Tyrrell Racing

The Tyrrell Racing Organisation was an auto racing team and Formula One constructor founded by Ken Tyrrell which started racing in 1958 and started building its own cars in 1970. The team experienced its greatest success in the early 1970s, when it won three Drivers' Championships and one Constructors' Championship with Jackie Stewart. The team never reached such heights again, although it continued to win races through the 1970s and into the early 1980s, taking the final win for the Ford Cosworth DFV engine at Detroit in 1983. The team was bought by British American Tobacco in 1997 and completed its final season as Tyrrell in 1998.

Tyrrell
Tyrrell
Full nameTyrrell Racing Organisation
BaseOckham, Surrey, United Kingdom
Founder(s)Ken Tyrrell
Noted staffDerek Gardner
Mike Gascoyne
Tim Densham
Harvey Postlethwaite
Noted driversFrance Patrick Depailler
France Jean Alesi
France Didier Pironi
South Africa Jody Scheckter
United Kingdom Jackie Stewart
Italy Andrea de Cesaris
France François Cevert
Germany Stefan Bellof
Sweden Ronnie Peterson
Republic of Ireland Derek Daly
Netherlands Jos Verstappen
United Kingdom Martin Brundle
United Kingdom Jonathan Palmer
Italy Michele Alboreto
Next nameBritish American Racing
Formula One World Championship career
First entry1968 South African Grand Prix
Races enteredAs a team: 465 entries (463 starts)
As a constructor: 432 entries (430 starts)
ConstructorsMatra
March
Tyrrell
Constructors'
Championships
1 (1971)
Drivers'
Championships
3 (1969, 1971, 1973)
Race victories33
Pole positions19
Fastest laps27
Final entry1998 Japanese Grand Prix
Tyrrell as a Formula One constructor
Formula One World Championship career
EntrantsTyrrell Racing,
several minor teams and privateers
First entry1970 Canadian Grand Prix
Last entry1998 Japanese Grand Prix
Races entered432 entries (430 starts)
Race victories23
Constructors' Championships1 (1971)
Drivers'
Championships
2 (1971, 1973)
Pole positions14
Fastest laps20

Lower formulae (1958–1967)

Tyrrell Racing first came into being in 1958, running Formula Three cars for Ken Tyrrell and local stars. Realising he was not racing driver material, Ken Tyrrell stood down as a driver in 1959, and began to run a Formula Junior operation using the woodshed owned by his family business, Tyrrell Brothers, as a workshop. Throughout the 1960s, Tyrrell moved through the lower formulas, variously giving single seater debuts to John Surtees and Jacky Ickx. But the team's most famous partnership was the one forged with Jackie Stewart, who first signed up in 1963.

Tyrrell ran the BRM Formula Two operation throughout 1965, 1966 and 1967 whilst Stewart was signed to the Formula One team. Tyrrell then signed a deal to run Formula Two cars made by French company Matra.

Formula One (1968–1998)

1960s

StewartJackie19690801MatraFord
Jackie Stewart and Tyrrell won their first championship with the French Matra chassis.

With the help of Elf and Ford, Tyrrell then achieved his dream of moving to Formula One in 1968 as team principal for Matra International, a joint-venture established between Tyrrell's own team and the French auto manufacturer Matra. Stewart was a serious contender, winning three Grands Prix in the Tyrrell-run Matra MS10. The car's most innovative feature was the use of aviation-inspired structural fuel tanks. These allowed the chassis to be around 15 kg lighter while still being stronger than its competitors. The FIA considered the technology to be unsafe and decided to ban it for 1970, insisting on rubber bag-tanks.

For the 1969 championship, the Matra works team decided not to compete in Formula One. Matra would instead focus its efforts on Ken Tyrrell's 'Matra International' team and build a new DFV powered car with structural fuel tanks, even though it would only be eligible for a single season. Stewart won the 1969 title easily, driving the new Cosworth-powered Matra MS80 which corrected most of the weaknesses of the MS10. Stewart's title was the first won by a French car, and the only one won by a car built in France[1] as well as by a car entered by a privateer team. It was a spectacular achievement from the British team and the French constructor that both had only entered Formula One the previous year.

1970s

Tyrrell 001 Goodwood 2008
Tyrrell's first F1 car, the 001, being demonstrated at the 2008 Goodwood Festival of Speed.
ScheckterJody1976-07-31Tyrrell-FordP34
The Tyrrell P34 six-wheeler.

For the 1970 season following Matra's merger with Simca, Tyrrell were asked by Matra to use their V12 rather than the Cosworth. Simca was a subsidiary of the American company Chrysler, a rival of Ford.

Stewart tested the Matra V12 and found it inferior to the DFV. As a large part of the Tyrrell budget was provided by Ford, and another significant element came from French state-owned petroleum company Elf, which had an agreement with Renault that precluded supporting a Simca partner, Ken Tyrrell had little alternative but to buy a March 701 chassis as interim solution while developing his own car in secret.

Tyrrell was still sponsored by French fuel company Elf, and Tyrrell would retain the traditional French blue racing colours for most of the rest of its existence. Tyrrell and Stewart ran the March-Fords throughout 1970 with mixed success, while Derek Gardner worked on the first in-house Tyrrell Grand Prix car at the woodshed in Ockham, Surrey.

The Tyrrell 001, which bore much resemblance to the MS80, emerged at the end of 1970. It earned Stewart a pole position in the Canadian GP but suffered mechanical failures in all of its 3 race starts. The nearly identical Tyrrell 003 won both Drivers' and Constructors' Championships in 1971, with strong driving from Jackie Stewart and François Cevert. Stewart's 1972 challenge was ruined by a stomach ulcer, but he returned to full fitness in 1973. He and Cevert finishing 1st and 4th in the Championship. Tragedy struck on 6 October 1973, as Cevert was killed in practice for the US Grand Prix at Watkins Glen. Stewart, who was to retire at the end of the season, and Tyrrell immediately stood down, effectively handing the Constructors' title to Lotus. At the end of the season Stewart made public his decision to retire, a decision that was already made before the US Grand Prix. Without their star driver or his skilled French protégé aboard, Tyrrell were never serious World Championship contenders again.

Despite this, the team remained a force throughout the 1970s, winning races with Jody Scheckter and Patrick Depailler. Most notable of these was Scheckter's triumph at the 1976 Swedish Grand Prix, giving Tyrrell a 1–2 finish driving the distinctive Derek Gardner designed Tyrrell P34 car. The P34 was the first (and only) successful six-wheeler F1 car, which replaced the conventional front wheels with smaller wheels mounted in banks of two on either side of the car. The design was abandoned after Goodyear refused to develop the small tyres needed for the car as they were too busy fighting the other tyre manufacturers in Formula One.

Ken Tyrrell had been spending a lot of his own money running his team, but in the summer of 1979 he finally found a sponsor: Italian appliance manufacturing group Candy put up the money to run the 009, fielded by Jarier and Pironi.[2]

1980s

Tyrrell 012 Goodwood 2008
The Tyrrell 012 (pictured at the 2008 Goodwood Festival of Speed) raced from 1983 to 1985.

In 1977, the Turbo era dawned in Grand Prix racing, which was, by the mid-1980s, to render normally-aspirated-engined cars obsolete. Without the proper funding, Tyrrell was the last to race with the Cosworth DFV when all other teams had switched to turbocharged engines. It was the beginning of two decades of struggle for Tyrrell, who was often underfunded through lack of sponsorship. It seemed appropriate, then, that the final win for the classic Cosworth Ford DFV engine was taken by a Tyrrell car (the Tyrrell 011), driven by Michele Alboreto at the 1983 Detroit Grand Prix. It was also Tyrrell's last Grand Prix win.

1984 controversy

At the time, the Formula One regulations specified a minimum weight which was more than achievable with non-turbocharged cars – though not with a turbocharged car due to greater complexity – leading to some cars being built light and ballasted up to the minimum weight to optimise weight distribution. However, rules then also specified that the cars were to be weighed filled with their usual fluids. In 1982, other teams (chiefly Brabham[3] and Williams[4]) had used this provision to develop cars with features such as 'water-cooled brakes' – the car officially started the race with a large, full water tank, the water was released in the general direction of the brakes and the car ran underweight when on track and unable to be weighed, only to be later topped up sufficient water to ensure the weight limit was not breached.

As Tyrrell was the only naturally aspirated engine user in 1984 season, they were uniquely placed to be able to benefit from a similar strategy of the water brake. In Tyrrell's case, the engine was equipped with a water injection system (a common means of lowering cylinder temperatures to increase power), whose supply tank was to be topped up late in the race. In addition, the FIA had already made provision to reduce the fuel allowance for each race during the season to 220 litres and banned the refueling of 1982–83, reducing the power available to turbocharged runners while imposing little restriction on more efficient non-turbo runners. Predictably turbo-powered teams were against this move, leaving only Tyrrell – whose engine did not need the additional fuel – in favour of it. However, F1 rules required unanimity for the change to be scrapped, leaving Tyrrell in the way.

Bellof Tyrrell 012 1984 Dallas F1
Stefan Bellof driving for Tyrrell during the team's controversial 1984 season.

It had been observed in races that, after Tyrrell's final pit stop, lead shot could be seen escaping from the top of the car. It turned out that Tyrrell were running the car underweight during the race then, in the closing stages, topping up water injection supply tanks with an additional 2 gallons of water mixed with 140 lb of lead shot to ensure it made the weight limit. As this was pumped in under significant pressure, some escaped through the tank vent and rained down on neighbouring pits, in sufficient quantities for other teams to sweep the shot away before their drivers pitted.

After the Detroit Grand Prix where Martin Brundle had finished in second for Tyrrell, the top cars were, as usual, impounded for inspection for compliance with the rules. Following this, it was alleged that the water was in fact 27.5% aromatics and constituted an additional fuel source. Tyrrell were thus charged with:

  1. Taking on additional fuel during the race (then illegal)
  2. Use of illegal fuel (the aromatic-water mix)
  3. Equipping the car with illegal fuel lines (the lines from the water tank to the water injection system)
  4. Using ballast that was incorrectly fixed to the car (the lead shot in the water tank)

As a consequence of these charges, Tyrrell were excluded from the 1984 world championship and retroactively disqualified from all races that year. Further analysis showed that the actual fuel content of the water was significantly below 1% and well within rules.[5] Additionally, Tyrrell argued that the requirement was that the ballast had to be fixed so it required tools to remove – which they felt was the case with the shot as contained within the water tank. Tyrrell subsequently went to the FIA court of appeal. On appeal, the evidence that the water's fuel content was in fact far lower than originally suggested was ignored,[5] and the charges amended to:

  1. The fuel in the water
  2. Unsecured ballast
  3. Illegal holes in the bottom of the car, in violation of flat bottom rules designed to eliminate ground effect (eventually determined to be vents of no aerodynamic effect)[5]

Nonetheless, the international judging panel upheld the original decision; Tyrrell were excluded from the championship – and was banned for last 3 races, and with them, further fines by FISA for their inability to appear in the races. With the only non-turbo team now not officially an entrant, the remaining teams had the unanimity they required to amend the rules as they wished. Tyrrell's exclusion meant they lost all points from the 1984 season and, with them, subsidised travel benefits to the following year's championship, a huge additional cost on top of no-show fines.

The ban and exclusion was seen by some observers as tantamount to manipulation by the FIA who had been looking for a way to eliminate the remaining non-turbo cars from the grid to help attract more support and sponsorship from automotive manufacturers; Tyrrell ultimately adopted a turbo Renault engine mid-way the through the following season and turbocharged engines became mandatory for 1986, although naturally-aspirated engines were allowed again in 1987. The ban also allowed the turbo teams to block a proposal from FISA to reduce the fuel allowance for 1985.[5][6] A further blow followed when Bellof, one of the victims of the scheme, was killed at the 1985 1000 km of Spa.

1990s

Mika Salo 1995 Britain
Mika Salo driving for Tyrrell at the 1995 British Grand Prix.

Tyrrell struggled on through the 1980s and 1990s – the team consistently punching above their financial weight following the 1984 controversy, despite winning the Colin Chapman Trophy for naturally-aspirated constructors in 1987 following Renault's withdrawal that year. There was a brief revival of fortunes in the early 1990s. The combination of Harvey Postlethwaite's revolutionary anhedral high-nose Tyrrell 019 and Jean Alesi's full debut season in 1990 brought the team two second places at Phoenix and Monaco – Alesi having led 30 laps of the Phoenix race. The French-Sicilian left the next year for Ferrari, but Honda engines and Braun sponsorship in 1991 helped Stefano Modena earn a front row start at Monaco alongside Senna and a fine second-place finish at the 1991 Canadian Grand Prix. Nonetheless, the team slowly dropped back from the middle of the pack. Eventually, in 1998 and in the face of dwindling form and ill health, Ken sold his team to British American Tobacco, the team becoming British American Racing. Tyrrell's last F1 points were scored by Mika Salo at the 1997 Monaco Grand Prix. The final race for Tyrrell was the 1998 Japanese Grand Prix, where Ricardo Rosset failed to qualify and teammate Toranosuke Takagi retired on lap 28 after a collision with Esteban Tuero's Minardi.

Legacy

The double championship-winning Brawn GP team of 2009 and the present Mercedes team can loosely be said to be descendants of Tyrrell, through its predecessors, Honda Racing F1 and BAR. While BAR bought the Tyrrell F1 team and entry, they used a different factory, chassis builder and engine – most of the former Tyrrell cars and equipment were sold to Paul Stoddart, later owner of the Minardi F1 team.

When team boss Ross Brawn led a management buyout of the Honda F1 team to compete in the 2009 season, a revival of the Tyrrell name was briefly considered when deciding what to call the new team.[7]

As of the 2019 British Grand Prix, the teams which descended from Tyrrell have won 96 Grands Prix, 6 Drivers' and 6 Constructors' championships.

The Minardi 2-seater F1 cars are modifications of the 1998 Tyrrell 026 design, most noticeable in the distinctive shape of the nose of the car. These cars still run in demos today, most recently as demo cars during the launch of the Yas Marina F1 track.

Ken Tyrrell died of cancer on 25 August 2001 at the age of 77.[8]

Footnotes

  1. ^ The Matra MS80 was built in Vélizy-Villacoublay, France. Renault built their winning cars the Renault R25 and the Renault R26 which won both the Drivers´ and the Constructors' Championship in 2005 and 2006 respectively in Enstone, the United Kingdom.
  2. ^ Armstrong, Douglas (July 1979). "European Letter". SA Motor. Randburg, South Africa: SA Motor (Pty) Ltd. 17 (7): 11.
  3. ^ Hodges, David (1991). A-Z of Formula Racing Cars 1945–1990. Bideford, Devon: Guild Publishing. p. 42. ISBN 1-870979-16-8.
  4. ^ Hodges, David (1991). A-Z of Formula Racing Cars 1945–1990. Bideford, Devon: Guild Publishing. p. 265. ISBN 1-870979-16-8.
  5. ^ a b c d Marshall, Ewan (25 August 2011). "1984: Tyrrell's Annus horribilis". GP Focus. Archived from the original on 27 June 2013. Retrieved 8 February 2014.
  6. ^ Lawrence, Mike (27 April 2005). "Scandal or Farce?". Pitpass.com. Archived from the original on 8 February 2014. Retrieved 8 February 2014.
  7. ^ Baldwin, Alex (21 October 2009). "Brawn is a Formula One Phenomenon". Reuters. Retrieved 21 September 2017.
  8. ^ "Ken Tyrrell dies". Autosport. 25 August 2001. Retrieved 10 September 2015.

External links

Sporting positions
Preceded by
Lotus
Formula One Constructors' Champion
1971
Succeeded by
Lotus
1964 British Formula Three season

The 1964 British Formula Three season was the 14th season of the British Formula 3 season. Jackie Stewart took the BARC Championship, while Rodney Banting took the BRSCC Championship.

1967 European Formula Two Championship

The 1967 European Formula Two season was the 1st FIA European Formula Two Championship. It commenced on 24 March 1967 and ended on 8 October after ten races. Jacky Ickx won the Championship after winning the last race in Vallelunga, but the most successful driver of the season was Jochen Rindt, who won five Championship races but, as a graded driver, he was ineligible to earn points, so Ickx won the Championship. Other graded drivers, like Jim Clark and Jackie Stewart, also each won races.

1974 European Formula Two Championship

The 1974 European Formula Two season was contested over 10 rounds and had Frenchman Patrick Depailler as the season champion. Depailler raced the Formula One season as well this year, driving for the Tyrrell racing team.

Jean-Pierre Jarier

Jean-Pierre Jacques Jarier (born 10 July 1946) is a French former Grand Prix racing driver. He drove for several notable Formula One teams including Shadow, Team Lotus, Ligier and Tyrrell Racing. His best finish was third (three times) and he also took three pole positions.

Ken Tyrrell

Robert Kenneth Tyrrell (3 May 1924 – 25 August 2001) was a British Formula Two racing driver and the founder of the Tyrrell Formula One constructor.

Matra MS7

The Matra MS7 was a Formula Two racing car built by Matra, which occasionally raced in Formula One as well between 1967 and 1969.

While only modestly successful in Formula One, the car dominated Formula Two from late 1967 through 1969. Jacky Ickx, Jean-Pierre Beltoise and Johnny Servoz-Gavin won the European Championship in those years respectively, all driving the MS7 at least at some races.

Tyrrell 006

The Tyrrell 006 was a Formula One car designed and built by the Tyrrell Racing Organisation. It was introduced towards the end of 1972. In the hands of Jackie Stewart it won the Drivers' Championship for the 1973 Formula One season, Stewart's third and final title. The car was first raced at the 1972 Canadian Grand Prix with Stewart's teammate and protégé François Cevert at the wheel. The 006 was a very slightly reworked version of the preceding Tyrrell 005 car, but in contrast it was the first Tyrrell-built models to be replicated, the number 006 becoming a model- rather than chassis-number; previous Tyrrells were one-off constructions. In total there were three Tyrrell 006 chassis built: 006; 006/2; and 006/3. The 006 model was gradually phased out in the early part of the 1974 Formula One season as Tyrrell constructed the succeeding Tyrrell 007.

Tyrrell 008

The Tyrrell 008 was a Formula One car manufactured and raced by the Tyrrell Racing Organisation team during the 1978 season. Driven by Didier Pironi and Patrick Depailler, it achieved several podium finishes including a win at the 1978 Monaco Grand Prix.

Tyrrell 009

The Tyrrell 009 was a Formula One racing car that was designed by Maurice Philippe for Tyrrell Racing for the 1979 season.

The 009, was powered by the Ford-Cosworth DFV V8 engine and made its competition debut in the first race of the season in Argentina. The 009s were driven by Frenchmen Didier Pironi and Jean-Pierre Jarier, Englishman Geoff Lees replaced Jarier for German GP and Irishman Derek Daly at Austrian GP. Daly later drove a third car at two final races of the season. For the 1980 season 009 raced in first two races and then was replaced by 010.

Tyrrell 010

The Tyrrell 010 was a Formula One racing car that was designed by Maurice Philippe for Tyrrell Racing for the 1980 season.

The 010, like all Tyrrells before it was powered by the Ford-Cosworth DFV V8 engine and made its competition debut in the third race of the season in South Africa. The 010s were driven by Frenchman Jean-Pierre Jarier and Irishman Derek Daly, with New Zealander Mike Thackwell driving a third car at the last two races of the season.

The team continued using the 010 in 1981. Americans Eddie Cheever and Kevin Cogan drove in the season-opening U.S. West Grand Prix, but Cogan was replaced for the next two races by Argentinian Ricardo Zunino, who himself was replaced from Round 4 at Imola by Italian Michele Alboreto. Alboreto who was making his F1 debut and the first of an eventual 194 starts from 215 attempts in Formula One in a career which would see 5 wins, 2 pole positions, 23 podium finishes and runner up in the 1985 World Drivers' Championship while driving for Ferrari.

The 010 was replaced in the middle of the 1981 season by the new 011. The last race for the 010 was the 1981 Austrian Grand Prix where Alboreto qualified 22nd and retired after 40 laps with gearbox failure. The best placings for the 010 were two 4th places: one for Daly in the 1980 British Grand Prix, and another for Cheever at the 1981 British Grand Prix, his last race in the 010 before switching to the 011 in Germany. Tyrrell scored 9 of their 12 points in 1980 and 8 of their 10 points in 1981 with the 010.

Tyrrell 011

The Tyrrell 011 was a Formula One car designed by Maurice Philippe for the Tyrrell Racing Organisation. It made its debut in the hands of American Eddie Cheever at the 1981 German Grand Prix where he qualified 18th and finished the race in the points with 5th place. The car was powered by the Cosworth DFV V8 engine and initially ran on Avon tyres though the team later switched to Goodyear rubber.

The 011 raced in three seasons of Formula One (1981 - 1983) although its only full season was 1982. Drivers for Tyrrell in that time included Cheever, Michele Alboreto, Brian Henton, Slim Borgudd and Danny Sullivan. Tyrrell were able to win 2 races with the 011, both by Alboreto. The first win at the 1982 Caesars Palace Grand Prix was also Alboreto's first and the last 011 victory was the 1983 Detroit Grand Prix. This race was also the last of 155 Grand Prix wins for the Cosworth DFV engine which had made its F1 debut 16 years earlier in 1967.

The 1983 cars were green and black in colour and were sponsored by the Italian fashion brand Benetton.

The 011 was replaced two-thirds of the way through the 1983 season by the Tyrrell 012.

Tyrrell 012

The Tyrrell 012 is a Formula One racing car that was designed by Maurice Philippe for the Tyrrell team. It was introduced for the 1983 season, and was subsequently used in 1984 and the first few races of 1985. It was the first chassis built by the team to be composed mostly of carbon fibre, following on from Lotus and McLaren. The car was powered by the short-stroke version of the Ford Cosworth DFV that had previously been supplied to Lotus, after that team signed to use Renault turbo engines. The Benetton clothing company sponsored the team in 1983, with the large budget used to successfully develop the car. Although the car was light and nimble, it was no match for the massively powerful turbo cars.

Ken Tyrrell continued to use young, promising drivers in his team and helped develop their careers. Michele Alboreto, in his second year for the team, scored a point in the car's first race at Zandvoort.

For 1984, Alboreto moved on to Ferrari and was replaced by Martin Brundle, whilst Stefan Bellof filled the other seat. The 012 was further developed with smaller sidepods and a larger rear wing to increase downforce. A newer version of the DFV, dubbed the DFY was provided to the team by Ford. Tyrrell were now the only one of the established teams to use the venerable engine. Both Brundle and Bellof drove impressed in their rookie seasons in F1, achieving solid placings and a podium place each, but after Brundle's second place in the United States Grand Prix the cars were disqualified by the FIA for various rule infringements and the team were excluded from the championship.

The 012 was pressed into service in the early races of 1985 and Bellof pulled off a run of points finishes until the 014 Renault turbo was introduced; its chassis almost identical to its predecessor's. The DFY engine, by the start of the 1985 season was around 300 hp down on most of the turbo-charged engines used by other teams that year. The 012 does, however, have the distinction of being the last Formula 1 car to enter a race powered by the DFV's development, the Cosworth DFY engine, with Martin Brundle driving in the 1985 Austrian Grand Prix. Brundle failed to qualify for the race.

By 1985 the 012 was the only car in Formula One still using a non-turbo engine which put the team at a severe power disadvantage. This was shown on the 1.8 km long Mistral Straight at Paul Ricard for the French Grand Prix. Brundle had been given use of the 012's replacement, the 014 which used a turbocharged Renault engine. He qualified 20th some 4.4 seconds faster than Bellof in the Cosworth powered 012 (Bellof was predictably 26th and last). Brundle said after qualifying that at one point while both were on a quick lap, he had followed Bellof's 012 onto the Mistral about 100 yards back, and by the time he reached Signes, Bellof was nothing more than a dot in his mirrors. The top speed of the new turbo powered car was around 310 km/h (193 mph), some 33 km/h (21 mph) faster than the older 012.

In 1985, two examples of this car were also used in Formula 3000 by Barron Racing Team.

The initial version of Tyrrell 012 had a triangle-shaped rear-wing design (and was nicknamed "boomerang"). The car with this wing design was seen only once during a grand prix weekend, in the hands of Michele Alboreto during practice for the 1983 Austrian Grand Prix. The same car design also appeared during F1 tyre testing at Brands Hatch in 1983.

Tyrrell 014

The Tyrrell 014 was a Formula One car, designed for Tyrrell Racing by Maurice Philippe for use in the 1985 season. The cars were powered by the turbocharged Renault EF4B V6 engine.

The car was successor of the 012, which was powered by naturally aspirated Ford Cosworth DFY V8 engine. The team was in fact the last to secure a turbocharged engine deal. The development of the new car was, however, halted due to the lack of funding (after their exclusion from the 1984 season the team lost not only their points, but the money from TV rights and more) and the team used the 012 with Cosworth DFY in it for the first half of the season. The 014 made its debut on the 1985 French Grand Prix. During the season the team scored only 3 points in the 1985 Australian Grand Prix by Ivan Capelli.

The car raced also in the first two races of the 1986 season, before being replaced by the Tyrrell 015.

Tyrrell 017

The Tyrrell 017 was a Formula One racing car designed by Maurice Philippe and Brian Lisles. It was built and raced by Tyrrell Racing in the 1988 season and also for the first race of the 1989 season. It used a customer Cosworth DFZ V8 engine as had its predecessor. The car was driven in 1988 by British pair Jonathan Palmer and Formula One rookie Julian Bailey. Bailey was replaced by Michele Alboreto in 1989 as was the Cosworth DFZ replaced by the more powerful 1988 motor the Cosworth DFR.

The 017 was a development of the team's successful 1987 car, the Tyrrell DG016. However, as successful as the DG016 was in the naturally aspirated part of the championship (Tyrrell won the 'Colin Chapman Cup' as the leading atmospheric constructor while Jonathan Palmer won the 'Jim Clark Cup' as the atmo Drivers' Champion), the 017 was equally unsuccessful. Bailey failed to score a point and also failed to qualify for 10 races. Palmer scored all of the team's 5 points with Tyrrell finishing 8th in the Constructors' Championship.

For 1989 the car had minor upgrades for the first race of the season and was dubbed the 017B. The car was still uncompetitive and was replaced from the second race in San Marino with the Tyrrell 018.

Tyrrell 018

The Tyrrell 018 was a Formula One racing car designed by Harvey Postlethwaite and Jean-Claude Migeot. It was built and raced by Tyrrell Racing. It used a customer Ford DFR engine.

The 018 made its debut at the second race of the 1989 Formula One season, the San Marino Grand Prix. Michele Alboreto was given the car for qualifying, but had problems with the fuel pump and failed to qualify. Jonathan Palmer qualified the team's old 017B but raced the newer 018 instead, which he drove into the points with a sixth place. Two races later at the Mexican Grand Prix Alboreto took a third place behind reigning world champion Ayrton Senna and fellow Italian F1 veteran Riccardo Patrese.It was generally believed in the F1 paddock at the time that the 018 with its sleek aerodynamics was one of the fastest of the new 3.5L cars in a straight line, despite running the underpowered customer DFR engine.The 018 was replaced after two races of the 1990 Formula One season by the first of the "high-nose" cars in Formula One, the Tyrrell 019.

The 018 was the first Tyrrell to lead a Grand Prix since Alboreto won the 1983 Detroit Grand Prix when Alesi jumped from fourth to first at the start of the 1990 United States Grand Prix and led the first 34 laps of the race before being passed by the McLaren-Honda of Ayrton Senna.

Tyrrell 020

The Tyrrell 020 was a Formula One racing car designed by Harvey Postlethwaite and George Ryton for Tyrrell Racing and raced during the 1991 season. The 020 was driven by Satoru Nakajima who brought the Honda engine contract with him and also by Stefano Modena. Its best result was a second place by Modena in the Canadian Grand Prix. Tyrrell scored 12 points to finish 6th in the Constructors' Championship with half the points scored by Modena's 2nd in Canada.

The car was powered by the 690 bhp (515 kW; 700 PS) Honda RA101-E V10 engine previously raced by McLaren in 1990 and maintained by Mugen Motorsports, which would run Mugen-Honda badged engines the following year for Footwork Arrows.

The car was updated for the 1992 season and was dubbed the 020B. For this season the Honda V10 was replaced with the 680 bhp (507 kW; 689 PS) Ilmor LH10 V10 engine and was driven by Olivier Grouillard and veteran Andrea de Cesaris. The team only scored 8 points for the season but again finished in 6th place.

The 020 was pressed into service again for the first nine races of the 1993 season. Again updated it was called the 020C. For the third time in three years the car ran a V10 engine but this time it carried the 690 bhp (515 kW; 700 PS) Yamaha OX10A. It was driven again by De Cesaris who was joined by Japanese driver Ukyo Katayama. Neither driver would score a World Championship point driving the car.

The Tyrrell 020C was replaced by the 021 midway through the 1993 season.

Tyrrell 021

The Tyrrell 021 was a Formula One racing car designed by Mike Coughlan for Tyrrell Racing and raced during the 1993 season. The car was powered by a Yamaha V10 engine and was driven by Ukyo Katayama and Andrea de Cesaris. The car was unsuccessful with no points scored during the season. The 021 was replaced by the Harvey Postlethwaite designed 022 for the 1994 season.

Tyrrell DG016

The Tyrrell DG016 was a Formula One racing car designed by Maurice Philippe and Brian Lisles and raced by Tyrrell Racing in the 1987 FIA Formula One World Championship. It was powered by a customer Cosworth DFZ engine and driven by Jonathan Palmer and Philippe Streiff. The "DG" in the car's name was a reference to the team's major sponsor, Data General.

The DG016 was raced in two different championships: for 1987 only there was the Colin Chapman Trophy for constructors of cars equipped with naturally aspirated engines. Tyrrell were the only team to run two 'atmo' cars for the entire season and thus easily won this championship, finishing over 100 points ahead of Larrousse-Calmels in second, while Palmer and Streiff finished first and second respectively in the equivalent championship for drivers, the Jim Clark Cup.

The car was also reasonably successful in the main Constructors' Championship, with Palmer and Streiff managing five points finishes between them: Palmer finished fifth in Monaco and Streiff sixth in his home race in France; a large attrition rate in Germany enabled Streiff to finish fourth and Palmer fifth; and Palmer again benefited from attrition to finish fourth in Australia. Palmer came 11th in the main Drivers' Championship with 7 points while Streiff came 15th with 4; the combined 11 points gave Tyrrell sixth in the Constructors' Championship, ahead of such turbo-powered teams as Arrows and Brabham.

The DG016 was replaced for 1988 by the Tyrrell 017.

Warwick Banks

Warwick Banks (born 12 July 1939) is a British former auto racing driver. He was a race winner in British Formula Three for Tyrrell Racing during the 1960s and was teammate of Jackie Stewart during his first season in 1964. He won the European Touring Car Championship in 1964, and in 1965 he finished runner-up in the British Saloon Car Championship with a class winning Mini Cooper.

United Kingdom Tyrrell Racing
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