Tyras (Ancient Greek: Τύρας) was an ancient Greek city on the northern coast of the Black Sea. It was founded by colonists from Miletus, probably about 600 BC. The city was situated some 10 km from the mouth of the Tyras River, which is now called the Dniester. The surrounding native tribe was called the Tyragetae. The ruins of Tyras are now located in the modern city of Bilhorod-Dnistrovskyi in the Odessa Oblast of Ukraine.
Remains of Roman Tyras, near the mediaeval Genoese walls of the Maurocastro.
Shown within Ukraine
|Location||Bilhorod-Dnistrovskyi, Odessa Oblast, Ukraine|
|Builder||Settlers from Miletus|
|Founded||Approximately 600 BC|
|Abandoned||Late 4th century AD|
|Periods||Archaic Greek to Roman Imperial|
Of no great importance in early times, in the 2nd century BC Tyras fell under the dominion of native kings whose names appear on its coins, and it was destroyed by the Getae about 50 BC.
In 56 AD, it seems to have been restored by the Romans under Nero and henceforth formed part of the province of Lower Moesia. There exists a series of its coins with heads of emperors from Domitian to Alexander Severus.
Indeed, the autonomous minting of coins in the city, called by the Romans Alba Julia, lasted from the time of the emperor Domitian (81 AD) up to the end of the reign of the emperor Alexander Severus (235 AD) with few breaks. The coins of Tyras of this period were of copper with the portraits of the members of the Imperial house for the province of the Roman Empire.
In Tyras was stationed a small unit of the Roman fleet, Classis Flavia Moesica.
Soon after the time of Alexander Severus, it was partially destroyed by the Goths, but archaeological findings show that Romans remained there until the end of the 4th century under Theodosius I. Later the Byzantines renamed the city, destroyed by barbarian invasions, with the new name Maurokastron "black fort".
Its government was in the hands of five archons, a senate, a popular assembly and a registrar. The images on its coins suggest a trade in wheat, wine and fish. The few inscriptions are also mostly concerned with trade.
Remains of the city are scanty, as its site has been covered by the great medieval fortress called by the Genoese Maurocastro (and later Akkerman/Cetatea Alba).
Ukrainian Football Amateur League 2001 was the sixth season of the national amateur football competition in Ukraine since their reorganization in 1997.Athanaric's Wall
Athanaric's Wall, also called Lower Trajan's Wall or Southern Trajan's Wall, was a fortification line probably erected by Athanaric (the king of the Thervingi), between the banks of river Gerasius (modern Prut) and the Danube to the land of Taifali (modern Oltenia). Most probably, Athanaric's Wall has reused the old Roman limes called Limes Transalutanus.Dacia
In ancient geography, especially in Roman sources, Dacia ([ˈdaːkja]; English ) was the land inhabited by the Dacians. The Greeks referred to them as the Getae (east of Dacia) and the Romans called them Daci.
Dacia was bounded in the south approximately by the Danubius river (Danube), in Greek sources the Istros, or at its greatest extent, by the Haemus Mons. Moesia (Dobruja), a region south-east of the Danube, was a core area where the Getae lived and interacted with the Ancient Greeks. In the east it was bounded by the Pontus Euxinus (Black Sea) and the river Danastris (Dniester), in Greek sources the Tyras. But several Dacian settlements are recorded between the rivers Dniester and Hypanis (Southern Bug), and the Tisia (Tisza) to the west.
At times Dacia included areas between the Tisa and the Middle Danube. The Carpathian Mountains are located in the middle of Dacia. It thus corresponds to the present-day countries of Romania and Moldova, as well as smaller parts of Bulgaria, Serbia, Hungary, Poland, Slovakia and Ukraine.
A Dacian Kingdom of variable size existed between 82 BC until the Roman conquest in AD 106. The capital of Dacia, Sarmizegetusa, located in modern Romania, was destroyed by the Romans, but its name was added to that of the new city (Ulpia Traiana Sarmizegetusa) built by the latter to serve as the capital of the Roman province of Dacia.FC Tyras-2500 Bilhorod-Dnistrovskyi
FC Dnistrovets Bilhorod-Dnistrovskyi is a Ukrainian football club from Bilhorod-Dnistrovskyi.Football Federation of Odessa Oblast
Odessa Oblast Football Federation is a football governing body in the region of Odessa Oblast, Ukraine. The federation is a member of the Regional Council of FFU and the collective member of the FFU itself.History of Transnistria
This is the history of Transnistria.
See also the history of Europe.History of Transnistria to 1792
This deals with the History of Transnistria before it became part of the Russian Empire in 1792.Hryhoriy Krasovsky
Hryhorii Krasovskyi (born October 8, 1982) is a Ukrainian footballer who played in the Ukrainian First League, Ukrainian Second League, Kazakhstan Premier League, and the Canadian Soccer League.Isaak B. Klejman
Isaac Bentsionovich Kleiman (11 January 1921 – February 13, 2012), is a Ukrainian Soviet archaeologist specialist in the history of antiquity.Limes Moesiae
The Moesian Limes or Limes Moesiae is the modern term given to a collection of Roman fortifications between the Black Sea shore and Pannonia, present-day Hungary, consisting primarily of forts along the Danube (so-called Danubian Limes) to protect the Roman provinces of Upper and Lower Moesia south of the river.
In addition the term Limes Moesiae may be used to include many other linked lines of defence were established in the region in different periods and later abandoned in favour of others depending on the military situation.Neoptolemus (Pontic general)
Neoptolemus (Greek: Νεοπτόλεμος, flourished second half of 2nd century BC and first half of 1st century BC, died by 63 BC) was a distinguished general of King Mithridates VI of Pontus. He was the brother of Archelaus, another general of Mithridates VI and the paternal uncle of Archelaus’ sons: Archelaus and Diogenes. Like his brother Archelaus, Neoptolemus was a Cappadocian Greek nobleman, possibly of Macedonian descent from unknown parents. Perhaps his ancestors descended from those Greeks who arrived in Anatolia after the expedition of King Alexander the Great. Neoptolemus's family were active in the Pontic Court. Like his brother, Neoptolemus was a general and admiral in the First Mithridatic War (89 BC-85 BC). Prior to the First Mithridatic War, Neoptolemus and his brother had gained military experience in the Pontic campaigns on the northern shores of the Black Sea. He took part in campaigns as far as the mainland west of the Crimea, reaching possibly as far west as Tyras, where he erected a fortress which continues to bear his name. Also in the Crimea, in the Sea of Azov, he fought two battles on the Palus Maeotis in two years.In 88 BC, as a part of the First Mithridatic War, Neoptolemus and his brother were involved in a military campaign with the Pontic army against King Nicomedes IV of Bithynia. At the Amnias River the brothers commanded the advance guard and won their first victory of the war. Neoptolemus then went on to defeat a Roman-led army at Protopachium, probably without his brother. The Roman army led by Manius Aquillius was forced to retreat to Pergamon. With these two victories Mithridates VI was able to extend his control of the Roman Province of Asia, and his generals took the war to Greece.
Neoptolemus accompanied his brother and the Pontic army to Athens. He commanded the Pontic forces around Chalcis, where he suffered defeat from the Roman Munatius, losing 1,500 men. After the Pontic army left Greece in 85 BC, Mithridates VI put Neoptolemus in command of the Pontic fleet guarding the Hellespont. Neoptolemus engaged the Roman fleet led by Lucius Licinius Lucullus at the island of Tenedos (see: battle of Tenedos). Mithridates, losing battle after battle, was forced to end the war with the Roman Dictator Lucius Cornelius Sulla. After this, nothing further is known of Neoptolemus.Reichshund
Reichshund ("dog of the Empire") was an informal term used in Germany for Reichskanzler Otto von Bismarck's dogs and more generally for similar dogs, particularly Great Danes.Roshana Hosseini
Roshanak Hosseini (Persian: روشنک حسینی; born 1993), also known as Roshana Hoss, is an Iranian-Swedish pop singer and songwriter.Serhiy Marusyn
Serhiy Marusyn (born April 1, 1958 in Kanadei, Ulyanovsk Oblast, Soviet Union) is a Ukrainian coach and a former Soviet footballer, the best known for his participation with the Odessa Army Club.
Born in the Volga region, Marusyn was growing up in Dnipropetrovsk.Tiraspol
Tiraspol (Russian: Тирасполь [tʲɪˈraspəlʲ]; Ukrainian: Тираспіль [tɪˈrɑspilʲ]) is internationally recognised as the second largest city in Moldova, but is effectively the capital and administrative centre of the unrecognised Pridnestrovian Moldavian Republic (Transnistria). The city is located on the eastern bank of the Dniester River. Tiraspol is a regional hub of light industry, such as furniture and electrical goods production.
The modern city of Tiraspol was founded by the Russian generalissimo Alexander Suvorov in 1792, although the area had been inhabited for thousands of years by varying ethnic groups. The city celebrates its anniversary every year on October 14.Transnistria (geographical region)
Transnistria (Romanian: [transˈnistria]) - region in the east Europe, a narrow strip of territory to the east of the River Dniester. The PMR controls main part of this region, and also the city of Bender and its surrounding localities on the west bank, in the historical region of Bessarabia.
After the dissolution of the USSR, tensions between Moldova and the breakaway Transnistrian territory escalated into a military conflict that started in March 1992 and was concluded by a ceasefire in July of the same year. As part of that agreement, a three-party (Russia, Moldova, Transnistria) Joint Control Commission supervises the security arrangements in the demilitarised zone, comprising twenty localities on both sides of the river. Although the ceasefire has held, the territory's political status remains unresolved: Transnistria is an unrecognised but de facto independent semi-presidential republic with its own government, parliament, military, police, postal system, currency and vehicle registration. Its authorities have adopted a constitution, flag, national anthem, and coat of arms. It is the only country still using the hammer and sickle on its flag.
After a 2005 agreement between Moldova and Ukraine, all Transnistrian companies that seek to export goods through the Ukrainian border must be registered with the Moldovan authorities. This agreement was implemented after the European Union Border Assistance Mission to Moldova and Ukraine (EUBAM) took force in 2005. Most Transnistrians also have Moldovan citizenship, but many Transnistrians also have Russian and Ukrainian citizenship. The largest ethnic group is Moldovans (32.1%), who historically had a higher share of the population, up to 49.4% in 1926.
Transnistria, Abkhazia, South Ossetia and Artsakh are post-Soviet "frozen conflict" zones. These four partially recognised states maintain friendly relations with each other and form the Community for Democracy and Rights of Nations.Tyragetae
The Tyrageti, Tyragetae, or Tyrangitae (Greek: Τυραγγεῖται, Tυραγγέται, or Τυρεγέται, Strabo vii.; Ptol. iii. 5. § 25), literally, the Getae of the Tyras, were a sub-tribe of the Getae Thracians, situated on the river Tyras (modern-day Dniester in Moldova and Ukraine). They were regarded as an immigrant tribe of European Sarmatia dwelling E. of the river Tyras, near the Harpii and Tagri, and, according to Ptolemy, the northern neighbours of Lower Moesia. Pliny (v. 12. s. 26) calls them, with more correct orthography, Tyragetae, and represents them as dwelling on a large island in the Tyras.Tyras S. Athey
Tyras Snowden "Bunk" Athey (March 30, 1927 – July 20, 2010) was an American politician from Maryland. Athey served in the Maryland House of Delegates 1967–1993 and Secretary of State of Maryland 1993–1995.Tyras Vallis
Tyras Vallis is an ancient river valley in the Lunae Palus quadrangle of Mars. It is located at 8.4 N° and 50.2° W. It was named after a classical name for the present Dniester River (in Ukraine).