The U.S. Immigration and Customs Enforcement (ICE) is a law enforcement agency of the federal government of the United States tasked to enforce the immigration laws of the United States and to investigate criminal and terrorist activity of transnational organizations and aliens within the United States. ICE has two primary components: Homeland Security Investigations (HSI) and Enforcement and Removal Operations (ERO).
ICE is a federal agency under the jurisdiction of the Department of Homeland Security (DHS) charged with the investigation and enforcement of over 400 federal statutes within the United States and also maintains attachés at major U.S. diplomatic missions overseas. ICE does not patrol American borders; rather, that role is performed by the United States Border Patrol, a unit of U.S. Customs and Border Protection, which is a sister agency of ICE. The current Acting Director of ICE, Matthew Albence, began on April 12, 2019.
|U.S. Immigration and Customs Enforcement|
Logo of the U.S. Immigration and Customs Enforcement
HSI Special Agent badge
Flag of the U.S. Immigration and Customs Enforcement
|Motto||"Protecting National Security and Upholding Public Safety"|
|Formed||March 1, 2003|
|Annual budget||$7.6 billion (2018)|
|Federal agency||United States|
|Operations jurisdiction||United States|
|Headquarters||500 12th Street SW|
U.S. Immigration and Customs Enforcement was formed pursuant to the Homeland Security Act of 2002, following the events of September 11, 2001. With the establishment of the Department of Homeland Security, the functions and jurisdictions of several border and revenue enforcement agencies were combined and consolidated into U.S. Immigration and Customs Enforcement. Consequently, ICE is the largest investigative arm of the Department of Homeland Security, and the second largest contributor to the nation's Joint Terrorism Task Force.
The agencies that were either moved entirely or merged in part into ICE included the criminal investigative and intelligence resources of the United States Customs Service, the criminal investigative, detention and deportation resources of the Immigration and Naturalization Service, and the Federal Protective Service. The Federal Protective Service was later transferred from ICE to the National Protection and Programs Directorate effective October 28, 2009. In 2003, Asa Hutchinson moved the Federal Air Marshals Service from the Transportation Security Administration (TSA) to ICE, but Michael Chertoff moved them back to the TSA in 2005.
U.S. Immigration and Customs Enforcement is responsible for identifying and eliminating border, economic, transportation, and infrastructure security vulnerabilities. There is an estimate of about more than 20,000 ICE employees in approximately over 400 offices within the United States and 46 other countries.
The organization is composed of two law enforcement directorates (HSI and ERO) and several support divisions each headed by a director who reports to an Executive Associate Director. The divisions of ICE provide investigation, interdiction and security services to the public and other law enforcement partners in the federal and local sectors.
HSI special agents investigate violations of more than 400 U.S. laws that threaten the national security of the United States such as counter-proliferation and export violations, human rights violations/war crimes, human smuggling, art theft, human trafficking, drug trafficking, arms trafficking, document and benefit fraud, the manufacturing and sale of counterfeit immigration and identity documents, transnational gangs, financial crimes including money laundering and bulk cash smuggling, trade-based money laundering (including trade finance and Kimberley Process investigations), computer crime, including child exploitation, intellectual property rights/trade fraud, import/export enforcement, trafficking of counterfeit pharmaceuticals and other merchandise, mass-marketing fraud, and international Cultural Property and Antiquities crimes. HSI agents can be requested to provide security for VIPs, and also augment the U.S. Secret Service during overtaxed times such as special security events and elections.
HSI was formerly known as the ICE Office of Investigations (OI). HSI agents have the statutory authority to enforce the Immigration and Nationality Act (Title 8), U.S. customs laws (Title 19), general federal crimes (Title 18), the Controlled Substances Act (Title 21), as well as Titles 5, 6, 12, 22, 26, 28, 31, 46, 49, and 50 of the U.S. Code. HSI has more than 6,500 special agents, making it the largest investigative entity in the Department of Homeland Security and the second largest in the federal government.
The Office of Intelligence is a subcomponent of HSI that employs a variety of special agents and Intelligence Research Specialists to facilitate HSI's tactical and strategic intelligence demands. Collectively, these intelligence professionals collect, analyze, and disseminate intelligence for use by the operational elements of DHS. The Office of Intelligence works closely with the intelligence components of other federal, state, and local agencies. Many HSI field offices assign intelligence analysts to specific groups, such as financial crimes, counter-proliferation, narcotics, or document fraud; or, alternatively, they can be assigned to a residential intelligence unit, known as a Field Intelligence Group (FIG). HSI agents assigned to FIGs generally focus on Human Intelligence (HUMINT) collection.
International Operations, formerly known as the Office of International Affairs (OIA), is a subcomponent of HSI with agents stationed in 60 locations around the world. HSI's foreign offices, known as Attaché Offices, work with foreign governments to identify and combat transnational criminal organizations before they threaten the United States. IO also facilitates domestic HSI investigations by providing intelligence from host countries, conducting collateral investigations, and facilitating international investigations conducted by field offices within the United States.
Seventeen HSI field offices maintain a Special Response Team (SRT) that operates as a federal SWAT element for the office's area of responsibility (AOR). SRT was founded under the U.S. Customs Service as the Warrant Entry and Tactical Team (WETT) and were renamed to SRT in 1998. The SRT handle HSI's high-risk arrest and search warrants, barricaded subjects, rural area operations, VIP protection, sniper coverage for high-risk operations, and security for National Security Events. HSI's active SRTs are located in Tampa, Miami, Arizona (Phoenix), New Orleans, Houston, New York, Boston, Dallas, Los Angeles, San Antonio, San Juan, Detroit, San Francisco, El Paso, Chicago, San Diego and Washington, D.C. There is also a team of instructors and coordinators stationed full-time in Columbus, Georgia. These teams primarily deploy to handle high-risk operations, but also assist in events such as Hurricane Katrina, the Haiti earthquake 2010, and other natural disasters around the globe.
SRT is a collateral duty open to HSI agents assigned to an office with a certified team. To qualify, candidates must pass a physical fitness test, qualify with multiple firearms by shooting 90% or better in full tactical gear, and pass an oral interview process. If a candidate passes these stages and is voted on the local team, they are then designated "Green Team" members and allowed to train with the certified team members. Green Team members are eventually sent to the SRT Initial Certification Course at the Office of Firearms and Tactical Programs, Tactical Operations Unit (OFTP/TOU) Fort Benning, Georgia, where they must pass additional physical fitness, firearms, scenario-based and written assessments. Out of approximately 6,500 special agents, there are currently only approximately 250 certified SRT members nationwide.
HSI SRTs often conduct training exercises with various federal, state and local teams, and also assist other teams during national events or large-scale operations that require multiple high-risk scenarios to be conducted simultaneously. The working relationship between the SRTs and the U.S. Department of Defense's U.S. Special Operations Command has led to SOCOM providing the SRTs with excess Mine Resistant Ambush Protected Vehicles (MRAPs), firearms, and other gear designed for the U.S. Tier One groups.
Seventeen HSI field offices maintain a Rapid Response Team (RRT) that operates as a federal tactical search and rescue element, operational 24 hours a day, seven days a week. Teams are designed to rapidly deploy nationwide to support rescue and recovery operations from natural and manmade disasters or other emergency events in which law enforcement and humanitarian support may be requested or required. HSI RRTs are always prepared to deploy to an affected area within 12 to 24 hours. HSI RRTs deploy under the direction of the local Special Agents in Charge, the Executive Associate Director of HSI, or a Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) Emergency Support Function (ESF) 13 declaration. HSI RRTs have deployed to events such as the Haiti earthquake 2010, Hurricane Harvey, Hurricane Maria, and other natural disasters and responses around the globe. The HSI RRT motto is, “Anytime, Anywhere,”.
The RRT is an all-volunteer collateral duty open to HSI special agents and HSI non-law enforcement personnel assigned to an office with a certified team. To qualify, candidates must pass a physical fitness test and pass an oral interview process. Eventually, team members attend the RRT Basic Certification Course, which includes instruction in first aid, land navigation, field patrol, rescue ropes, defensive tactics and disaster response training. The training culminates in multiple practical exercises simulating a broad range of disaster response-related scenarios. Additionally, individual RRTs have received advanced training and certifications, such as Search and Rescue (SAR) level two certification, tunnel and confined space rescue, and marine rescue.
ERO is responsible for enforcing the nation's immigration laws and ensuring the departure of removable immigrants from the United States. ERO uses its deportation officers to identify, arrest, and remove immigrants who violate U.S. immigration law. Deportation officers are responsible for the transportation and detention of immigrants in ICE custody to include the removal of immigrants to their country of origin. Deportation officers prosecute immigrants for violations of U.S. immigration and criminal law, monitor cases during deportation proceedings, supervise released immigrants, and remove immigrants from the United States. Deportation officers operate strategically placed Fugitive Operations Teams whose function is to locate, apprehend, and remove immigrants who have absconded from immigration proceedings and remain in the United States with outstanding warrants for deportation. ERO manages the Secure Communities program which identifies removable immigrants located in jails and prisons. Fingerprints submitted as part of the normal criminal arrest and booking process will automatically check both the Integrated Automatic Fingerprint Identification System (IAFIS) of the FBI's Criminal Justice Information Services (CJIS) Division and the Automated Biometric Identification System (IDENT) of the Department of Homeland Security's US-VISIT Program.
ERO was formerly known as the Office of Detention and Removal Operations (DRO).
OSLTC is ICE's primary outreach and communications component for state, local and tribal stakeholders. It is responsible for building and improving relationships, and coordinating activities with state, local, territorial, and tribal law enforcement agencies and through public engagement. It also fosters and sustains relationships with federal, state and local government officials and coordinates ICE ACCESS programs (Agreements of Cooperation in Communities to Enhance Safety and Security).
OPLA provides legal advice, training and services to support the ICE mission and defends the interests of the United States in the administrative and federal courts, including representing the government of foreign nationals for the purpose of removal (previously known as "deportation") process.
OPR is responsible for investigating allegations of misconduct involving employees of ICE. OPR preserves the organizational integrity of U.S. Immigration and Customs Enforcement by impartially, independently and thoroughly investigating allegations of criminal or serious administrative misconduct by ICE employees worldwide. Additionally, OPR inspects and reviews ICE offices, operations and processes so as to provide executive management with independent reviews of the agency's organizational health. In this role, OPR assesses the effectiveness and efficiency of ICE in carrying out its mission.
The Federal Air Marshal Service (FAMS) was aligned into ICE shortly after the creation of the Department of Homeland Security. On October 16, 2005, Homeland Security Secretary Michael Chertoff officially approved the transfer of the Federal Air Marshal Service from the Bureau of Immigration & Customs Enforcement (ICE) to the TSA as part of a broader departmental reorganization to align functions consistent with the Department of Homeland Security (DHS) "Second Stage Review" findings for:
As part of this realignment, the Director of the Federal Air Marshal Service also became the Assistant Administrator for the TSA Office of Law Enforcement (OLE), which houses nearly all TSA law enforcement services.
The Federal Protective Service (FPS) was moved from the General Services Administration (GSA) to ICE upon the creation of the Department of Homeland Security (DHS). The FPS was later moved out of ICE to the National Protection Programs Directorate.
Originally a part of the U.S. Customs Service's Office of Investigations, the Office of Air and Marine (then called the Air and Marine Interdiction Division) was transferred to ICE in 2003 during the creation of the Department of Homeland Security, becoming the Office of Air and Marine Operations. Due in part to a 500 million dollar budgetary dispute between CBP and ICE, in 2004 ICE Air and Marine Operations was transferred to U.S. Customs and Border Protection. CBP Air and Marine still works closely with ICE to support the agency's domestic and international law enforcement operations.
The Office of Detention Policy and Planning was responsible developing and maintaining ICE's National Detention Standards, which set out detailed rules for how immigration detainees were to be treated differently than criminal inmates. In April 2017, President Donald Trump decided to close the office and to stop including the standards in new jail contracts.
|No.||Picture||Name||Took office||Left office||President|
|1||Michael J. Garcia||March 2003||September 2005||George W. Bush|
|–||John P. Clark
|September 2005||January 2006|
|2||Julie Myers||January 4, 2006||November 14, 2008|
|–||John P. Torres
|November 17, 2008||May 12, 2009|
|3||John T. Morton||May 12, 2009||July 31, 2013||Barack Obama|
|August 1, 2013||February 21, 2014|
Acting as Principal Deputy Assistant Secretary
|March 16, 2014||December 23, 2014|
|4||Sarah Saldaña||December 23, 2014||January 20, 2017|
|January 20, 2017||January 30, 2017||Donald Trump|
|January 30, 2017||June 29, 2018|
|June 30, 2018||April 12, 2019|
|April 13, 2019||Present|
Newly hired ICE law enforcement personnel receive their training at the Federal Law Enforcement Training Center in Glynco, Georgia. To meet division specific academic and practical instruction, the ICE Academy varies in length from 4 to 6 months depending on the position. Furthermore, following graduation, all ICE law enforcement personnel undergo additional post academy training, as well as career-continuous training. Specific course curriculum is kept confidential, but both ERO and HSI new hires undergo training related to basic law enforcement tactics, immigration law, firearms training, emergency response driving, and Constitutional law. HSI agents also receive training regarding U.S. customs law, warrant service, advanced tactics, undercover operations, criminal interrogation, weapons of mass destruction, and other subjects routinely encountered by HSI agents in the field. ERO deportation officers undergo several weeks of intensive Spanish language training prior to graduating.
In February 2005, ICE began Operation Community Shield, a national law enforcement initiative that targets violent transnational street gangs through the use of ICE's broad law enforcement powers, including the unique and powerful authority to remove criminal immigrants, including illegal immigrants and legal permanent residents.
Immigration and Nationality Act Section 287(g) allows ICE to establish increased cooperation and communication with state, and local law enforcement agencies. Section 287(g) authorizes the Secretary of Homeland Security to enter into agreements with state and local law enforcement agencies, permitting designated officers to perform immigration law enforcement functions, pursuant to a Memorandum of Agreement (MOA), provided that the local law enforcement officers receive appropriate training and function under the supervision of sworn U.S. Immigration and Customs Enforcement officers. Under 287(g), ICE provides state and local law enforcement with the training and subsequent authorization to identify, process, and when appropriate, detain immigration offenders they encounter during their regular, daily law-enforcement activity.
The 287(g) program is extremely controversial; it has been widely criticized for increasing racial profiling by police and undermining community safety because unlawful immigrant communities are no longer willing to report crimes or talk to law enforcement.
The 287(g) program is one of several ICE ACCESS (ICE "Agreements of Cooperation in Communities to Enhance Safety and Security") programs that increase collaboration between local law enforcement and immigration enforcement agents.
ICE-HSI has played a key role in investigating and arresting citizens suspected of possessing and distributing child pornography.
ICE operates detention centers throughout the United States that detain illegal immigrants who are apprehended and placed into removal proceedings. About 34,000 people are held in immigration detention on any given day, in over 500 detention centers, jails, and prisons nationwide. Due to the United States detention bed quota, mandated by congress, that number will increase rather than decrease. The quota mandates at least 34,000 beds available for immigrants on any given day.
In 2006, the T. Don Hutto Residential Center opened specifically to house non-criminal families. Other significant facilities are located in Lumpkin, Georgia; Austin, Texas; Elizabeth, New Jersey; Oakdale, Louisiana; Florence, Arizona; Miami, Florida; Seattle; York, Pennsylvania; Batavia, New York; Aurora, Colorado; Aguadilla, Puerto Rico, and all along the Texas–Mexico border.
|Alabama||Etowah County Detention Center|
|Arizona||Central Arizona Detention Center|
|California||Adelanto Detention Center|
Contra Costa West County Detention Facility
|Florida||Baker County Detention Facility|
Broward Transitional Center
|Georgia||Atlanta City Detention Center|
Irwin County Detention Center
|Illinois||Jefferson County Justice Center|
McHenry County Jail
|Iowa||Hardin County Jail|
|Kentucky||Boone County Jail|
|Louisiana||LaSalle Detention Center|
Oakdale Detention Center
|Maryland||Worcester County Jail|
|Massachusetts||Bristol County Jail|
Plymouth County Correctional Facility
|Michigan||Calhoun County Jail|
Monroe County Jail
|Minnesota||Freeborn County Jail|
Ramsey County Jail
|New Mexico||Albuquerque Immigration Office|
|Texas||Dallas Immigration Detention Center|
T. Don Hutto Residential Center
|Washington||Tacoma Northwest Detention Center|
From October 2003 to 2007, a total of 107 deaths occurred in ICE detention centers. In January 2010, The New York Times and the American Civil Liberties Union (ACLU) obtained documents detailing the circumstances of these deaths, under the Freedom of Information Act. "The documents show how officials—some still in key positions—used their role as overseers to cover up evidence of mistreatment, deflect scrutiny by the news media or prepare exculpatory public statements after gathering facts that pointed to substandard care or abuse," The New York Times reported. The deaths in detention included the following cases:
Engineering and construction firm Kellogg, Brown and Root (KBR) released a press statement on January 24, 2006, that the company had been awarded a no-bid contingency contract from the Department of Homeland Security to support its ICE facilities in the event of an emergency. The maximum total value of the contract is $385 million and consists of a one-year base period with four one-year options. KBR held the previous ICE contract from 2000 through 2005. The contract provides for establishing temporary detention and processing capabilities to expand existing ICE Detention and Removal Operations Program facilities in the event of an emergency influx of immigrants into the U.S., or to support the rapid development of new programs. The contract may also provide migrant detention support to other government organizations in the event of an immigration emergency, the company said.
ICE Air is the aviation division of ICE that charters aircraft or books commercial flights to send deportees back to their home countries. There are 10 aircraft used to send deportees and has a working list of 185 countries.
Deportees have legs and arms secured while boarding, handcuffs are removed during flight and all shackles removed upon disembarking.
The Intercept published a report by the DHS Office of Inspector General revealing that 1,224 sexual abuse complaints while in immigration custody were filed between January 2010 and June 2017. Contrary to ICE's claims, only 2% of these complaints were investigated.
Between 2009 and 2016, the Barack Obama administration oversaw the deporting of a record 2.4 million immigrants, earning him the nickname "Deporter-In-Chief" by Janet Murguía, the president of National Council of La Raza. According to ICE data, about 40% of those deported by ICE in 2015 had no criminal conviction, while majority of those convicted were guilty of minor charges.
As part of the 2018 Trump administration's zero tolerance policy, nearly 3,000 minors were separated from their parents while trying to illegally cross the U.S.-Mexico border and placed in detention centers. Rolling Stone likened these centers to "prisons" while The Houston Chronicle reported that a movement swelled online to call them "concentration camps." Similarly, former First Lady of the United States Laura Bush compared the images of the centers to U.S. Japanese internment camps during the Second World War. 16 out of 34 of the centers located in Texas had previously been cited by Texas officials for more than 150 health violations. The former head of US Immigration and Customs Enforcement, John Sandweg, was critical of child separation, telling NBC News, "You could easily end up in a situation where the gap between a parent's deportation and a child's deportation is years," and that many children might never see their parents again.
Abolish ICE is a political movement that proposes abolition of the U.S. Immigration and Customs Enforcement (ICE). The movement gained traction in June 2018, due to controversy of the Trump administration family separation policy.Daniel Ragsdale
Daniel H. Ragsdale is an American lawyer and law enforcement official. From May 2012 through May 2017 he was Deputy Director of U.S. Immigration and Customs Enforcement (ICE). He was named Acting Director of ICE on January 20, 2017, but was dismissed from that position on January 30, 2017 shortly after the dismissal of Sally Yates by President Donald Trump, retaining his post as Deputy Director. He is currently employed by GEO Group, a private-prison company.Eloy Detention Center
The Eloy Detention Center is a private prison located in Eloy, Pinal County, Arizona, owned and operated by CoreCivic, formerly the Corrections Corporation of America, under contract with the U.S. Immigration and Customs Enforcement (ICE).Immigration and Nationality Act Section 287(g)
Section 287(g) of the U.S. Immigration and Nationality Act authorizes the Department of Homeland Security (DHS) to deputize selected state and local law enforcement officers to enforce federal immigration law. Section 287(g) allows the DHS and law enforcement agencies to make agreements, which require the state and local officers to receive training and work under the supervision of U.S. Immigration and Customs Enforcement. ICE provides the officers with authorization to identify, process, and—when appropriate—detain immigration offenders they encounter during their regular, daily law-enforcement activity.
Section 287(g), codified at 8 U.S.C. § 1357(g), was added by section 133 of the Illegal Immigration Reform and Immigrant Responsibility Act of 1996 (Division C, Title I of the Omnibus Consolidated Appropriations Act of 1997, Pub.L. 104–208, 110 Stat. 3001, enacted September 30, 1996).John P. Torres
John P. Torres was acting assistant secretary of homeland security for U.S. Immigration and Customs Enforcement (ICE). He was appointed on November 17, 2008.John T. Morton
John T. Morton (born 1966) was the Director of U.S. Immigration and Customs Enforcement (ICE) from 2009-2013. Morton was appointed unanimously by the U.S. Senate on May 12, 2009.National Intellectual Property Rights Coordination Center
The National Intellectual Property Rights Coordination Center (NIPRCC) is a U.S. government center overseen by U.S. Immigration and Customs Enforcement, a component of the U.S. Department of Homeland Security. The NIPRCC coordinates the U.S. government's enforcement of intellectual property laws.The NIPRCC was created in 2000, under the then-U.S. Customs Service as part of the implementation of the Clinton Administration's 1998 International Crime Control Strategy. The International Crime Control Strategy was developed to address the national security threat of international crime as determined by Presidential Decision Directive (PDD) 42 in 1995.
The NIPRCC hosts representatives from multiple government agencies that run in the center's activities. In alphabetical order, these entities include:
U.S. Customs and Border Protection
Defense Criminal Investigative Service
United States Department of Commerce (DOC)
U.S. International Trade Administration
Federal Bureau of Investigation
U.S. Food and Drug Administration's Office of Criminal Investigations
U.S. General Services Administration's Office of Inspector General
U.S. Immigration and Customs Enforcement
Naval Criminal Investigative Service
U.S. Patent and Trademark Office
U.S. Postal Inspection Service
U.S. Department of State's Office of International Intellectual Property EnforcementPilot programs are in place where representatives of the Royal Canadian Mounted Police and the Government of Mexico Tax Administration Service serve in the center in order to coordinate U.S. enforcement efforts with that of Canada and Mexico.Operation Community Shield (2005–present)
Operation Community Shield is an ongoing multi-agency law enforcement initiative targeting violent gang members and their associates involved in the illegal drug and human trafficking industries in the United States. Since its launch by U.S. Immigration and Customs Enforcement (ICE) in February 2005, Homeland Security Investigations (HSI) and other participating federal, state and local law enforcement agencies have made more than 40,000 gang-related arrests, including 451 gang leaders, representing more than 2,400 different gangs and organizations, and have seized more than 8,000 guns in multiple projects.Operation Endgame
Operation Endgame was a 2003–2012 plan under implementation by the Office of Detention and Removal Operations of the United States Department of Homeland Security Bureau of Immigration and Customs Enforcement to detain and deport all removable aliens and "suspected terrorists" currently living in the United States by 2012.Operation Front Line
Operation Front Line is an initiative of U.S. Immigration and Customs Enforcement (ICE), a division of the Department of Homeland Security, that operated in the months leading up to the 2004 presidential election and through the 2005 Presidential Inauguration.Operation Return to Sender
Operation Return to Sender is the name for a massive sweep of illegal immigrants by the U.S. Immigration and Customs Enforcement (ICE) agency that began on May 26, 2006.
According to ICE, the campaign has focused on individuals deemed to be the most dangerous, including convicted felons and gang members, particularly those of the notorious Mara Salvatrucha (MS-13) gang, as well as repeat offenders, some of whom had already been deported. As of late April 2007, over 23,000 illegal immigrants had been arrested.Project Southern Tempest
Project Southern Tempest was a major U.S. Immigration and Customs Enforcement (ICE) operation conducted between December 2010 and February 2011 targeting transnational street gang members with ties to drug cartels in Mexico, as part of the ongoing law enforcement initiative known as Operation Community Shield.Project Wildfire
Project Wildfire was a nationwide, multi-agency investigation of various transnational criminal gangs in 2015 that resulted in the arrests of 976 individuals, representing 239 different organizations, in 282 cities in the United States mainland and Puerto Rico. Eighty-two firearms, 5.2 kilograms of methamphetamine, 7.8 kilograms of marijuana, 5.6 kilograms of cocaine, 1.5 kilograms of heroin, $379,399, counterfeit merchandise with a suggested retail price of $547,534 and five vehicles were also seized.As part of the ongoing U.S. Immigration and Customs Enforcement (ICE) effort known as Operation Community Shield, Project Wildfire began on February 23, 2015, and concluded on March 31, with most arrests involving members and those affiliated with the Sureños, Norteños, Bloods, and the Crips, along with Puerto Rican gangs and several prison-based gangs. Arrests were made all around the country, with the greatest activity taking place in Texas, Detroit, Michigan, Los Angeles County, California, Florida and San Juan, Puerto Rico.Ronald Vitiello
Ronald Donato Vitiello (born July 30, 1963) is an American government official and former U.S. Border Patrol agent who served as Deputy Director and Acting Director of the U.S. Immigration and Customs Enforcement from June 30, 2018 to April 12, 2019. He previously served as Acting Deputy Commissioner of the U.S. Customs and Border Protection from 2017 to 2018 and Chief of the United States Border Patrol in 2017.Sarah Saldaña
Sarah R. Saldaña (born 1951) was the director of U.S. Immigration and Customs Enforcement (ICE) until January 20, 2017, when she was replaced by Deputy Director Daniel Ragsdale who became acting Director. She was the director of ICE on April 14, 2015, and during Project Shadowfire.Student and Exchange Visitor Program
The Student and Exchange Visitor Program is a program within U.S. Immigration and Customs Enforcement, which is under the U.S. Department of Homeland Security, to manage foreign students and exchange visitors in the United States through the Student and Exchange Visitor Information System (SEVIS). The SEVP encompasses the F status (for foreign students in the United States in academic programs and their dependents), J status (for exchange visitors in the United States and their dependents), and M status (for foreign students in the United States in vocational programs and their dependents). The exchange visitor part of the program (J visa) is managed by the U.S. Department of State, although the SEVIS system is maintained by ICE.Note that SEVP does not manage the issuance of the visas themselves. Visas are issued at United States consulates and embassies in other countries, which fall under the U.S. Department of State's Bureau of Consular Affairs. However, having the correct status and information in the SEVIS system is necessary for a person to be able to receive a F, J, or M visa.Note that the SEVP does not cover some other statuses that can be used by foreign students in the United States, such as the H-4 status and other statuses for dependents of people in non-student statuses.Thomas Homan
Thomas Douglas Homan (born November 28, 1961) is the former acting director of U.S. Immigration and Customs Enforcement (ICE).Thomas S. Winkowski
Thomas S. Winkowski was appointed the Principal Deputy Assistant Secretary for U.S. Immigration and Customs Enforcement (ICE) on March 16, 2014. He was previously Acting Commissioner of U.S. Customs and Border Protection (CBP). Winkowski has been awarded the Meritorious Presidential Rank Award by President George W. Bush in 2004 and the Distinguished Executive Presidential Rank Award by President Barack Obama in 2009. He was the acting director of ICE for an unknown period of time.University of Farmington
The University of Farmington was a fake university set up in 2015 in Michigan by the U.S. Immigration and Customs Enforcement (ICE) to expose student visa fraud in the United States. The sting operation, which was code-named "Paper Chase", was overseen by the United States Department of Homeland Security. Over 600 individuals were identified in the operation, many of whom face deportation from the United States for visa violations.The sting was disclosed to the public on January 30, 2019, with The Detroit News reporting about the Dept. of Homeland Security and ICE arresting eight "recruiters" of Indian nationality and charging them on grounds of visa fraud and harboring aliens for profit. They supposedly made more than $250,000 from the university, in lieu of recruiting students. Around 130 students (129 of whom were from India) from multiple cities were also arrested for violation of immigration laws and might be subject to deportation, on a successful conviction.According to the prosecutors, the students enrolled in the university solely to maintain their student-visa status and lengthen their stay in the U.S., despite being aware "that they would not attend any actual classes, earn credits or make academic progress towards an actual degree."
Agencies under the United States Department of Homeland Security
Science and Technology Directorate
|Intelligence and Analysis|
|Department of Commerce|
|Department of Defense|
Health and Human Services
|Department of Justice|
|Department of State|
|Department of Transportation|
|Department of the Treasury|
|United States Congress|
|Other federal law|
Relevant colonial era,
United States and
|Visas and policies|
|Supreme Court cases|
and points of entry