomez (born July 22, 1992) is an American singer, actress, and producer. After appearing on the children's television series Barney & Friends, she received wider recognition for her portrayal of Alex Russo on the Disney Channel television series Wizards of Waverly Place, which aired for four seasons from 2007 until 2012.

With her former band Selena Gomez & the Scene, she attained the top-ten albums Kiss & Tell (2009), A Year Without Rain (2010) and When the Sun Goes Down (2011) on the US Billboard 200. As a solo artist, Gomez has released the two number-one albums Stars Dance (2013) and Revival (2015). She has also earned seven top-ten entries on the US Billboard Hot 100: "Come & Get It", "The Heart Wants What It Wants", "Good for You" with ASAP Rocky, "Same Old Love", "Hands to Myself", "We Don't Talk Anymore" and "It Ain't Me" with Kygo. In 2017, Billboard reported that Gomez has sold over 7 million albums and 22 million singles worldwide.Gomez's acting credits include starring roles in the films Another Cinderella Story (2008), Princess Protection Program (2009), Wizards of Waverly Place: The Movie (2009), Ramona and Beezus (2010), Monte Carlo (2011), Spring Breakers (2012), Getaway (2013) and The Fundamentals of Caring (2016). She voices the character of Mavis in the Hotel Transylvania film franchise. Outside of entertainment, Gomez released her own clothing line through Kmart in 2010 and a self-titled fragrance in 2013. In 2017, she released a limited-edition collection of handbags called "Selena Grace" that she designed in collaboration with the luxury brand Coach, Inc. She has worked with various charitable organizations for years and became a UNICEF ambassador at the age of seventeen. Gomez was the most followed Instagram user in the world before being surpassed by athlete Cristiano Ronaldo in late October 2018. Gomez has earned numerous awards throughout her career, including an ALMA Award, an American Music Award, an MTV Video Music Award, a People's Choice Award, two Billboard Women in Music Awards, and eighteen Teen Choice Awards.

Sharmila Tagore

Sharmila Tagore (also known as Begum Ayesha Sultana Khan following conversion to Islam and marriage; born 8 December 1944) is an Indian film actress known for her works in Hindi cinema as well as Bengali cinema. She has received two National Film Awards and two Filmfare Awards for her performances. She was one of the highest paid actresses in 70s and also one of the iconic veteran actresses of Indian Cinema.

She led the Indian Film Censor Board from October 2004 till March 2011. In December 2005 she was chosen as a UNICEF Goodwill Ambassador. She was one of the International Competition's Jury Members at the 2009 Cannes Film Festival. In 2013, she was awarded Padma Bhushan by the Government of India.

Téa Leoni

Elizabeth Téa Pantaleoni (; born February 25, 1966), better known by her stage name Téa Leoni, is an American actress and producer.

In her early career, she starred in the television sitcoms Flying Blind (1992–93) and The Naked Truth (1995–98). Her breakthrough role was in the 1995 action comedy film Bad Boys. In later years, Leoni had the female lead roles in films including Deep Impact (1998), The Family Man (2000), Jurassic Park III (2001), Spanglish (2004) and Fun with Dick and Jane (2005). In 2014, she returned to television in the leading role in the CBS political drama series Madam Secretary.

U-Report

U-Report is a free social messaging tool and a real-time information system that allows community participation. It is basically designed to strengthen community-led development, citizen engagement, and positive change. SMS polls and alerts are sent out to U-reporters and real-time response information is collected. Results and ideas are shared back with the community. Issues polled include health, education, water, sanitation and hygiene, youth unemployment, HIV/ AIDS, disease outbreaks, and anything else under the social welfare segment. The initiative is currently operational in 41 countries and covers more than 3 million people.

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