Typica

In Eastern Orthodox Church, the liturgical service known as the Typica (Slavonic: изобразительныхъ', Izobrazítel'nykhə, or Ob'ednitsa) is appointed to be served whenever the Liturgy is not celebrated. This may be either because the Typicon does not permit the celebration of the Liturgy (as occurs, for example, on weekdays during Great Lent),[note 1] the Typica may be served instead of Liturgy,[note 2] or no priest is present or the priest for any reason does not serve the Liturgy.[note 3] The Typica, like the hours that it is aggregated with, is rarely read in Greek churches (aside from Monasteries), but it is relatively common in Slavic churches.

The name "Typica" refers to the "Typical Psalms" (Psalm 102, Psalm 145, and the Beatitudes). Essentially, the Typica involves the psalms and prayers of the Liturgy of the Catechumens.

Description

The Typica may be read publicly in the church, or it may be read privately at home. Often in missions, where there is no priest permanently assigned to serve the parish, the Typica will be read on Sundays in place of the Liturgy.

Normally, the Typica is read after the Third and Sixth Hours (in the place where the Liturgy would normally be celebrated). During Great Lent the Ninth Hour is inserted before Typica, and the format of the Typica changes.

During the reading of the Typica, Troparia may be inserted between the verses of the Beatitudes, as during the Divine Liturgy. However, during Great Lent this is not done; instead, the Beatitudes are chanted by the choir and between each verse they chant "Remember us, O Lord, when Thou comest into Thy kingdom." Also, during Lent, Psalm 102 and Psalm 145 are omitted; and, as is typical of Lenten services, the Typica contains the Prayer of St. Ephraim.

The Typica is also read as the end of the Royal Hours on the Eve of Nativity, the Eve of Theophany, and on Great Friday (in these instances also, the Typica is read after the Ninth Hour).

The text of the Typica can be found in English in several places including "The Unabbreviated Horologion".[1] The text in Church Slavonic is available in "Последование изобразительных – Celebration of the Typika".[2]

Notes

  1. ^ During the lesser Fasts also, on weekdays on which there is only a simple commemoration in the Menaion
  2. ^ There is a certain similarity in concept between the Typica and the Missa Sicca of the medieval Roman Catholic Church at the discretion of the Pastor.
  3. ^ This may occur for any number of reasons. Married priests, because of the requirement for abstinence before serving, can not serve the Liturgy daily; however, it is rare for any priest to serve daily. Also, an emergency beyond his control may have prevented him from preparing according to the Rule for Holy Communion, he may have suffered an injury which would not permit him to enter the Sanctuary, etc.

References

Citations

  1. ^ The Unabbreviated Horologion, Jordanville, New York: Holy Trinity Monastery (published 1997), 1992
  2. ^ "Последование изобразительных – Celebration of the Typika" (PDF). orthlib.info. Retrieved 2011-12-31.

Bibliography

Banksia integrifolia subsp. integrifolia

Banksia integrifolia subsp. integrifolia is a subspecies of Banksia integrifolia.

Benguet coffee

Benguet coffee, also known as Benguet arabica, is a single-origin coffee varietal grown in the Cordillera highlands of the northern Philippines since the 19th century. It belongs to the species Coffea arabica, of the Typica variety. It is one of the main crops of farmers in the province of Benguet, which has a climate highly suitable for arabica cultivation. Benguet coffee is listed in the Ark of Taste international catalogue of endangered heritage foods by the Slow Food movement.

Blue-throated starfrontlet

The blue-throated starfrontlet (Coeligena helianthea) is a species of hummingbird in the family Trochilidae. It is found in the Andes of Colombia and far western Venezuela.

Its natural habitats are subtropical or tropical moist montane forest and subtropical or tropical high-altitude shrubland.

Bourbon coffee

Bourbon is a cultivar of Coffea arabica. It is one of the two main cultivars from which new cultivars are bred, the other being typica. Both originated in Yemen.Bourbon coffee was first produced in Réunion, which was known as Île Bourbon before 1789. It was later taken by the French to mainland Africa and to Latin America.

Bourbon grows best at heights between 1,100 and 2,000 meters and gives a 20-30% higher yield than Typica, but produces a similar quality of coffee. Bourbon has a commercially viable level of yield potential and growth habit but is generally susceptible to disease and pests. Bourbon quality is generally accepted to be standard to good.

Calamagrostis canadensis

Calamagrostis canadensis is a species of grass, having three or more varieties, in the Poaceae family. It is known variously by the common names of bluejoint, bluejoint reedgrass, marsh reedgrass, Canadian reedgrass, meadow pinegrass, and marsh pinegrass.

Cliona celata

Cliona celata, occasionally called the red boring sponge, is a species of demosponge belonging the family Clionaidae. It is found worldwide. This sponge creates round holes up to 5 millimetres (0.20 in) in diameter in limestone or the shells of molluscs, especially oysters. The sponge itself is often visible as a rather featureless yellow or orange lump at the bottom of the hole.

Cuban night lizard

The Cuban night lizard (Cricosaura typica) is a night lizard (family Xantusiidae, subfamily Cricosaurinae) endemic to southern Cuba. It is the only member of the genus Cricosaura, one of three in the night lizard family.

Drosera peltata

Drosera peltata, commonly called the shield sundew or pale sundew, is a climbing or scrambling perennial tuberous species in the carnivorous plant genus Drosera. Among the tuberous sundews, D. peltata has the largest distribution, which includes eastern and western Australia, New Zealand, India, and most of Southeast Asia including the Philippines. The specific epithet is Latin for "shield shaped", a reference to the shape of the cauline leaves. It is either a single extremely variable species, or a complex of several closely related species of uncertain taxonomic boundaries. In Australia at least four forms have had or still have specific taxonomic recognition: Drosera peltata subsp. peltata (an autonym), D. peltata subsp. auriculata, D. foliosa (also as D. peltata var. foliosa) and D. gracilis (also as D. peltata var. gracilis).Tuberous sundews are species of the genus Drosera that have evolved to live in summer drought conditions and aestivate as a dormant underground tuber. While many tuberous sundews are ground-hugging rosettes, D. peltata is an upright species with a simple or branching inflorescence.

Gerbil mouse

The gerbil mouse or Long-eared mouse (Malacothrix typica) is a species of rodent in the family Nesomyidae. It is found in Angola, Botswana, Namibia, and South Africa. Its natural habitats are dry savanna, subtropical or tropical dry shrubland, hot deserts, and temperate deserts.

Goniaeolis typica

Goniaeolis typica is a species of sea slug, a nudibranch, a marine gastropod mollusc in the family Goniaeolididae. Goniaeolis typica is the only species in the genus Goniaeolis and it is the only genus within the family Goniaeolididae.

Gonieolis is the original spelling, but incorrect subsequent spelling Goniaeolis is conserved under Art. 33.3.1 of the Code. The synonymy with Goniaeolis lobata was discussed in detail by Odhner in 1922.

Gothic (moth)

The Gothic (Naenia typica) is a moth of the family Noctuidae. It is distributed in temperate Eurasia, in the Palearctic ecozone, including Europe, Turkey, Iran, Caucasus, Armenia, Transcaucasia, Central Asia, Altai mountains, and west and central Siberia.

The forewings are broader than those of most other noctuids, and blackish with a network of fine white lines. The pattern is supposedly reminiscent of some elements of Gothic architecture. The hindwings are grey. The species flies at night in June and July in the British Isles. It sometimes comes to light but is not generally strongly attracted. By contrast, it is strongly attracted to sugar and flowers.

Hauffiopteryx

Hauffiopteryx is an extinct genus of ichthyosaur known from Germany, Luxembourg and Somerset of the United Kingdom.

List of Lepidoptera that feed on Malus

Apples (Malus species) are used as food plants by the caterpillars of a number of Lepidoptera (butterflies and moths). These include:

Bucculatricidae

Bucculatrix bechsteinella

Bucculatrix pomifoliella

Coleophoridae

Several Coleophora case-bearers, such as:

C. anatipennella – leaves – recorded on apple (M. pumila), and possibly others

C. cerasivorella

C. coracipennella

C. hemerobiella

C. malivorella

C. paripennella – recorded on apple (M. pumila)

C. pruniella

C. sacramenta – recorded on apple (Malus pumila)

C. serratella

C. spinella (apple-and-plum case-bearer)

Geometridae

Agriopis marginaria (dotted border)

Campaea margaritata (light emerald)

Chloroclystis rectangulata (green pug)

Colotois pennaria (feathered thorn)

Ectropis crepuscularia (engrailed)

Epirrita autumnata (autumnal moth)

Epirrita dilutata (November moth)

Erannis defoliaria (mottled umber)

Eupithecia exiguata (mottled pug)

Eupithecia pusillata (juniper pug) – Americas only

Eupithecia subfuscata (grey pug)

Gymnoscelis rufifasciata (double-striped pug)

Hemithea aestivaria (common emerald)

Odontopera bidentata (scalloped hazel)

Operophtera brumata (winter moth)

Opisthograptis luteolata (brimstone moth)

Peribatodes rhomboidaria (willow beauty) – leaves

Selenia tetralunaria (purple thorn)

Hepialidae

Phymatopus behrensii

Lymantriidae

Euproctis chrysorrhoea (brown-tail)

Euproctis similis (yellow-tail)

Lymantria dispar (gypsy moth)

Noctuidae

Acronicta psi (grey dagger)

Acronicta tridens (dark dagger)

Agrotis segetum (turnip moth)

Amphipyra pyramidea (copper underwing)

Cosmia trapezina (dun-bar)

Eupsilia transversa (satellite)

Mamestra brassicae (cabbage moth)

Naenia typica (gothic)

Orthosia cerasi (common Quaker)

Orthosia gothica (Hebrew character)

Phlogophora meticulosa (angle shades)

Xestia c-nigrum (setaceous Hebrew character)

Nolidae

Nola cucullatella (short-cloaked moth)

Notodontidae

Ptilodon capucina (coxcomb prominent)

Nymphalidae

Limenitis arthemis (American white admiral/red-spotted purple) – recorded on apple (Malus pumila)

Saturniidae

Pavonia pavonia (emperor moth)

Sphingidae

Laothoe populi (poplar hawk-moth)

Smerinthus jamaicensis (twin-spotted sphinx) – recorded on European wild apple (M. sylvestris)

Tortricidae

Enarmonia formosana (cherrybark tortrix) – recorded on apple bark

Epiphyas postvittana (light brown apple moth)

Yponomeutidae

Yponomeuta malinellus (apple ermine)

Argyresthia curvella (apple blossom tineid) – only known from apple blossoms and perhaps rotting apple wood

Scythropia crataegella (hawthorn moth) – recorded on European wild apple (M. sylvestris)

List of coffee varieties

Coffee varieties are the diverse subspecies derived through selective breeding or natural selection of coffee plants. While there is tremendous variability encountered in both wild and cultivated coffee plants, there are a few varieties and cultivars that are commercially important due to various unique and inherent traits such as disease resistance and fruit yield. These unique traits are what producers use to select breeds when developing crops. Therefore, at a micro level, breed selection is critical to the success of a producer and is one of the key components of cup quality.At a macro level, the viability of the coffee industry as a whole is dependent upon breed selection. Already, the majority of coffee produced originates from producers using selected breeds. For this reason, breed selection is an important aspect of sustainability within coffee production.

Malagasy brush warbler

The Malagasy brush warbler (Nesillas typica), also known as the Madagascar brush-warbler, is a species of Old World warbler in the family Acrocephalidae. It is found in Comoros and Madagascar. Its natural habitats are subtropical or tropical dry forests, subtropical or tropical moist lowland forests, and subtropical or tropical moist shrubland.

Mauritius cuckooshrike

The Mauritius cuckooshrike (Lalage typica) is a species of bird in the family Campephagidae. It is endemic to Mauritius.

Its natural habitat is subtropical or tropical moist lowland forests. It is threatened by habitat loss.

Peppered moth

The peppered moth (Biston betularia) is a temperate species of night-flying moth. Peppered moth evolution is an example of population genetics and natural selection.

S795 coffee

S795 (Selection-795) is a coffee cultivar important for being one of the first strains of C. arabica found to be resistant to coffee leaf rust (CLR).It is a selection of the Balehonnur Coffee Research Station in India and it is believed to have originated as a natural hybrid between C. arabica and C. liberica known as S288 and the Kent variety, a hybrid of Typica and an unknown other type. Both S288 and Kent are known to be resistant to many rust races and the Kent variety is a high-yielding tree. The resultant S795 cultivar exhibits rust resistance, high yield, and a good cup profile, making it a highly desirable cultivar.

S795 is widely planted in India and Indonesia. In India, it represents 25-30% of the acreage of arabica coffee.

Type species

In zoological nomenclature, a type species (species typica) is the species name with which the name of a genus or subgenus is considered to be permanently taxonomically associated, i.e., the species that contains the biological type specimen(s). A similar concept is used for suprageneric groups called a type genus.

In botanical nomenclature, these terms have no formal standing under the code of nomenclature, but are sometimes borrowed from zoological nomenclature. In botany, the type of a genus name is a specimen (or, rarely, an illustration) which is also the type of a species name. The species name that has that type can also be referred to as the type of the genus name. Names of genus and family ranks, the various subdivisions of those ranks, and some higher-rank names based on genus names, have such types.In bacteriology, a type species is assigned for each genus.Every named genus or subgenus in zoology, whether or not currently recognized as valid, is theoretically associated with a type species. In practice, however, there is a backlog of untypified names defined in older publications when it was not required to specify a type.

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