Typhoon Wutip (2019)

Typhoon Wutip, known in the Philippines as Tropical Depression Betty, was the most powerful February typhoon on record, surpassing Typhoon Higos of 2015.[1][2] The third tropical cyclone, second tropical storm, and the first typhoon of the 2019 Pacific typhoon season, Wutip originated from a low-pressure area on February 16, 2019. The disturbance moved westward, passing just south of the Federated States of Micronesia, before later organizing into Tropical Depression 02W on February 18, 2019. On February 20, 2019, the tropical depression intensified into a tropical storm and was named Wutip, before strengthening further into a typhoon on the next day. Wutip underwent rapid intensification, and on February 23, Wutip reached its initial peak intensity, with 10-minute sustained winds of 185 km/h (115 mph), 1-minute sustained winds of 250 km/h (155 mph), and a minimal pressure of 925 millibars (27.3 inHg) while passing to the southwest of Guam, becoming the strongest February typhoon on record as it did so.

Wutip underwent an eyewall replacement cycle shortly afterward, which caused the storm to weaken as it turned to the northwest. Wutip finished its eyewall replacement cycle on February 24, which allowed Wutip to restrengthen, with the typhoon rapidly intensifying once again. On February 25, Wutip reached its peak intensity with 10-minute sustained winds of 195 km/h (120 mph), 1-minute sustained winds of 260 km/h (160 mph), and a minimum central pressure of 920 millibars (27 inHg), becoming the first Category 5-equivalent super typhoon recorded in the month of February. Afterward, Wutip weakened on February 26, due to encountering strong wind shear. Wutip rapidly weakened as it moved northwestward, before dissipating on March 2.

Wutip caused at least $3.3 million (2019 USD) in damages in Guam and Micronesia.[3][4]

Typhoon Wutip (Betty)
Typhoon (JMA scale)
Category 5 super typhoon (SSHWS)
Wutip 2019-02-25 0600Z
Typhoon Wutip at peak intensity west of the island of Guam, on February 25.
FormedFebruary 18, 2019
DissipatedMarch 2, 2019
Highest winds10-minute sustained: 195 km/h (120 mph)
1-minute sustained: 260 km/h (160 mph)
Lowest pressure920 hPa (mbar); 27.17 inHg
FatalitiesNone reported
Damage$3.3 million (2019 USD)
Areas affectedGuam, Federated States of Micronesia
Part of the 2019 Pacific typhoon season

Meteorological history

Wutip 2019 track
Map plotting the track and the intensity of the storm, according to the Saffir–Simpson scale

On February 16, a low-pressure area formed to the south of Marshall Islands, gradually organizing as it moved westward, passing just south of the Federated States of Micronesia.[5] On February 18, the system organized into a tropical depression, and the Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA) initiated advisories on the system, with the Joint Typhoon Warning Center (JTWC) following the suit on the following day, giving the storm the identifier 02W. On February 20, Tropical Depression 02W strengthened into a tropical storm and received the name Wutip from the JMA. On the same day, the National Weather Service in Tiyan, Guam issued a Typhoon Warning for Satawal in Yap State and for Puluwat in Chuuk State, anticipating Wutip to develop into a typhoon. Additionally, a Tropical Storm Warning was also issued for Fananu, Ulul, Lukunor, Losap, and Chuuk in Chuuk State.[6] On the next day, Wutip intensified into a severe tropical storm, before intensifying further into a typhoon later that day, attaining 1-minute sustained winds of 157 km/h (99 mph) at 15:00 UTC, according to the JTWC, making Wutip the equivalent of a low-end Category 2 hurricane.[7] Wutip continued to strengthen, and on February 23, the storm was packing 1-minute sustained winds of 193 km/h (120 mph), making it a Category 3-equivalent typhoon, while also generating wave heights up to 12.5 m (41 ft), with wind gusts reaching 240 km/h (150 mph).[8] Later that day, Wutip reached its initial peak intensity, with 10-minute sustained winds of 185 km/h (115 mph), 1-minute sustained winds of 250 km/h (155 mph), and a minimum central pressure of 925 millibars (27.3 inHg), making the storm a high-end Category 4-equivalent super typhoon as it passed to the southwest of Guam. This also allowed Wutip to surpass Typhoon Higos from 2015 as the strongest February typhoon on record.[9] Afterward, Typhoon Wutip underwent an eyewall replacement cycle, weakening back to Category 3-equivalent typhoon intensity as it turned to the north-northwest.[10]

Typhoon Wutip's Eyewall Replacement Cycle(2019)
Typhoon Wutip during an eyewall replacement cycle.

On February 24, Typhoon Wutip finished its eyewall replacement cycle and quickly re-intensified, resuming a trend of rapid intensification. Early on February 25, at 06:00 UTC, Wutip peaked as a Category 5-equivalent super typhoon, with 10-minute sustained winds of 195 km/h (120 mph), 1-minute sustained winds of 260 km/h (160 mph), and a minimum central pressure of 920 millibars (27 inHg), making Wutip the most powerful February typhoon recorded.[1][2] This also made Wutip the only Category 5-equivalent super typhoon recorded in the month of February,[1] and also the only Category 5-equivalent storm recorded in February in the Northern Hemisphere. Rapid-scan (2.5-minute) Himawari-8 “Clean” Infrared Window (10.4 µm) images displayed a well-defined eye with an annular to axisymmetric eyewall structure; mesovortices could also be seen circulating within the eye. A series of gravity waves were also observed propagating radially outward from the eye during the animation, indicating the strength of the storm.[11] Early on February 26, Wutip encountered wind shear, weakening the storm once again. Around the same time, the Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) instrument aboard NASA-NOAA's Suomi NPP satellite showed that Wutip's once-visible 25 nautical-mile wide eye had become cloud-filled, as the storm weakened. At 15:00 UTC, the JTWC noted that Wutip's 1-minute maximum sustained winds dropped to 105 knots (121 mph, 194 km/h). By this time, the storm's eye was no longer visible on satellite imagery.[12] On February 27, 2019, at 9:00 UTC, the National Weather Service of Tiyan, Guam noted that Typhoon Wutip was located near 16.3°N and 139.4°E, about 410 miles west-northwest of Guam, and about 430 miles west-northwest of Saipan. Wutip's 1-minute sustained winds had also decreased to 145 km/h (90 mph).[13] Wutip made a turn to the west-northwest while rapidly weakening, due to hostile conditions. On February 28, Wutip weakened into a tropical depression. On the same day, Wutip was given the name Betty by the PAGASA, as the storm entered that agency's area of responsibility in the Philippine Sea. On March 1, Wutip made a clockwise loop to the west, before dissipating on the next day.[14]

Preparations and impact

Wutip caused heavy infrastructural and agricultural damages across both Micronesia and Guam. Preliminary damage estimates for Wutip totaled $3.3 million.[3][4]

Guam

Civil defense officials warned that Guam was expected to experience tropical storm force winds between 64–72 km/h (40–45 mph) and rainfall totals of up to 6 inches (15.24 centimeters), and they advised the residents of Guam residents to stay indoors until the storm had passed. Wutip caused power outages across the island when it passed through the area on February 23.[15] The typhoon passed 165 miles (266 km) south of Guam, sparing the island the worst of the storm's winds.[16]

Micronesia

Prior to Wutip's arrival, warnings were issued for Yap and Chuuk in Federated States of Micronesia; however, the Tropical Storm Warning for Faraulep in Yap State was later cancelled.[17] Typhoon Wutip passed over Chuuk, Pohnpei, and Yap states in the Federated States of Micronesia from February 19–22 as a Category 2 typhoon with sustained wind speeds of more than 160 km/h (100 mph). Wutip left at least 165 people homeless and leaving approximately 160 houses damaged or destroyed in both Chuuk and Yap. Strong winds and sea water inundation also destroyed food sources in affected areas and rendered water sources unsafe to drink. In response to the storm's impact, local authorities declared states of emergency for Chuuk and Yap.[18]

Aftermath

Guam

On May 12, 2019, U.S. President Donald J. Trump approved the disaster declaration requested by Guam Governor Lou Leon Guerrero, and ordered federal assistance to supplement local recovery efforts in the areas affected by the typhoon. According to a press release from the White House, the Trump Administration made federal funding available to the territory, including for eligible local governments and certain private nonprofit organizations, on a cost-sharing basis for emergency work and the repair or replacement of facilities damaged by Typhoon Wutip.[19]

Micronesia

On March 11, the Federated States of Micronesia President Peter M. Christian declared a national disaster, due to the effects of the storm, and requested international assistance. On March 12, U.S. Chargé d'Affaires Heather Coble declared a disaster, due to the effects of Typhoon Wutip. In response, the United States Agency for International Development’s Office of U.S. Foreign Disaster Assistance provided $100,000 to support immediate disaster relief activities, for the affected populations in Micronesia. In addition, the USAID/OFDA deployed staff based in the region to the Federated States of Micronesia, to help coordinate response activities in collaboration with the Federated States of Micronesia authorities, the U.S. Government inter-agency staff, regional humanitarian actors, and other donors.[18]

See also

References

  1. ^ a b c Matthew Cappucci (February 25, 2019). "The strongest February typhoon on record packs 180 mph gusts, sideswiping Guam". The Washington Post. Retrieved May 21, 2019.
  2. ^ a b Kristina Pydynowski; Robert Richards (23 February 2019). "Wutip becomes strongest super typhoon in February as it lashes Guam with rain, wind". Accuweather. Retrieved 23 February 2019.
  3. ^ a b "Preliminary cost estimate of Wutip: More than $1.3 million". Guam Pacific Daily News. March 1, 2019. Retrieved May 21, 2019.
  4. ^ a b Losinio, Louella (April 12, 2019). "Post-Wutip damages to FSM cost at least $2M". Pacific News Center. Retrieved April 22, 2019.
  5. ^ Kristina Pydynowski; Eric Leister (February 18, 2019). "First February typhoon since 2015 may threaten Guam, Northern Mariana Islands this week". Accuweather. Retrieved June 16, 2019.
  6. ^ "Wutip (was 02W – Northwestern Pacific Ocean) – Hurricane And Typhoon Updates". blogs.nasa.gov. Retrieved 2019-05-16.
  7. ^ "Typhoon Wutip on 21 February 2019 — SSEC". www.ssec.wisc.edu.
  8. ^ Kahn, Brian. "An Extremely Rare February Typhoon Is Approaching Guam". Earther. Retrieved 2019-05-16.
  9. ^ Teo Blašković (February 24, 2019). "Super Typhoon "Wutip" becomes the strongest February typhoon in West Pacific Ocean". The Watchers. Retrieved May 21, 2019.
  10. ^ Jeff Masters (February 23, 2019). "Super Typhoon Wutip Hits 155 mph: Strongest February Typhoon on Record". Weather Underground. Retrieved May 21, 2019.
  11. ^ "Super Typhoon Wutip « CIMSS Satellite Blog". Retrieved 2019-05-16.
  12. ^ "Wutip (Northwestern Pacific Ocean) – Hurricane And Typhoon Updates". blogs.nasa.gov. Retrieved 2019-05-17.
  13. ^ "NASA tracks a weaker Typhoon Wutip through northwestern Pacific". EurekAlert!. Retrieved 2019-05-17.
  14. ^ "Wutip now a depression, spotted on NASA-NOAA satellite imagery". phys.org. Retrieved 2019-05-17.
  15. ^ "Super Typhoon Wutip Lashes Guam With High Winds". WeatherBug. Retrieved 2019-05-17.
  16. ^ Keoni Everington (February 25, 2019). "Wutip becomes first super typhoon in February since 1911". Taiwan News. Retrieved May 21, 2019.
  17. ^ Srncevic, Ivica. "Typhoon Wutip". www.dorris.live. Retrieved 2019-05-17.
  18. ^ a b "Micronesia, Federated States of | Disaster Assistance | U.S. Agency for International Development". www.usaid.gov. 2019-03-18. Retrieved 2019-05-25.
  19. ^ Losinio, Louella. "Federal government approves Guam's disaster declaration for Typhoon Wutip | PNC News First". Retrieved 2019-05-17.

External links

Tropical Storm Betty

The name Betty has been used for a total of seventeen tropical cyclones worldwide: one in the Atlantic Ocean, fourteen in the Western Pacific Ocean, (one of them is now being used by PAGASA, replacing Bebeng after Tropical Storm Bebeng in 2011), one in the Southwest Indian Ocean and one in the Southwestern Pacific Ocean.

Atlantic:

Hurricane Betty (1972), developed north-northeast of Bermuda, did not make landfallWestern Pacific:

Tropical Storm Betty (1945)

Typhoon Betty (1946), approached Japan

Tropical Storm Betty (1949) (T4923)

Typhoon Betty (1953) (T5319), struck the Philippines

Tropical Storm Betty (1958) (T5812)

Typhoon Betty (1961) (T6104, 11W), Category 4 super typhoon; struck Taiwan

Typhoon Betty (1964) (T6405, 07W, Edeng), formed east of Taiwan, passed near Shanghai

Tropical Storm Betty (1966) (T6617, 17W)

Typhoon Betty (1969) (T6908, 08W, Huling), struck China

Typhoon Betty (1972) (T7214, 14W, Maring), Category 4 super typhoon; struck China

Typhoon Betty (1975) (T7512, 14W, Ising), struck Taiwan and China

Typhoon Betty (1980) (T8021, 25W, Aring), struck the Philippines

Tropical Storm Betty (1984) (T8404, 04W, Konsing), struck China

Typhoon Betty (1987) (T8709, 09W, Herming), Category 5 super typhoon; struck the Philippines and China

Tropical Storm Bavi (2015) (T1503, 03W, Betty), formed in equator together with Cyclone Pam as a tropical storm, but became a tropical depression when it entered the Philippine area

Typhoon Wutip (2019) (T1902, 02W, Betty)Southwest Indian Ocean:

Cyclone Betty (1963)Southwest Pacific Ocean:

Cyclone Betty (1966)

Typhoon Maysak (2015)

Typhoon Maysak, known in the Philippines as Typhoon Chedeng, was the most powerful pre-April tropical cyclone on record in the Northwestern Pacific Ocean. The fourth named storm of the 2015 Pacific typhoon season, Maysak originated as a tropical depression on March 26. The next day, the Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA) upgraded the depression to a tropical storm and assigned it the name Maysak. According to the JMA, Maysak became the second typhoon of the year on March 28. The typhoon explosively intensified into a Category 5 super typhoon on March 31, passing near the islands of Chuuk and Yap in the Federated States of Micronesia. After maintaining that intensity for 18 hours, Maysak weakened, made landfall over the Philippine island of Luzon as a minimal tropical storm, and dissipated shortly afterwards.

Maysak affected Yap and Chuuk in the Federated States of Micronesia, as well as the Philippines. The storm was responsible for four deaths in the Federated States of Micronesia alongside 10 injuries. Damage was estimated at $8.5 million (2015 USD). Estimates from the Red Cross suggested that there were 5,000 people in desperate need of food, water and shelter, and needed emergency assistance. Pacific Mission Aviation administrator Melinda Espinosa said "Most concrete structures withstood the fury but everything else was damaged." Later, the storm struck the Philippines, causing minimal damage.

Typhoon Wutip

The name Wutip has been used to name four tropical cyclones in the western north Pacific Ocean. The name was submitted by Macau and means butterfly.

Typhoon Wutip (2001) (T0112, 16W)

Tropical Storm Wutip (2007) (T0707, 08W, Dodong)

Typhoon Wutip (2013) (T1321, 20W, Paolo)

Typhoon Wutip (2019) (T1902, 02W, Betty)- The strongest February typhoon on record, reaching Category 5 status.

Tropical cyclones of the 2019 Pacific typhoon season

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