U.S. Steel

United States Steel Corporation (NYSEX), more commonly known as U.S. Steel, is an American integrated steel producer headquartered in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, with production operations in the United States and Central Europe. As of 2016, the company was the world's 24th-largest steel producer and second-largest domestic producer, trailing only Nucor Corporation.

Though renamed USX Corporation in 1986, the company returned to its present name in 2001 after spinning off its energy business, including Marathon Oil, and other assets from its core steel concern. The company experienced significant downsizing during the 1980s; a decline in market capitalization resulted in its removal from the S&P 500 Index in 2014.[3][4]

United States Steel Corporation
Public
Traded asNYSEX
S&P 400 Component
IndustrySteel
FoundedMarch 2, 1901 by merger/buyout of Carnegie Steel by:
Elbert Gary
William Moore
J. P. Morgan
HeadquartersU.S. Steel Tower
Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, US
Area served
Worldwide
Key people
David S. Sutherland
(Chairman)
David Burritt
(President and CEO)
ProductsFlat-rolled steel
Tubular steel
Iron ore
ServicesConsulting
RevenueIncrease US$12.25 billion (2017)[1]
Increase US$608 million (2017)[1]
Increase US$387 million (2017)[1]
Total assetsIncrease US$9.862 billion (2017)[1]
Total equityIncrease US$3.320 billion (2017)[1]
Number of employees
29,800[2] (2018)
WebsiteUSSteel.com

History

Formation

J. P. Morgan and attorney Elbert H. Gary founded U.S. Steel on March 2, 1901 (incorporated on February 25)[5] by combining Andrew Carnegie's Carnegie Steel Company with Gary's Federal Steel Company and William Henry "Judge" Moore's National Steel Company[6][7] for $492 million ($14.82 billion today). At one time, U.S. Steel was the largest steel producer and largest corporation in the world. It was capitalized at $1.4 billion ($42.2 billion today),[3] making it the world's first billion-dollar corporation.[8] The company established its headquarters in the Empire Building at 71 Broadway in New York City; it remained a major tenant in the building for 75 years.[9]

In 1907 US Steel bought its largest competitor, the Tennessee Coal, Iron and Railroad Company, which was headquartered in Birmingham, Alabama. Tennessee Coal was replaced in the Dow Jones Industrial Average by the General Electric Company. The federal government attempted to use federal antitrust laws to break up U.S. Steel in 1911, but that effort ultimately failed. In 1902, its first full year of operation, U.S. Steel made 67 percent of all the steel produced in the United States. About 100 years later, as of 2001 it produced only 8 percent more than it did in 1902 and its shipments accounted for only about 8 percent of domestic consumption.[3]

According to author Douglas Blackmon in Slavery by Another Name,[10] the growth of U.S. Steel and its subsidiaries in the South was partly dependent on the labor of cheaply paid black workers and exploited convicts. The company could obtain black labor at a fraction of the cost of white labor by taking advantage of the Black Codes and discriminatory laws passed in the late 19th and early 20th centuries by Southern states after the Reconstruction Era. In addition, U.S. Steel had agreements with more than 20 counties in Alabama to obtain the labor of its prisoners, often paying locales nine dollars a month for workers who would be forced into their mines through a system of convict leasing. This practice continued until at least the late 1920s. While some individuals were guilty of a crime they did not receive payment or recognition for their work; and many died from abuse, malnutrition, and dire working and living conditions. This practice was not, however, unique to U.S. Steel as eight Southern states had similar practices and many companies, as well as farmers, took advantage of this. [11][10]

The Corporation, as it was known on Wall Street,[3] was distinguished by its size, rather than for its efficiency or creativeness during its heyday. In 1901, it controlled two-thirds of steel production[3] and, through its Pittsburgh Steamship Company, developed the largest commercial fleet on the Great Lakes.[12] Because of heavy debts taken on at the company's formation—Carnegie insisted on being paid in gold bonds for his stake—and fears of antitrust litigation, U.S. Steel moved cautiously. Competitors often innovated faster, especially Bethlehem Steel, run by U.S. Steel's former first president, Charles M. Schwab. U.S. Steel's share of the expanding market slipped to 50 percent by 1911.[3] James A. Farrell was named president in 1911 and served until 1932.

Mid century

U.S. Steel ranked 16th among United States corporations in the value of World War II production contracts.[13] Production peaked at more than 35 million tons in 1953. Its employment was greatest in 1943, when it had more than 340,000 employees.[3]

The federal government intervened to try to control U.S. Steel. President Harry S. Truman attempted to take over its steel mills in 1952 to resolve a crisis with its union, the United Steelworkers of America. The Supreme Court blocked the takeover by ruling that the president did not have the Constitutional authority to seize the mills (see Youngstown Sheet & Tube Co. v. Sawyer.[14]) President John F. Kennedy was more successful in 1962 when he pressured the steel industry into reversing price increases that Kennedy considered dangerously inflationary.[15] In the postwar years, the steel industry and heavy manufacturing went through restructuring that caused a decline in US Steel's need for labor, production, and portfolio. Many jobs moved offshore. By 2000, the company employed 52,500 people.[3]

Pittsburgh-pennsylvania-usx-tower
The U.S. Steel Tower in downtown Pittsburgh.

The USX period

In the early days of the Reagan Administration, steel firms won substantial tax breaks in order to compete with imported goods. But instead of modernizing their mills, steel companies shifted capital out of steel and into more profitable areas. In March 1982, U.S. Steel took its concessions and paid $1.4 billion in cash and $4.7 billion in loans for Marathon Oil, saving approximately $500 million in taxes through the merger. The architect of tax concessions to steel firms, Senator Arlen Specter (R-PA), complained that "we go out on a limb in Congress and we feel they should be putting it in steel."[16] The events are the subject of a song by folk singer Anne Feeney.

In 1984 the federal government prevented U.S. Steel from acquiring National Steel, and political pressure from the United States Congress, as well as the United Steelworkers (USW), forced the company to abandon plans to import British Steel Corporation slabs.[3] U.S. Steel finally acquired National Steel's assets in 2003 after National Steel went bankrupt. As part of its diversification plan, U.S. Steel had acquired Marathon Oil on January 7, 1982, as well as Texas Oil and Gas several years later. Recognizing its new scope, it reorganized its holdings as USX Corporation in 1986, with U.S. Steel (renamed USS, Inc.) as a major subsidiary.[17]

About 22,000 USX employees stopped work on August 1, 1986, after the United Steelworkers of America and the company could not agree on new employee contract terms. This was characterized by the company as a strike and by the union as a lockout. This resulted in most USX facilities becoming idle until February 1, 1987, seriously degrading the steel division's market share. A compromise was brokered and accepted by the union membership on January 31, 1987.[18] On February 4, 1987, three days after the agreement had been reached to end the work stoppage, USX announced that four USX plants would remain closed permanently, eliminating about 3,500 union jobs.[18] The closure of many plants created the term "rust belt" for a region of idle and derelict factories.

Corporate raider Carl Icahn launched a hostile takeover of the steel giant in late 1986 in the midst of the work stoppage. He conducted separate negotiations with the union and with management and proceeded to have proxy battles with shareholders and management. But he abandoned all efforts to buy out the company on January 8, 1987, a few weeks before union employees returned to work.[18]

Recent history

0013TIARA P1000433
The U.S. Steel Tower in New York City (now One Liberty Plaza).

At the end of the twentieth century, the corporation was deriving much of its revenue and net income from its energy operations. Led by CEO Thomas Usher, U.S. Steel spun off Marathon and other non-steel assets (except railroad company Transtar) in October 2001. It expanded internationally for the first time by purchasing operations in Slovakia and Serbia.[19]

In the early 2010s, U.S. Steel began investing to upgrade software programs throughout their manufacturing facilities.[20]

In January 2012, U.S. Steel sold its Serbian mills outside Belgrade to the Serbian government, as their operations had been running at an economic loss.[21]

On May 2, 2014, U.S. Steel announced an undisclosed number of layoffs affecting employees worldwide.[22] On July 2, 2014, U.S. Steel was removed from S&P 500 index and placed in the S&P MidCap 400 Index, in light of its declining market capitalization.[4]

Railroad ownership

U.S. Steel once owned the Northampton & Bath Railroad.[23] The N&B was an 11-kilometer (6.8 mi) short-line railroad built in 1904 that served Atlas Cement in Northampton, Pennsylvania, and Keystone Cement in Bath, Pennsylvania.[24] By 1979 cement shipments had dropped off such that the railroad was no longer economically viable, and US Steel abandoned the line. A 1.5-kilometer (0.93 mi) section of track was retained to serve Atlas Cement. The remainder of the right-of-way was transformed into the Nor-Bath Trail.[25] U.S. Steel also owned the Atlantic City Mine Railroad, whose 76.7-mile line in Wyoming operated from 1962 until 1983 and served an iron ore mine north of Atlantic City, Wyoming.

Through its Transtar subsidiary, U.S. Steel also owned other railroads that served its mines and mills. Those properties included the Duluth, Missabe & Iron Range Railway in the iron-mining region of northeast Minnesota; the Elgin, Joliet & Eastern that served its Gary Works in northwest Indiana; the Birmingham Southern serving the U.S. Steel mill in Birmingham, Alabama; and the Bessemer & Lake Erie and Union railroads in western Pennsylvania that delivered iron ore and provided plant-switching services at its mill complex in Braddock, Pennsylvania and coke works in Clairton, Pennsylvania.

U.S. Steel also owned a large Great Lakes commercial freighter fleet, under the Pittsburgh Steamship Company, that transported its raw materials from the Duluth area to Ashtabula, Gary, and Conneaut, Ohio. The laker fleet, the B&LE, and the DM&IR were acquired by Canadian National after U.S. Steel sold most of Transtar to that company. The ships are leased out to a different, domestic operator because of United States cabotage law.

Inclusion in the Dow Jones Industrial Average (1901–1991)

U.S. Steel is a former Dow Jones Industrial Average component, listed from April 1, 1901, to May 3, 1991. It was removed under its USX Corporation name with Navistar International and Primerica.[26] An original member of the S&P 500 since 1957, U.S. Steel was removed from that index on July 2, 2014, due to declining market capitalization.[4][27]

Dividend history

The Board of Directors considers the declaration of dividends four times each year, with checks for dividends declared on common stock mailed for receipt on 10 March, June, September, and December. In 2008, the dividend was $0.30 per share, the highest in company history, but on April 27, 2009, it was reduced to $0.05 per share.[28] Dividends may be paid by mailed check, direct electronic deposit into a bank account, or be reinvested in additional shares of U.S. Steel common stock.[29]

Legal issues

Labor

U.S. Steel maintained the labor policies of Andrew Carnegie, which called for low wages and opposition to unionization. The Amalgamated Association of Iron and Steel Workers union that represented workers at the Homestead, Pennsylvania, plant was, for many years, broken after a violent strike in 1892. U.S. Steel defeated another strike in 1901, the year it was founded. U.S. Steel built the city of Gary, Indiana in 1906, and 100 years later it remained the location of the largest integrated steel mill in the Northern Hemisphere. U.S. Steel reached a détente with unions during World War I, when under pressure from the Wilson Administration it relaxed its opposition to unions enough to allow some to operate in certain factories. It returned to its previous policies as soon as the war ended, however, and in a 1919 strike defeated union-organizing efforts by William Z. Foster of the AFL.[30]

Heavy pressure from public opinion forced the Company to give up its 12-hour day and adopt the standard eight-hour day.[31] During the 1920s, U.S. Steel, like many other large employers, coupled paternalistic employment practices with "employee representation plans" (ERPs), which were company unions sponsored by management. These ERPs eventually became an important factor leading to the organization of the United Steelworkers of America. The Company dropped its hard-line, anti-union stance in 1937, when Myron Taylor, then president of U.S. Steel, agreed to recognize the Steel Workers Organizing Committee, an arm of the Congress of Industrial Organizations (CIO) led by John L. Lewis. Taylor was an outsider, brought in during the Great Depression to rescue U.S. Steel, and had no emotional investment in the Company's long history of opposition to unions. Watching the upheaval caused by the United Auto Workers' successful sit-down strike in Flint, Michigan, and convinced that Lewis was someone he could deal with on a businesslike basis, Taylor sought stability through collective bargaining.[32][33]

The Steelworkers continue to have a contentious relationship with U.S. Steel, but far less so than the relationship that other unions had with employers in other industries in the United States. They launched a number of long strikes against U.S. Steel in 1946 and a 116-day strike in 1959, but those strikes were over wages and benefits and not the more fundamental issue of union recognition that led to violent strikes elsewhere.[34][35]

The Steelworkers union attempted to mollify the problems of competitive foreign imports by entering into a so-called Experimental Negotiation Agreement (ENA) in 1974. This was to provide for arbitration in the event that the parties were not able to reach agreement on any new collective bargaining agreements, thereby preventing disruptive strikes. The ENA failed to stop the decline of the steel industry in the U.S.[36]

U.S. Steel and the other employers terminated the ENA in 1984. In 1986, U.S. Steel employees stopped work after a dispute over contract terms, characterized by the company as a strike and by the union as a lockout. In a letter to striking employees in 1986, Johnston warned, "There are not enough seats in the steel lifeboat for everybody."[37] In addition to reducing the role of unions, the steel industry had sought to induce the federal government to take action to counteract dumping of steel by foreign producers at below-market prices. Neither the concessions nor anti-dumping laws have restored the industry to the health and prestige it once had.[38]

Environmental record

During the 1948 Donora smog, an air inversion trapped industrial effluent (air pollution) from the American Steel and Wire plant and U.S. Steel's Donora Zinc Works in Donora, Pennsylvania.

In three days, 20 people died... After the inversion lifted, another 50 died, including Lukasz Musial, the father of baseball great Stan Musial. Hundreds more lived the rest of their lives with damaged lungs and hearts. But another 40 years would pass before the whole truth about Donora's bad air made public-health history.[39]

Today the Donora Smog Museum in that city tells of the influence that the hazardous Donora Smog had on the air quality standards enacted by the federal government in subsequent years.

Researchers at the Political Economy Research Institute have ranked U.S. Steel as the eighth-greatest corporate producer of air pollution in the United States (down from their 2000 ranking as the second-greatest).[40] In 2008, the company released more than one million kg (2.2 million pounds) of toxins, chiefly ammonia, hydrochloric acid, ethylene, zinc compounds, methanol, and benzene, but including manganese, cyanide, and chromium compounds.[41] In 2004, the city of River Rouge, Michigan and the residents of River Rouge and the nearby city of Ecorse filed a class-action lawsuit against the company for "the release and discharge of air particulate matter...and other toxic and hazardous substances"[42] at its River Rouge plant.[43]

The Company has also been implicated in generating water pollution and toxic waste. In 1993, the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) issued an order for U.S. Steel to clean up a site on the Delaware River in Fairless Hills, Pennsylvania, where the soil had been contaminated with arsenic, lead, and other heavy metals, as well as naphthalene. Groundwater at the site was found to be polluted with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and trichloroethylene (TCE).[44] In 2005, the EPA, United States Department of Justice, and the State of Ohio reached a settlement requiring U.S. Steel to pay more than $100,000 in penalties and $294,000 in reparations in answer to allegations that the company illegally released pollutants into Ohio waters.[45] U.S. Steel's Gary, Indiana facility has been repeatedly charged with discharging polluted wastewater into Lake Michigan and the Grand Calumet River. In 1998 the company agreed to payment of a $30 million settlement to clean up contaminated sediments from a five-mile (8 km) stretch of the river.[46]

With the exception of the Fairless Hills and Gary facilities, the lawsuits concern facilities acquired by US Steel via its 2003 purchase of National Steel Corporation, not its historic facilities.

Legacy

U.S. Steel Tower

The U.S. Steel Tower in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania is named after the company and since 1970, the company's corporate headquarters have been located there. It is the tallest skyscraper in the downtown Pittsburgh skyline built out of the companies CorTen Steel.[47] New York City's One Liberty Plaza was also built by the corporation as that city's U.S. Steel Tower in 1973.[48]

Steelmark logo
The "Steelmark" logo, originated by U.S. Steel

When the Steelmark logo was created, U.S. Steel attached the following meaning to it: "Steel lightens your work, brightens your leisure and widens your world."[49] The logo was used as part of a major marketing campaign to educate consumers about how important steel is in people's daily lives. The Steelmark logo was used in print, radio and television ads as well as on labels for all steel products, from steel tanks to tricycles to filing cabinets.[50]

In the 1960s, U.S. Steel turned over the Steelmark program to the AISI, where it came to represent the steel industry as a whole. During the 1970s, the logo's meaning was extended to include the three materials used to produce steel: yellow for coal, orange for ore and blue for steel scrap. In the late 1980s, when the AISI founded the Steel Recycling Institute (SRI), the logo took on a new life reminiscent of its 1950s meaning.[51]

The Pittsburgh Steelers professional football team borrowed elements of its logo, a circle containing three hypocycloids, from the Steelmark logo belonging to the American Iron and Steel Institute (AISI) and created by U.S. Steel. In the 1950s, when helmet logos became popular, the Steelers added players' numbers to either side of their gold helmets. Later that decade, the numbers were removed and in 1962, Cleveland's Republic Steel suggested to the Steelers that they use the Steelmark as a helmet logo.[52]

U.S. Steel financed and constructed the Unisphere in Flushing Meadows-Corona Park, Queens, New York for the 1964 World's Fair. It is the largest globe ever made and is one of the world's largest free-standing sculptures.[53][54]

Fabrication of Chicago Picasso Sculpture

The Chicago Picasso sculpture was fabricated by U.S. Steel in Gary, Indiana, before being disassembled and relocated to Chicago.[55] U.S. Steel donated the steel for the cathedral of St. Michael's in Chicago since 90 percent of the parishioners worked at its mills.[56]

"United States Steel Hour" Television Program and Walt Disney World involvement

U.S. Steel sponsored The United States Steel Hour television program from 1945 until 1963 on CBS. U.S. Steel built both the Disney's Contemporary Resort[57][58][59] and the Disney's Polynesian Resort in 1971 at Walt Disney World, in part to showcase its residential steel building "modular" products to high-end and luxury consumers.[60]

Real Estate Development

U.S. Steel was also involved with Florida real estate development including building beachfront condominiums during the 1970s, such as Sand Key near Daytona Beach, Florida[61][62][63], and the Pasadena Yacht and Country Club near St. Petersburg, Florida[64].

Facilities

Edgar Thomson
BOP Shop (Basic Oxygen Process) and Ladle Metallurgy Facility of the Edgar Thomson works, as of the mid-1990s

U.S. Steel has multiple domestic and international facilities.[65]

Of note in the United States is Clairton Works, Edgar Thomson Works, and Irvin Plant, which are all members of Mon Valley Works [66] just outside Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. Clairton Works is the largest coking facility in North America. Edgar Thomson Works is one of the oldest steel mills in the world. The Company acquired Great Lakes Works and Granite City Works, both large integrated steel mills, in 2003 and is partnered with Severstal North America in operating the world's largest electro-galvanizing line, Double Eagle Steel Coating Company at the historic Rouge complex in Dearborn, Michigan.

U.S. Steel's largest domestic facility is Gary Works, in Gary, Indiana, on the shore of Lake Michigan. For many years, the Gary Works Plant was the largest steel mill and it remains the largest integrated mill in North America. It was built in 1906 and has been operating since 28 June 1908. Gary is also home to the U.S. Steel Yard baseball stadium.

U.S. Steel operates a tin mill in East Chicago now known as East Chicago Tin.[67] The mill was idled in 2015, but reopened shortly after.[68]

U.S. Steel operates a sheet and tin finishing facility in Portage, Indiana, known as Midwest Plant, acquired after the National Steel Corporation bankruptcy. U.S. Steel acquired National Steel Corporation in May 2003 for $850 million and assumption of $200 million in debt. U.S. Steel operates Great Lakes Works in Ecorse, Michigan, Midwest Plant in Portage, Indiana, and Granite City Steel in Granite City, Illinois. In 2008 a major expansion of Granite City was announced, including a new coke plant with an annual capacity of 650,000 tons.[69]

U.S. Steel operates Fairfield Works in Fairfield, Alabama (Birmingham), employing 1,500 people, and operates a sheet galvanizing operation at the Fairless Works facility in Fairless Hills, Pennsylvania, employing 75 people.

U.S. Steel operates five pipe mills: Fairfield Tubular Operations in Fairfield, Alabama (Birmingham), Lorain Tubular Operations in Lorain, Ohio, McKeesport Tubular Operations, in McKeesport, PA, Texas Operations (Formerly Lone Star Steel) in Lone Star, TX, and Bellville Operations in Bellville, TX.

U.S. Steel operates two major taconite mining and pelletizing operations in northeastern Minnesota's Iron Range under the operating name Minnesota Ore Operations. The Minntac mine is located near Mountain Iron, Minnesota and the Keetac mine is near Keewatin, Minnesota. U.S. Steel announced on February 1, 2008, that it would be investing approximately $300 Million in upgrading the operations at Keetac, a facility purchased in 2003 from the now-defunct National Steel Corporation.[70]

U.S. Steel has completely closed nine of its major integrated mills. The Ohio Works and Macdonald Works in Youngstown, Ohio closed in 1980, The Duquesne Works in Duquesne, Pennsylvania and The Ensley Works in Ensley, Alabama closed in 1984, The Homestead Works in Homestead, Pennsylvania closed in 1986, The Duluth Works in Duluth, Minnesota and Geneva Steel in Vineyard, Utah closed in 1987, The South Chicago's South Works closed in 1992, followed by The National Tube Works in Mckeesport, Pennsylvania closed in 2014

Internationally, U.S. Steel operates facilities in Slovakia (former East Slovakian Iron Works in Košice). It also operated facilities in Serbia – former Sartid with facilities in Smederevo (steel plant, hot and cold mill) and Šabac (tin mill).[71]

U.S. Steel added facilities in Texas with the purchase of Lone Star Steel Company in 2007.[72]

The company operates 2 joint ventures in Pittsburg, California with POSCO of South Korea.[73]

U.S. Steel added facilities in Hamilton and Nanticoke, Ontario, Canada with the purchase of Stelco (now U.S. Steel Canada) in 2007.[74] These facilities were sold in 2016 to venture capital firm Bedrock Resources and has since been renamed Stelco. The blast furnaces in Hamilton have not been reactivated as they were shut down by US Steel in 2013, but those at Nanticoke are functional.[75]

The company opened a training facility, the Mon Valley Works Training Hub, in Duquesne, Pennsylvania in 2008. The state-of-the-art facility, located on a portion of the property once occupied by the company's Duquesne Works, serves as the primary training site for employees at U.S. Steel's three Pittsburgh-area Mon Valley Works locations. This site also served as the company's temporary technical support headquarters during the 2009 G20 Summit.[76]

Presidents and CEOs

In popular culture

In the 1974 classic The Godfather Part II, Hyman Roth, played by Lee Strasberg says to Michael Corleone: "Michael...we're bigger than U.S. Steel." U.S. Steel's revenues in 1958, the year in which that scene is set, were $4.4 billion, or $38.3 billion in 2019 dollars.

See also

References

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Bibliography

External links

Archives and records

Amalgamated Association of Iron and Steel Workers

Amalgamated Association of Iron and Steel Workers (commonly known as the AA) was an American labor union formed in 1876 to represent iron and steel workers. It partnered with the Steel Workers Organizing Committee and CIO, in November 1935. Both organizations disbanded May 22, 1942, to form a new organization, the United Steelworkers.

Andrew Carnegie

Andrew Carnegie ( kar-NAY-gee, but commonly KAR-nə-ghee or kar-NEG-ee; November 25, 1835 – August 11, 1919) was a Scottish-American industrialist, business magnate, and philanthropist.

Carnegie led the expansion of the American steel industry in the late 19th century and is often identified as one of the richest people (and richest Americans) in history. He became a leading philanthropist in the United States and in the British Empire. During the last 18 years of his life, he gave away about $350 million to charities, foundations, and universities – almost 90 percent of his fortune. His 1889 article proclaiming "The Gospel of Wealth" called on the rich to use their wealth to improve society, and stimulated a wave of philanthropy.

Carnegie was born in Dunfermline, Scotland, and immigrated to the United States with his parents in 1848. Carnegie started work as a telegrapher, and by the 1860s had investments in railroads, railroad sleeping cars, bridges, and oil derricks. He accumulated further wealth as a bond salesman, raising money for American enterprise in Europe. He built Pittsburgh's Carnegie Steel Company, which he sold to J. P. Morgan in 1901 for $303,450,000. It became the U.S. Steel Corporation. After selling Carnegie Steel, he surpassed John D. Rockefeller as the richest American for the next couple of years.

Carnegie devoted the remainder of his life to large-scale philanthropy, with special emphasis on local libraries, world peace, education, and scientific research. With the fortune he made from business, he built Carnegie Hall in New York, NY, and the Peace Palace and founded the Carnegie Corporation of New York, Carnegie Endowment for International Peace, Carnegie Institution for Science, Carnegie Trust for the Universities of Scotland, Carnegie Hero Fund, Carnegie Mellon University, and the Carnegie Museums of Pittsburgh, among others.

Carnegie Steel Company

Carnegie Steel Company was a steel-producing company primarily created by Andrew Carnegie and several close associates, to manage businesses at steel mills in the Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania area in the late 19th century. The company formed in 1892 and was subsequently sold in 1901 in one of the largest ever business transactions of the early 20th century, to become the major component of the United States Steel Corporation. The subsequent sale made Carnegie one of the richest men in history.

Delray Connecting Railroad

Delray Connecting Railroad (reporting mark DC) is a railroad operating on Zug Island in Michigan. The railroad interchanges with the Canadian National (formerly Grand Trunk Western (GTW)), Norfolk Southern (NS), CSX and Conrail.Delray Connecting Railroad is owned and operated by Transtar, Inc., the railroad division of U.S. Steel. The Great Lakes Works, a steel mill, is the primary customer.

Gary, Indiana

Gary is a city in Lake County, Indiana, United States, 25 miles (40 km) from downtown Chicago, Illinois. Gary is adjacent to the Indiana Dunes National Park and borders southern Lake Michigan. Gary was named after lawyer Elbert Henry Gary, who was the founding chairman of the United States Steel Corporation. The city is known for its large steel mills, and as the birthplace of the Jackson 5 music group.The population of Gary was 80,294 at the 2010 census, making it the ninth-largest city in the state of Indiana. It was a prosperous city from the 1920s through the mid-1960s due to its booming steel industry, but overseas competition and restructuring of the steel industry resulted in a decline and a severe loss of jobs.

Since the late 1960s, Gary has suffered drastic population loss, falling by 55 percent from its peak of 178,320 in 1960. The city faces the difficulties of many Rust Belt cities, including unemployment, decaying infrastructure, and low literacy and educational attainment levels. It is estimated that nearly one-third of all houses in the city are unoccupied or abandoned.

Gary, West Virginia

Gary is a city located along the Tug Fork River in McDowell County, West Virginia, United States. According to the 2010 census, the city had a population of 968. It was named for Elbert Henry Gary, one of the founders of U.S. Steel. The former coal towns of Elbert, Filbert, Thorpe, and Wilcoe became part of Gary at the time of its incorporation in 1971.

Gary Railway

The Gary Railway (reporting mark GRW) is owned and operated by Transtar, Inc., a subsidiary of the United States Steel Corporation. It currently runs along 63 miles of yard track throughout Gary, Indiana as a class III switching carrier for local steel supply. The Gary Railway is the successor to the Elgin, Joliet and Eastern Railway after Canadian National Railway purchased the majority of the former EJE and finalized the deal on February 1 2009.Currently the Gary Railway's primary customer is the U.S. Steel works in Gary, Indiana. However, it also serves four additional steel processing groups: ArcelorMittal USA, Tube City IMS, Brandenburg Industrial, and the Levy Company. The railway interchanges with Canadian National at Gary as well as several other Class I rail carriers connected along the lines of the former Elgin, Joliet and Eastern Railway.

J. P. Morgan

John Pierpont Morgan Sr. (April 17, 1837 – March 31, 1913) was an American financier and banker who dominated corporate finance and industrial consolidation in the United States of America in the late 19th and early 20th centuries.

In 1892, Morgan arranged the merger of Edison General Electric and Thomson-Houston Electric Company to form General Electric. He also played important roles in the formation of the United States Steel Corporation, International Harvester and AT&T. At the height of Morgan's career during the early twentieth century, he and his partners had financial investments in many large corporations and had significant influence over the nation's high finance and United States Congress members. He directed the banking coalition that stopped the Panic of 1907. He was the leading financier of the Progressive Era, and his dedication to efficiency and modernization helped transform American business. Adrian Wooldridge characterized Morgan as America's "greatest banker".Morgan died in Rome, Italy, in his sleep in 1913 at the age of 75, leaving his fortune and business to his son, John Pierpont Morgan Jr. Biographer Ron Chernow estimated his fortune at only $118 million (of which approximately $50 million was attributed to his vast art collection), a net worth which prompted John D. Rockefeller to say: "and to think, he wasn't even a rich man."

List of tallest buildings in Pittsburgh

Pittsburgh, the second-largest city in the U.S. state of Pennsylvania, is home to 137 completed high-rises, 29 of which stand at least 300 feet (91 m) tall. The tallest building in Pittsburgh is the 64-story U.S. Steel Tower, which rises 841 feet (256 m) and was completed in 1970. It also stands as the fifth tallest building in Pennsylvania and the 43rd-tallest building in the United States. The second-tallest skyscraper in the city is BNY Mellon Center, which rises 725 feet (221 m).The history of skyscrapers in Pittsburgh began with the 1895 completion of the Carnegie Building; this structure, rising 13 floors, was the first steel-framed skyscraper to be constructed in the city. It never held the title of tallest structure in the city, however, as it did not surpass the 249-foot (76 m) tower of the Allegheny County Courthouse, which was completed in 1888. The Carnegie Building was later demolished in 1952 to make way for an expansion of a Kaufmann's (now Macy's) department store. Pittsburgh experienced a large building boom from the late 1960s to the late 1980s. During this time, 12 of the city's 21 tallest buildings were constructed, including the city's three tallest structures, the U.S. Steel Tower, BNY Mellon Center, and PPG Place. The city is the site of 10 skyscrapers at least 492 feet (150 m) in height, of which two rank among the tallest in the United States. As of 2014, the skyline of Pittsburgh is ranked 18th in the United States and 77th in the world with 25 buildings rising at least 330 feet (100 m) in height.Unlike many other major American cities, Pittsburgh was the site of relatively few skyscraper construction projects in the 2000s, with Three PNC Plaza being the only skyscraper taller than 300 feet (91 m) completed in the decade. The most recent completed high-rise development in Pittsburgh is the 545-foot (166 m) Tower at PNC Plaza, completed in 2015. Overall, as of January, 2017, there were no high-rise buildings under construction and one proposed for construction in Pittsburgh.

One Liberty Plaza

One Liberty Plaza, formerly the U.S. Steel Building, is a skyscraper in Lower Manhattan, in New York City, at the location of the former Singer Building (tallest structure ever dismantled) and the former City Investing Building. One Liberty Plaza is currently owned and operated by Brookfield Office Properties. The building is 743 ft (226 m) tall and has 54 floors. It was completed in 1973. At 2,300,000 sq ft (210,000 m2), each floor offers almost 1 acre (0.40 ha) of office space, making it one of the largest office buildings in New York.

Its facade is black, consisting of a structural steel frame. The building was originally commissioned by U.S. Steel. It once housed the headquarters of Merrill Lynch. Currently, a variety of tenants occupy the space, from large law firms to public and not-for-profit agencies like the Lower Manhattan Development Corporation and the World Trade Center Memorial Foundation as well as new businesses. The building is bordered by Broadway, Cortlandt Street, Church Street, and Liberty Street. South of the building is Zuccotti Park, formerly called Liberty Plaza Park.

Stelco

Stelco Holdings Inc. (known as U.S. Steel Canada from 2007 to 2016) is a steel company based in Hamilton, Ontario, Canada. Stelco was founded in 1910 from the amalgamation of several smaller firms. It continued on for almost 100 years, until it filed for bankruptcy in 2007 and was bought by U.S. Steel. In 2016, the company was sold to Bedrock Industries of the United States, which took the company public. The company made its debut on the Toronto Stock Exchange on Nov. 3, 2017.The Hamilton plant has not produced steel since 2011, but its coke ovens and cold rolling finishing works remain in operation. The company employs about 750 people in the Hamilton plant and 1,400 in Nanticoke, Ontario.

Tennessee Coal, Iron and Railroad Company

The Tennessee Coal, Iron and Railroad Company (1852–1952), also known as TCI and the Tennessee Company, was a major American steel manufacturer with interests in coal and iron ore mining and railroad operations. Originally based entirely within Tennessee, it relocated most of its business to Alabama in the late nineteenth century. With a sizable real estate portfolio, the company owned several Birmingham satellite towns, including Ensley, Fairfield, Docena, Edgewater and Bayview.

At one time the second largest steel producer in the USA, TCI was listed on the first Dow Jones Industrial Average in 1896. However, in 1907, the company was merged with its principal rival, the United States Steel Corporation. The Tennessee Coal, Iron and Railroad Company was subsequently operated as a subsidiary of U. S. Steel for 45 years until it became a division of its parent company in 1952.

Texas and Northern Railway

The Texas and Northern Railway (reporting mark TN) is an eight-mile (13 km) railroad connecting Lone Star, Texas, to the former Louisiana and Arkansas Railway at Cason between Daingerfield and Hughes Springs.

A number of branches have been removed over the years as mining of ore is no longer done. The blast furnace was shut down in the 1980s as well as the ore smelter. Only the electric blast furnace and the pipe rolling mill are still in operation along with warehouse facilities.

Operations have been cut back, and since Lone Star was purchased by U.S. Steel, the railroad is managed under that company's railroad division, Transtar, Inc.

Traffic consists of outbound pipe, and inbound scrap steel and alloy steel ingots.

For years the railroad bought secondhand ALCO diesel locomotives and heavily modified them for their and the steel mill railroad operations.

The United States Steel Hour

The United States Steel Hour is an anthology series which brought hour long dramas to television from 1953 to 1963. The television series and the radio program that preceded it were both sponsored by the United States Steel Corporation (U. S. Steel).

U.S. Steel Tower

U.S. Steel Tower, also known as the Steel Building, or UPMC Building (the largest tenant), (formerly USX Tower), is a 64-story, 256.34 m (841.0 ft) skyscraper at 600 Grant Street in downtown Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15219. It has with 2,300,000 sq ft (210,000 m2) of leasable space. It is the tallest skyscraper in Pittsburgh, the fifth tallest building in Pennsylvania, the 52nd tallest in the United States, and the 200th+ tallest building in the world. It is the tallest building in the world with a completely flat roof. It held its opening dedication on September 30, 1971.The tower's original name when completed was the U.S. Steel Tower and was changed to USX Tower in 1988. The name was finally changed back to the U.S. Steel Tower in January 2002 to reflect U.S. Steel's new corporate identity (USX was the 1990s combined oil/energy/steel conglomerate). Although no longer the owner of the building, U.S. Steel remains one of the largest tenants.

U.S. Steel Yard

U.S. Steel Yard is an open-air baseball stadium located in Gary, Indiana next to I-90 in the city's Emerson neighborhood. It is home to the Gary SouthShore RailCats, a professional baseball team and member of the American Association. It seats 6,139 people. It also hosts many Little League Baseball games as well as high school baseball games. The ballpark is notable for holding a memorial service for the late pop musician and Gary native Michael Jackson on July 10, 2009 that was attended by over 6,000 fans, with much of Jackson's family in attendance. The ballpark has had over 2 million fans in attendance during the RailCats team history.

U.S. Steel recognition strike of 1901

The U.S. Steel recognition strike of 1901 was an attempt by the Amalgamated Association of Iron, Steel and Tin Workers (the AA) to reverse its declining fortunes and organize large numbers of new members. The strike failed.

The AA had formed in 1876. It was a labor union of skilled iron and steel workers which was deeply committed to craft unionism. However, technological advances had reduced the number of skilled workers in both industries.

In 1892, the AA had lost a bitter strike at the Carnegie Steel Company's steel mill in Homestead, Pennsylvania. The Homestead strike, which culminated with a day-long gun battle on July 6 that left 12 dead and dozens wounded, led to a wave of de-unionization. From a high of more than 24,000 members in 1892, union membership had sunk to less than 8,000 by 1900.

Union Railroad (Pittsburgh)

The Union Railroad (reporting mark URR) is a Class III switching railroad located in Allegheny County in Western Pennsylvania. The company is owned by Transtar, Inc., which is itself a subsidiary of USS Corp, more popularly known as United States Steel. The railroad's primary customers are the three plants of the USS Mon Valley Works, the USS Edgar Thomson Steel Works (blast furnaces, basic oxygen steelmaking, and continuous slab casting), the USS Irvin Works (hot and cold rolling mills and finishing lines) and the USS Clairton Works (producer of coke for blast furnace ironmaking).

Weathering steel

Weathering steel, often referred to by the genericized trademark COR-TEN steel and sometimes written without the hyphen as corten steel, is a group of steel alloys which were developed to eliminate the need for painting, and form a stable rust-like appearance after several years exposure to weather.

U.S. Steel holds the registered trademark on the name COR-TEN. The name COR-TEN refers to the two distinguishing properties of this type of steel: corrosion resistance and tensile strength. Although USS sold its discrete plate business to International Steel Group (now Arcelor-Mittal) in 2003, it still sells COR-TEN branded material in strip-mill plate and sheet forms.

The original COR-TEN received the standard designation A242 (COR-TEN A) from the ASTM International standards group. Newer ASTM grades are A588 (COR-TEN B) and A606 for thin sheet. All alloys are in common production and use.

The surface oxidation of weathering steel takes six months, but surface treatments can accelerate the oxidation to as little as two hours.

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