Tyuratam

Tyuratam (Kazakh: Төретам, (Töretam); Russian: Тюратам, (Tyuratam)) is a station on the main Moscow to Tashkent railway, located in Kazakhstan. The name is a word in the Kazakh language and means "Töre's grave"; Töre, or more formally, Töre-Baba, was a noble, a descendant of Genghis Khan. Tyuratam is near the Baikonur Cosmodrome, a Russian – formerly Sovietspaceport, and near the city of Baikonur (formerly Leninsk), which was constructed to service the cosmodrome.

History

In the mid 1950s, the Soviet Union announced that space activities were being conducted from the Baykonur Cosmodrome, which was assumed to be near the city of Baykonur, in the Kazakh SSR. In reality, the launch facilities were located 400 kilometres (250 mi) to the southwest at Tyuratam near the city of Leninsk (commonly referred to as Baykonur, after the cosmodrome).[1] At a press conference for the Apollo-Soyuz Test Project, Jules Bergman of ABC News said,

"Baykonur, if you'll look on the coordinates, is 135 miles [217 km] away or something. Tyuratam may only be a railhead, but it is the Tyuratam Launch Complex. They call it Baykonur, I know. . . . I'm going to call it Tyuratam. ABC is going to call it Tyuratam. SAC Strategic Air Command calls it Tyuratam. Can we once and for all straighten that out and arrive at a . . . name for it, Tom?"[2]

While many reporters thought that the Soviets were calling it Baykonur to hide its true location, it turned out that the confusion arises from the fact that there is another city called Baykonur, some 400 kilometres (250 mi) to the northeast of the Baykonur Cosmodrome at Leninsk (which was commonly referred to as just Baykonur). Deke Slayton mentioned that if they really wanted to use the name the Soviets commonly used, they would have to say Baykonur.[2]

The CIA tried to locate this launch site by systematically tracking over the major rail networks of the Soviet Union in Central Asia with U-2 spy planes. The site was discovered and photographed in 1957. Francis Gary Powers was scheduled to fly over it on his ill-fated mission in 1960, but due to either detecting the guidance radar of the defending SA-2 missile battery or cloud cover which prevented him from photographing the site, he avoided Tyuratam and was later shot down over the Ural Mountains. [3]

References

  1. ^ Pike, John. "Baikonur Cosmodrome 45.9 N 63.3 E, TYURATAM - Overview, Supporting Facilities and Launch Vehicles of the Soviet Space Program, The 1971-1975 study". GlobalSecurity.org. mypressplus.com. Retrieved 30 April 2016.
  2. ^ a b NASA. "The Partnership: A History of the Apollo-Soyuz Test Project". NASA.
  3. ^ Zak, Anatoly. "Secrecy around Baikonur". Russian Space Web. Anatoly Zak. Retrieved 30 April 2016.

External links

Coordinates: 45°39′00″N 63°18′50″E / 45.65000°N 63.31389°E

1957 in science

The year 1957 in science and technology involved some significant events, listed below.

Baikonur

Baikonur (Kazakh: Байқоңыр, بايقوڭىر, translit. Bayqoñır; Russian: Байконур, translit. Baykonur), formerly known as Leninsk (also, see Tyuratam), is a city of republic significance in Kazakhstan on the Northern bank of the Syr Darya river, rented and administered by the Russian Federation. It was constructed to service the Baikonur Cosmodrome and was officially renamed Baikonur by Russian president Boris Yeltsin on December 20, 1995. During the Soviet period, it was sometimes referred to as звездоград (Zvezdograd), Russian for Star City.In 2009, the population of Baikonur was 36,175 (2009 Census results), while in 1999, it was 28,776 (1999 Census results).The rented area is an ellipse measuring 90 kilometres (56 mi) east to west by 85 km (53 mi) north to south, with the cosmodrome situated at the area's centre.

Baikonur Cosmodrome

Baikonur Cosmodrome (Russian: Космодро́м Байкону́р, translit. Kosmodrom Baykonur; Kazakh: Байқоңыр ғарыш айлағы, translit. Baıqońyr ǵarysh aılaǵy) is a spaceport located in an area of southern Kazakhstan leased to Russia.

The Cosmodrome is the world's first and largest operational space launch facility. The spaceport is located in the desert steppe of Baikonur, about 200 kilometres (124 mi) east of the Aral Sea and north of the river Syr Darya. It is near the Tyuratam railway station and is about 90 metres (300 ft) above sea level. Baikonur cosmodrome and the city of Baikonur celebrated the 63rd anniversary of the foundation on June 2, 2018.The spaceport is currently leased by the Kazakh Government to Russia until 2050, and is managed jointly by the Roscosmos State Corporation and the Russian Aerospace Forces.

The shape of the area leased is an ellipse, measuring 90 kilometres (56 mi) east–west by 85 kilometres (53 mi) north–south, with the cosmodrome at the centre. It was originally built by the Soviet Union in the late 1950s as the base of operations for the Soviet space program. Under the current Russian space program, Baikonur remains a busy spaceport, with numerous commercial, military, and scientific missions being launched annually. All crewed Russian spaceflights are launched from Baikonur.Both Sputnik 1, the first artificial satellite, and Vostok 1, the first human spaceflight, were launched from Baikonur. The launch pad used for both missions was renamed Gagarin's Start in honor of Russian Soviet cosmonaut Yuri Gagarin, pilot of Vostok 1 and first human in space.

Carl E. Duckett

Carl Ernest Duckett (22 March 1923 – 1 April 1992) was the founder of the Central Intelligence Agency's science and technology operations.

Cosmos 154

Cosmos 154 (or Космос 154 in Russian) was a Soviet test spacecraft launched from the Baikonur Cosmodrome aboard a Proton-K rocket. It was a Prototype Soyuz 7K-L1P launched by Proton and failed to go into planned translunar trajectory. It was also a probable manned precursor to the Zond series. It reached earth orbit but the Block D translunar injection stage failed to fire (ullage rockets, which had to fire to settle propellants in tanks before main engine fired, were jettisoned prematurely). The spacecraft burned up two days later when orbit decayed.

Gagarin's Start

Gagarin's Start (Russian: Гагаринский старт, Gagarinskiy start) is a launch site at Baikonur Cosmodrome in Kazakhstan, used for the Soviet space program and now managed by Roscosmos.

Kazakh Soviet Socialist Republic

The Kazakh Soviet Socialist Republic was one of the transcontinental constituent republics of the Soviet Union from 1936 to 1991 in northern Central Asia. It was created on 5 December 1936 from the Kazakh ASSR, an autonomous republic of the Russian SFSR.

At 2,717,300 square kilometres (1,049,200 sq mi) in area, it was the second-largest republic in the USSR, after the Russian SFSR. Its capital was Alma-Ata (today known as Almaty). Today it is the independent nation of Kazakhstan. During its existence as a Soviet Socialist Republic, it was ruled by the Communist Party of the Kazakh SSR.

On 25 October 1990, the Supreme Soviet of the Kazakh SSR declared its sovereignty on its soil. Nursultan Nazarbayev was elected as president – a role he has remained in to the present day.

The Kazakh SSR was renamed the Republic of Kazakhstan on 10 December 1991, which declared its independence six days later, as the last republic to leave the USSR on 16 December 1991. The Soviet Union was disbanded on 26 December 1991 by the Soviet of the Republics. The Republic of Kazakhstan, the legal successor to the Kazakh SSR, was admitted to the United Nations on 2 March 1992.

Kosmos 146

Kosmos 146 was a Soviet test satellite precursor to the Zond series, launched from the Baikonur Cosmodrome aboard a Proton K rocket.

The spacecraft was designed to launch a crew from the Earth to conduct a flyby and return to earth.The primary focus was a Soviet circumlunar flight, which help document the moon, and also show Soviet power. The test ran from the Zond program from 1967-1970, which produced multiple failures in the 7K-L1’s re-entry systems. The remaining 7K-L1s were scrapped, ultimately replaced by the Soyuz 7K-L3

List of places with craters on Mars named after them

The following is a list of minor places (i.e., small villages, small towns and small cities) whose names were given to small craters of Mars. The list of approved names in the Gazetteer of Planetary Nomenclature maintained by the International Astronomical Union includes the place (e.g. village, or town) the small crater is named for.

N1 (rocket)

The N1 (Russian: Н1, from Ракета-носитель, Raketa-Nositel, carrier) was a super heavy-lift launch vehicle intended to deliver payloads beyond low Earth orbit, acting as the Soviet counterpart to the US Saturn V. It was designed with crewed extra-orbital travel in mind. Development work started on the N1 in 1959. Its first stage is the most powerful rocket stage ever built.The N1-L3 version was developed to compete with the United States Apollo program to land a man on the Moon, using the same lunar orbit rendezvous method. The basic N1 launch vehicle had three stages, which was to carry the L3 lunar payload into low Earth orbit with two cosmonauts. The L3 contained an Earth departure stage; another stage used for mid-course corrections, lunar orbit insertion, and powered descent initiation; a single-pilot LK Lander spacecraft; and a two-pilot Soyuz 7K-LOK lunar orbital spacecraft for return to Earth. The Apollo spacecraft was able to carry three astronauts (landing two on the Moon), and relied on the Saturn V's third stage for Earth departure.

N1-L3 was underfunded and rushed, starting development in October 1965, almost four years after the Saturn V. The project was badly derailed by the death of its chief designer Sergei Korolev in 1966. Each of the four attempts to launch an N1 failed; during the second launch attempt the N1 rocket crashed back onto its launch pad shortly after liftoff and exploded, resulting in one of the largest artificial non-nuclear explosions in human history. The N1 program was suspended in 1974, and in 1976 was officially canceled. Along with the rest of the Soviet manned lunar programs, the N1 was kept secret almost until the collapse of the Soviet Union in December 1991; information about the N1 was first published in 1989.

Ptolemaeus (Martian crater)

Ptolemaeus is a crater on Mars, found in the Phaethontis quadrangle at 46.21° south latitude and 157.6° west longitude. It measures approximately 165 kilometers in diameter and was named after Claudius Ptolemaeus (Ptolemy), the Greco-Egyptian astronomer (c. AD 90-160). Nearby named craters include the larger Newton to the north and Li Fan to the east not far from the eastern rim, further east is Hipparchus.

The largest smallest unattached crater inside Ptolemaeus is now named Reutov Two tiny craters are west of Reutov including Tyuratam, officially named in 2013 by the IAU and is named after a place in Kazakhstan, its diameter is only in the range of 300 meters. Northwest of Tyuratam is recently named Belyov crater, another tiny crater nearly the same size.

Mantle material that is believed to have fallen from the sky is visible in the crater.

Shemya

Shemya or Simiya (Aleut: Samiyax̂) is a small island in the Semichi Islands group of the Near Islands chain in the Aleutian Islands archipelago southwest of Alaska, at 52°43′27″N 174°07′08″E. It has a land area of 5.903 sq mi (15.29 km2), and is about 1,200 miles (1,900 km) southwest of Anchorage, Alaska. It is 2.73 miles (4.39 km) wide and 4.32 miles (6.95 km) long.

Sputnik 1

Sputnik 1 ( or ; "Satellite-1", or "PS-1", Простейший Спутник-1 or Prosteyshiy Sputnik-1, "Elementary Satellite 1") was the first artificial Earth satellite. The Soviet Union launched it into an elliptical low Earth orbit on 4 October 1957, orbiting for three weeks before its batteries died, then silently for two more months before falling back into the atmosphere. It was a 58 cm (23 in) diameter polished metal sphere, with four external radio antennas to broadcast radio pulses. Its radio signal was easily detectable even by radio amateurs, and the 65° inclination and duration of its orbit made its flight path cover virtually the entire inhabited Earth. This surprise success precipitated the American Sputnik crisis and triggered the Space Race, a part of the Cold War. The launch ushered in new political, military, technological, and scientific developments.Tracking and studying Sputnik 1 from Earth provided scientists with valuable information. The density of the upper atmosphere could be deduced from its drag on the orbit, and the propagation of its radio signals gave data about the ionosphere.

Sputnik 1 was launched during the International Geophysical Year from Site No.1/5, at the 5th Tyuratam range, in Kazakh SSR (now known as the Baikonur Cosmodrome). The satellite travelled at about 29,000 kilometres per hour (18,000 mph; 8,100 m/s), taking 96.2 minutes to complete each orbit. It transmitted on 20.005 and 40.002 MHz, which were monitored by radio operators throughout the world. The signals continued for 21 days until the transmitter batteries ran out on 26 October 1957. Sputnik burned up on 4 January 1958 while reentering Earth's atmosphere, after three months, 1440 completed orbits of the Earth, and a distance travelled of about 70 million km (43 million mi).

Vega 1

Vega 1 (along with its twin Vega 2) is a Soviet space probe part of the Vega program. The spacecraft was a development of the earlier Venera craft. They were designed by Babakin Space Centre and constructed as 5VK by Lavochkin at Khimki. The name VeGa (ВеГа) combines the first two letters Russian words for Venus (Венера: "Venera") and Halley (Галлея: "Galleya").

The craft was powered by twin large solar panels and instruments included an antenna dish, cameras, spectrometer, infrared sounder, magnetometers (MISCHA), and plasma probes. The 4,920 kg craft was launched by a Proton 8K82K rocket from Baikonur Cosmodrome, Tyuratam, Kazakh SSR. Both Vega 1 and 2 were three-axis stabilized spacecraft. The spacecraft were equipped with a dual bumper shield for dust protection from Halley's comet.

Vega 2

Vega 2 (along with Vega 1) is a Soviet space probe part of the Vega program. The spacecraft was a development of the earlier Venera craft. The name VeGa (ВеГа) combines the first two letters Russian words for Venus (Венера: "Venera") and Halley (Галлея: "Galleya") They were designed by Babakin Space Centre and constructed as 5VK by Lavochkin at Khimki. The craft was powered by twin large solar panels and instruments included an antenna dish, cameras, spectrometer, infrared sounder, magnetometers (MISCHA), and plasma probes. The 10,850 pounds (4,920 kg) craft was launched by a Proton 8K82K rocket from Baikonur Cosmodrome, Tyuratam, Kazakh SSR. Both Vega 1 and 2 were three-axis stabilized spacecraft. The spacecraft were equipped with a dual bumper shield for dust protection from Halley's Comet.

Vostok 1

Vostok 1 (Russian: Восто́к, East or Orient 1) was the first spaceflight of the Vostok programme and the first manned spaceflight in history. The Vostok 3KA space capsule was launched from Baikonur Cosmodrome on April 12, 1961, with Soviet cosmonaut Yuri Gagarin aboard, making him the first human to cross into outer space.

The orbital spaceflight consisted of a single orbit around Earth which skimmed the upper atmosphere at 169 kilometers (91 nautical miles) at its lowest point. The flight took 108 minutes from launch to landing. Gagarin parachuted to the ground separately from his capsule after ejecting at 7 km (23,000 ft) altitude.

Zond 1

Zond 1 was a spacecraft of the Soviet Zond program. It was the second Soviet research spacecraft to reach Venus, although communications had failed by that time. It carried a 90 cm spherical landing capsule, containing experiments for chemical analysis of the atmosphere, gamma-ray measurements of surface rocks, a photometer, temperature and pressure gauges, and a motion/rocking sensor in case it landed in water.

Zond 6

Zond 6, a formal member of the Soviet Zond program and unmanned version of Soyuz 7K-L1 manned moon-flyby spacecraft, was launched on a lunar flyby mission from a parent satellite (68-101B) in Earth parking orbit. The spacecraft, which carried scientific probes including cosmic ray and micrometeoroid detectors, photography equipment, and a biological payload, was a precursor to a manned circumlunar flight which the Soviets hoped could occur in December 1968, beating the American Apollo 8. However, after orbiting the Moon Zond 6 crashed on its return to Earth due to a parachute failure.

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