Typhoon Mireille

Typhoon Mireille, known in the Philippines as Typhoon Rosing, was the costliest typhoon on record, striking Japan in September 1991. The 20th named storm of the 1991 Pacific typhoon season, Mireille formed on September 13 from the monsoon trough near the Marshall Islands. It moved westward for several days as a small system, steered by the subtropical ridge to the north. The storm rapidly intensified to typhoon status on September 16, and several days later passed north of Saipan in the Northern Marianas Islands. Mireille intensified further after deleterious effects from a nearby tropical storm subsided. On September 22, the American-based Joint Typhoon Warning Center (JTWC) estimated maximum 1‑minute sustained winds of 240 km/h (150 mph), and on the next day, the official Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA) estimated 10‑minute sustained winds of 185 km/h (115 mph). The typhoon weakened slightly while turning northward, passing just east of Miyako-jima and later to the west of Okinawa. On September 27, Mireille made landfall near Nagasaki in southwestern Japan with winds of 175 km/h (110 mph), the strongest since Typhoon Nancy in 1961. The storm accelerated to the northeast through the Sea of Japan, moving over Hokkaido before becoming extratropical on September 28. The remnants of Mireille continued to the east, passing through the Aleutian Islands of Alaska on October 1.

The typhoon first threatened Guam, although it passed well to the north of the island, bringing damaging winds to northern Saipan. The first part of Japan affected was Miyako-jima, where heavy rainfall and high winds damaged crops. Mireille lashed Okinawa with strong waves, while strong winds up to 189 km/h (118 mph) damaged power lines and trees. The typhoon ultimately caused damage in 41 of 47 prefectures of Japan, with overall damage estimated at $10 billion (USD), making it the costliest typhoon on record as of 2017.[nb 1] Mireille produced record wind gusts at 26 locations, with a peak gust of 218 km/h (136 mph) in western Honshu. The winds caused record power outages across Japan that affected 7.36 million people, or about 13% of total customers. Mireille also left extensive crop damage totaling $3 billion, mostly to the apple industry, after 345,000 tons of apples fell to the ground and another 43,000 were damaged on the trees. The storm damaged over 670,000 houses, of which 1,058 were destroyed, and another 22,965 were flooded. Throughout Japan, Mireille killed 66 people and injured another 2,862 people, including ten deaths on a capsized freighter. Elsewhere, the typhoon killed two people in South Korea, and its remnants brought strong winds to Alaska.

Typhoon Mireille (Rosing)
Typhoon (JMA scale)
Category 4 super typhoon (SSHWS)
Typhoon Mireille 22 sept 1991 2236Z
Typhoon Mireille in the Western Pacific
FormedSeptember 13, 1991
DissipatedOctober 4, 1991
(Extratropical after September 28)
Highest winds10-minute sustained: 185 km/h (115 mph)
1-minute sustained: 240 km/h (150 mph)
Lowest pressure925 hPa (mbar); 27.32 inHg
Fatalities64 total
Damage$10 billion (1991 USD)
(Costliest typhoon in recorded history)
Areas affectedSaipan, South Korea, Japan, Alaska
Part of the 1991 Pacific typhoon season

Meteorological history

Mireille 1991 track
Map plotting the track and the intensity of the storm, according to the Saffir–Simpson scale

The origins of Mireille were from a poorly-organized area of convection, or thunderstorms, associated with the monsoon trough near the Marshall Islands on September 13.[1] That day, the Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA)[nb 2] began tracking the system as a tropical depression.[3] The system moved westward, developing a large increase in thunderstorms over the center on September 15. That day, the Joint Typhoon Warning Center (JTWC)[nb 3] issued a tropical cyclone formation alert, and issued their first advisory on Tropical Depression 21W at 00:00 UTC, estimating 1‑minute sustained winds of 55 km/h (35 mph). About six hours later, the agency upgraded the depression to Tropical Storm Mireille, after satellite imagery indicated the storm was very compact and intensifying quickly.[1] The JTWC later determined in a post-storm analysis that Mireille had attained tropical storm status 12 hours earlier on the previous day.[5] Also at the time of it attaining tropical storm status, Mireille was one of three storms in the basin, along with Tropical Storm Luke to the northwest and Typhoon Nat to the west in the South China Sea.[1]

Only 12 hours after the JTWC issued the first warning, Mireille attained typhoon status at 12:00 UTC on September 16, and several hours later reached an initial peak intensity of 135 km/h (85 mph).[1][5] The small storm moved west-northwestward due to the influence of the subtropical ridge to the north. On September 17, the track shifted to the west-southwest, threatening Guam. The small typhoon turned more to the west, passing about 20 km (12 mi) north of Saipan on September 19, part of the Northern Marianas Islands north of Guam. For several days, Mireille failed to intensify due to wind shear from the larger Tropical Storm Luke to the north. After Luke weakened and progressed northward, Mireille was able to strengthen more gradually, as well as increase in size.[1] On September 22, the typhoon strengthened into a super typhoon, which is an unofficial category used by the JTWC for storms reaching 1‑minute winds of at least 240 km/h (150 mph).[5] According to the JMA, Mireille attained 10‑minute winds of 185 km/h (115 mph) on September 23.[3]

Typhoon Mireille
Satellite image of Mireille west of Guam

Around the time of reaching peak intensity, Mireille turned more to the northwest along the southwestern periphery of the subtropical ridge. The increasing size began to impart wind shear in Typhoon Nat to the west, and the two storms underwent the Fujiwhara effect, in which Nat turned sharply southward while Mireille progressed toward the Ryukyu Islands of Japan.[1] After maintaining peak winds for about 30 hours, Mireille began weakening, passing just east of Miyako-jima on September 26 with 10‑minute winds of 165 km/h (105 mph), according to the JMA.[3] That day, the typhoon accelerated to the northeast due to increasing mid-level winds from the southwest, passing west of Okinawa.[1] According to the JMA, Mireille re-intensified slightly on September 27 to a secondary peak of 175 km/h (110 mph),[3] aided by unusually warm water temperatures in the East China Sea.[6] The typhoon made landfall at that strength at 07:00 UTC between Saikai and Nagasaki along southwest Kyushu.[3] The pressure at landfall was 940 mbar (28 inHg), the lowest in the country since Typhoon Trix in 1971.[6]

The typhoon quickly weakened while continuing northeastward through Kyushu and western Honshu,[3] and started to become an extratropical cyclone; during the process, the wind field expanded, aided by moist air from the southwest and cold air from the northwest.[7] It accelerated further over the Sea of Japan, and late on September 27, Mireille made a second landfall in Japan along southwestern Hokkaido at 22:00 UTC, with 10‑minute winds of 150 km/h (90 mph) still at typhoon status. Crossing the island, the typhoon weakened to tropical storm status early on September 28, and shortly thereafter became fully extratropical in the Sea of Okhotsk. The powerful remnants of Mireille continued eastward, crossing the Aleutian Islands on September 29 and crossed the International Date Line shortly thereafter.[3] That day, a pressure of 954 mb (hPa; 28.17 inHg) was observed in the Pribilof Islands of Alaska. Powerful winds battered vessels in the region, with the Merchant Pride reporting peak sustained winds of 110 km/h (70 mph).[8] After crossing the dateline, Mireille's remnants turned northeast and struck the Seward Peninsula on October 3 before moving over Arctic Alaska. The system then moved over the Arctic Ocean where it was last noted on October 4.[9]

Preparations and impact

Early tropical cyclone computer models anticipated Mireille would pass close to Guam, prompting officials to undergo preparations for the storm. The storm ultimately passed north of Saipan, causing damage along the island's northern portion. Mireille knocked over trees and damaged over 70% of Saipan's crops while also eroding coastal roads.[1]

In South Korea, two people were killed with two others reported missing.[10] A South Korean freighter rode out the storm at the port in Hakata Bay.[11] It breached along the breakwater, causing it to sink,[12] killing all 10 crew members.[1] The Japan Coast Guard launched a search and rescue mission for two days.[11]

Later, the remnants of Mireille moved through the Aleutian Islands toward the end of September,[3] bringing strong winds to the islands, including gusts over 112 km/h (70 mph) at Amchitka.[13]


Japan main islands
Map of the main islands of Japan

Ahead of the storm, the JMA issued 99 typhoon bulletins, warning residents about Mireille. There were 236 warnings related to storm surge, high winds, waves, and flooding. In Hiroshima, most residents were aware of the approaching storm, about 70% of residents did not expect significant effects. In general, residents were unprepared for the storm, partly due to the lack of recent storms.[6] Transportation in Japan was disrupted after 480 domestic flights cancelled, stranding 58,000 individuals,[14] and road, rail, and ferry traffic was halted.[15] In Hokkaido, 207 schools were closed due to the storm.[16]

Mireille was the strongest typhoon to hit Japan since Typhoon Nancy in 1961, causing heavy damage in 41 of 47 prefectures.[17] It was the third storm to strike Japan in two weeks.[7] Damage was heaviest on Kyushu where the storm made landfall.[11] Because the storm moved northeastward through the Sea of Japan, the eastern quadrant of the storm crossed over much of the country, which is where the strongest winds in tropical cyclones are located.[18] The high winds downed trees, damaged roofs,[11] and left record power outages,[17] affecting 7.36 million people, or about 13% of total customers.[6] In some areas, the power outages lasted as little as three minutes.[19] The storm damaged over 670,000 houses, of which 1,058 were destroyed,[6] and another 22,965 were flooded.[20] Power outages caused at least five factories to shut down production.[21] Along the coast, the typhoon damaged 930 ships,[20] with dozens sunk or blown ashore.[17] Most of the damage was related to agriculture or forests.[6] Sea spray heavily damaged fruit trees and rice paddies.[6] Crop damage amounted to $3 billion, mostly to the apple industry,[1] after 345,000 tons of apples fell to the ground and another 43,000 were damaged on the trees. Most farms lost 80% of their crop, potentially taking 10 years to regrow.[22] Persistent cloudiness and rainfall following the storm diminished sunlight by 50%, furthering crop damage.[23] There were 62 deaths in Japan and 2,862 injuries,[6] including the deaths on the South Korean freighter,[1] making it the deadliest typhoon there in 10 years.[6] About 80% of the deaths were male, and 70% were over 60 years old. Most of the deaths were related to wind-blown debris, falling due to the wind, or being trapped or struck by fallen objects.[24] The $6 billion in insured losses and $10 billion in overall damage made Mireille the costliest typhoon on record as of January 2015, according to Munich Re.[25]

When Mireille moved through western Japan, it brought strong winds and heavy rainfall. The highest sustained wind was 162 km/h (101 mph) at Nomozaki, Nagasaki,[20] and gusts nearby peaked at 218 km/h (136 mph). Misawa Air Base along northern Honshu reported winds of at least 93 km/h (58 mph) for five hours, with a peak gust of 152 km/h (94 mph). This was the highest wind report at the station since records began in 1946.[1] The strongest wind gusts occurred concurrently with a sudden drop in atmospheric pressure, primarily from Kyushu and extending east-northeastward into the Chūgoku region of Honshu.[26] Mireille produced record wind gusts at 26 locations and record sustained winds at 12 locations.[18] At landfall, Mireille produced winds of at least 54 km/h (34 mph) across a diameter of 600 km (375 mi).[6] About two-thirds of the wind stations reported the strongest winds from the west after Mireille passed the area. Winds were lightest in eastern Honshu,[7] Mireille also dropped heavy rainfall, mostly on Shikoku, peaking at 406 mm (16.0 in) at Kito, Tokushima. In nearby Kōchi Prefecture, the heaviest hourly rainfall total was 72 mm (2.8 in), the highest in the nation for the storm.[20] The rains caused at least 13 landslides and flooded rivers in four locations.[14] However, effects from rainfall were limited due to the storm's fast forward motion.[6] Mireille also struck around the time of high tide, causing extensive storm surge along the coast.[27]

Mireille first passed near Miyako-jima, dropping 273 mm (10.7 in) of rainfall there.[20] Wind gusts on the island reached 176 km/h (110 mph), which caused some crop damage to sugar cane and vegetables. All flights were canceled as Mireille passed the island.[28] Later, the typhoon bypassed Okinawa to the west. The island experienced winds of at least 93 km/h (58 mph) for 27 hours, with gusts of 152 km/h (92 mph) at Kadena Air Base.[1] The capital city, Naha, reported gusts of 180 km/h (112 mph), while the highest gust in the region was 189 km/h (118 mph) on Kume Island.[29] Mireille produced heavy rainfall on Okinawa, totaling 258 mm (10.14 in), which allowed water restrictions there to be lifted for the rest of the year.[1] The precipitation fell in a short amount of time; 11 mm (0.43 in) dropped in just 10 minutes, and 34 mm (1.3 in) dropped in an hour, both at Naha. Waves reached 13.7 m (50 ft) along the coast of Okinawa. On Kume Island, the combination of high waves and tides produced damaging storm surge. The storm flooded 74 houses and damaged another 37. Mireille damaged roads in two locations, while winds damaged 157 power lines,[29] which cut communications to 3,123 people.[30] The storm also left heavy damage to the agriculture and forest industries.[29] In the region, Mireille caused 44 flights to be canceled. Two people were injured on Okinawa, and overall damage in the prefecture totaled ¥1.5 billion ($11.4 million USD).[nb 4][29]

In Kyushu, the heavy rainfall caused flooding and landslides,[32] which buried several houses in Miyazaki Prefecture and forced 75 people to evacuate.[33] The high wind knocked over many cypress or cedar trees, totaling 22529 ha (55,670 acres) and accounting for ¥64 billion ($530 million USD) in damage in Ōita Prefecture alone.[34][nb 4] Damage was heaviest near Nagasaki, where 16 people were killed,[11] including five after a warehouse collapsed during the storm.[35] A construction worker in nearby Isahaya was killed when the winds struck him with a prebuilt hut,[36] and airborne debris killed five people in Kumamoto Prefecture and seven in Fukuoka Prefecture.[12][37] Throughout Kyushu, about 2 million people lost power.[11] High winds and waves in Kagoshima Prefecture overturned several cars, killing one person in Ōshima.[38] Throughout Kyushu, about 2 million people lost power.[11] On nearby Shikoku island, high winds and rains caused ¥4.7 billion ($35.7 million USD) in damage in Tokushima,[nb 4] mostly related to fisheries, crops, and houses.[39] A record storm surge, in conjunction with high winds, damaged a school in Sakaide,[40] as well as a floating pier and coastal road in nearby Ehime Prefecture. Rough surf swept away a women in Matsuyama.[41]

Costliest known Pacific typhoons
Rank Typhoon Season Damage
(2018 USD)
1 Mireille 1991 $18.4 billion
2 Jebi 2018 $15 billion
3 Songda 2004 $12.3 billion
4 Fitow 2013 $11.2 billion
5 Saomai 2000 $9.17 billion
6 Prapiroon $8.93 billion
7 Bart 1999 $8.65 billion
8 Rammasun 2014 $8.5 billion
9 Herb 1996 $7.99 billion
10 Flo 1990 $7.67 billion
Source: [1]

The storm track brought Mireille west of the most populated island of Honshu, limiting damage there compared to Kyushu.[11] At Misawa Air Base, the strong winds knocked over trees and blew off the roofs of several warehouses, and also knocked off storage sheds off their foundation. Ahead of the storm, advance warning allowed the American military to shelter aircraft and warn the population. Damage was estimated between $500,000–$1.5 million.[1] Two of Mazda's loading docks in Hiroshima were completely destroyed, affecting American inventories of 1992 Mazda 929's until the end of November 1991.[42] Also in the city, 1.1 million residents, or 80% of households, lost power due to winds and storm surge.[27] In Yamaguchi Prefecture, the Takeda Pharmaceutical Company was flooded with 0.6 m (2 ft) of waters, forcing workers to move to another plant in the United States.[43] The strong winds and waves damaged the Itsukushima Shrine near Hiroshima and Kenroku-en northwest of Tokyo.[44] In Okayama Prefecture, salt spray damaged railways and shut down lines for three days.[45] High winds in Naka-ku collapsed scaffolding from a parking garage, and another damaged scaffolding nearby forced a road to shut down.[46] There were extensive crop losses in northern Honshu.[6] In Toyama Prefecture, the winds destroyed 192 greenhouses and exasperated a fire that caused further crop damage.[47]

Striking Hokkaido with much of its former intensity, Mireille produced strong winds across the island. Hakodate Airport reported a peak gust of 124 km/h (77 mph),[16] and the highest sustained wind was 79 km/h (49 mph) in Urakawa.[48] Along the coast, waves reached 7.7 m (25 ft) high at Matsumae,[16] killing one person in Kushiro who was mooring his boat.[49] Light rains occurred on the island, reaching 75 mm (3.0 in) in Hidaka.[48] In Hakodate, the storm damaged five buildings, and about 3,000 houses lost power.[16] There was scattered roof damage across Hokkaido, and flying glass injured one person.[50]


By a day after the storm made landfall, the record power outages were largely restored.[51] However, salt damage prevented restoration in some areas for several days.[6] The outages left residents temporarily without water after water pumps were shut down.[12] In Hiroshima, lack of power caused traffic congestion, shut down banks, and disrupted hospitals.[27] The widespread power outages related to Mireille prompted the government to reconstruct transmission towers with anemometer, or wind measurement devices. Following the storm, insurance companies paid $6 billion to policy holders in Japan, which was a world record related to wind damage; this was surpassed less than a year later by Hurricane Andrew striking Florida.[18] The typhoon still holds the title as the costliest non-Atlantic hurricane.[52]

Due to the severity of damage and loss of life caused by the storm, the name Mireille was retired and replaced with Melissa.[53]

See also


  1. ^ All damage totals are in 1991 values of their respective currencies.
  2. ^ The Japan Meteorological Agency is the official Regional Specialized Meteorological Center for the western Pacific Ocean.[2]
  3. ^ The Joint Typhoon Warning Center is a joint United States Navy – United States Air Force task force that issues tropical cyclone warnings for the western Pacific Ocean and other regions.[4]
  4. ^ a b c The total was originally reported in Japanese yen. Total converted via the Oanda Corporation website.[31]


  1. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o 1991 Annual Tropical Cyclone Report (PDF) (Report). Hagatna, Guam: Joint Typhoon Warning Center. pp. 109–111. Retrieved 2015-04-05.
  2. ^ RSMC Tokyo – Typhoon Center. Annual Report on Activities of the RSMC Tokyo – Typhoon Center 2002 (PDF) (Report). Japan Meteorological Agency. p. 8. Retrieved 2012-01-03.
  3. ^ a b c d e f g h RSMC Best Track Data (Text) 1990-1999 (TXT) (Report). Japan Meteorological Agency. Retrieved 2015-04-05.
  4. ^ Joint Typhoon Warning Center (2011). "Joint Typhoon Warning Center Mission Statement". United States Navy, United States Airforce. Archived from the original on 2007-07-26. Retrieved 2011-11-30.
  5. ^ a b c Kenneth R. Knapp; Michael C. Kruk; David H. Levinson; Howard J. Diamond; Charles J. Neumann (2010). 1991 Mireille (1991256N13171). The International Best Track Archive for Climate Stewardship (IBTrACS): Unifying tropical cyclone best track data (Report). Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society. Retrieved 2015-04-05.
  6. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m F. Swanson; J. Wickham; K. Park (September 1992). Proceedings of the Third Workshop for Natural Disaster Reduction (PDF). Japan - United States Science and Technology Agreement (Report). Retrieved 2015-04-14.
  7. ^ a b c Peter Sousounis (2011-09-19). "Twenty Years Later and Still Topping the Charts: A Closer Look at Mireille, Japan's Costliest Typhoon". AIR Worldwide. Retrieved 2015-04-10.
  8. ^ Richard M. DeAngelis, ed. (Winter 1992). "Marine Weather Review: North Pacific Weather July, August and September 1991". Mariners Weather Log. Washington, D.C. 36 (1): 64–68.
  9. ^ Richard M. DeAngelis, ed. (Spring 1992). "Principal Tracks of Cyclone Centers at Sea Level, North Pacific October 1991". Mariners Weather Log. Washington, D.C. 36 (2): 83.
  10. ^ "Tropical Cyclones in 1991" (PDF). Royal Observatory Hong Kong. p. 16. Retrieved 2009-03-11.
  11. ^ a b c d e f g h "Killer Typhoon Pounds Japan; at Least 45 Die : Disasters: More than 700 injured in worst storm to hit islands in 30 years. Record power outages are left by 133-m.p.h winds". Los Angeles Times. Associated Press. 1991-09-29. Retrieved 2015-04-09.
  12. ^ a b c Digital Typhoon. Weather Disaster Report (1991-807-11) (Report). National Institute of Informatics. Retrieved 2015-04-13.
  13. ^ "Storm Data and Unusual Weather Phenomena with Late Reports and Corrections" (PDF). Storm Data. 33 (9): 55. September 1991. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2015-04-07.
  14. ^ a b "Typhoon kills 10, injures over 200". Agence France-Presse. 1991-09-27. – via Lexis Nexis (subscription required)
  15. ^ "Georgia troops retake national guard base". USA Today. 1991-09-30. p. 04A.
  16. ^ a b c d Digital Typhoon. Weather Disaster Report (1991-430-02) (Report). National Institute of Informatics. Retrieved 2015-04-20.
  17. ^ a b c "Japan Typhoon Kills at Least 45". The New York Times. 1991-09-29. p. A.3. Retrieved 2015-04-08.
  18. ^ a b c Junji Maeda (2009-11-17). Recent Extreme Wind Events and Damage Assessment in Japan (PDF) (Report). Global Environmental Research. Retrieved 2015-04-09.
  19. ^ Digital Typhoon. Weather Disaster Report (1991-780-10) (Report). National Institute of Informatics. Retrieved 2015-04-24.
  20. ^ a b c d e Digital Typhoon. Typhoon 199119 (Mireille) (Report). National Institute of Informatics. Retrieved 2015-04-05.
  21. ^ "Typhoon Shuts Japan Plants". Platt's Oilgram News. 1991-10-01. – via Lexis Nexis (subscription required)
  22. ^ Janet Bloom (1991-12-01). "Typhoons in Japan Whet Citrus Appetite Fla. Grapefruit Exports Soar". Journal of Commerce. – via Lexis Nexis (subscription required)
  23. ^ Digital Typhoon. Weather Disaster Report (1991-607-13) (Report). National Institute of Informatics. Retrieved 2015-04-28.
  24. ^ Yukio Tamura (November 2009). Wind-Induced Damage to Buildings and Disaster Risk Redsuction (PDF). The Seventh Asia-Pacific Conference on Wind Engineering. Taipei, Taiwan. Retrieved 2015-04-10.
  25. ^ "Loss events in Asia 1980 – 2014" (PDF). Munich Re. January 2015. Retrieved 2015-04-06.
  26. ^ Hironori Fudeyasu; Satoshi Iizuka; Taiichi Hayashi (April 2007). "Meso-β-scale Pressure Dips Associated with Typhoons". Monthly Weather Review. 135 (4). Bibcode:2007MWRv..135.1225F. doi:10.1175/MWR3337.1. Retrieved 2015-04-11.
  27. ^ a b c Akihiro Moritani; Mikio Ishiwatari (1996). High Tide Disaster in the Ohtagawa River Delta in Hiroshima (PDF) (Report). Universidad Nacional Autónoma de Honduras. Retrieved 2015-04-29.
  28. ^ Digital Typhoon. Weather Disaster Report (1991-927-02) (Report). National Institute of Informatics. Retrieved 2015-04-06.
  29. ^ a b c d Digital Typhoon. Weather Disaster Report (1991-936-08) (Report). National Institute of Informatics. Retrieved 2015-04-06.
  30. ^ Digital Typhoon. Weather Disaster Report (1991-918-04) (Report). National Institute of Informatics. Retrieved 2015-04-06.
  31. ^ "Historical Exchange Rates". Oanda Corporation. 2013. Retrieved 2015-04-06.
  32. ^ "Killer Typhoon Mireille Wreaking Havoc on Southern Shores of Japan". Kingman Daily Miner. Associated Press. 1991-09-29. Retrieved 2015-04-10.
  33. ^ Digital Typhoon. Weather Disaster Report (1991-830-10) (Report). National Institute of Informatics. Retrieved 2015-04-13.
  34. ^ Digital Typhoon. Weather Disaster Report (1991-815-10) (Report). National Institute of Informatics. Retrieved 2015-04-13.
  35. ^ Digital Typhoon. Weather Disaster Report (1991-817-16) (Report). National Institute of Informatics. Retrieved 2015-04-13.
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  37. ^ Digital Typhoon. Weather Disaster Report (1991-819-08) (Report). National Institute of Informatics. Retrieved 2015-04-13.
  38. ^ Digital Typhoon. Weather Disaster Report (1991-827-15) (Report). National Institute of Informatics. Retrieved 2015-04-13.
  39. ^ Digital Typhoon. Weather Disaster Report (1991-895-15) (Report). National Institute of Informatics. Retrieved 2015-04-16.
  40. ^ Digital Typhoon. Weather Disaster Report (1991-891-04) (Report). National Institute of Informatics. Retrieved 2015-04-16.
  41. ^ Digital Typhoon. Weather Disaster Report (1991-887-22) (Report). National Institute of Informatics. Retrieved 2015-04-16.
  42. ^ Micheline Maynard (1991-11-21). "Typhoon batters USA's supply of Mazda 929s". USA Today. p. 08B.
  43. ^ "Japan Hit by the Worst Storm in 30 Years; 45 Are Killed". Star News. Associated Press. 1991-09-29. Retrieved 2015-04-10.
  44. ^ "Typhoon Moves Off Coast; 45 killed, 777 injured". The News. Associated Press. 1991-09-29. Retrieved 2015-04-10.
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  47. ^ Digital Typhoon. Weather Disaster Report (1991-607-12) (Report). National Institute of Informatics. Retrieved 2015-04-29.
  48. ^ a b Digital Typhoon. Weather Disaster Report (1991-426-04) (Report). National Institute of Informatics. Retrieved 2015-04-20.
  49. ^ Digital Typhoon. Weather Disaster Report (1991-418-04) (Report). National Institute of Informatics. Retrieved 2015-04-20.
  50. ^ Digital Typhoon. Weather Disaster Report (1991-420-05) (Report). National Institute of Informatics. Retrieved 2015-04-20.
  51. ^ "Typhoon Causes 17 Deaths in Japan". Ellensburg Daily Record. Associated Press. 1991-09-28. Retrieved 2015-04-10.
  52. ^ "Costliest Non-Atlantic Tropical Cyclones: Economic Loss" (PDF). Munich Re. 2014. Retrieved 2015-04-06.
  53. ^ Xiaotu Lei and Xiao Zhou (Shanghai Typhoon Institute of China Meteorological Administration) (February 2012). "Summary of Retired Typhoons in the Western North Pacific Ocean". Tropical Cyclone Research And Review. 1 (1): 23–32. doi:10.6057/2012TCRR01.03. Retrieved May 7, 2013.
1991 Pacific typhoon season

The 1991 Pacific typhoon season has no official bounds; it ran year-round in 1991, but most tropical cyclones tend to form in the northwestern Pacific Ocean between May and November. These dates conventionally delimit the period of each year when most tropical cyclones form in the northwestern Pacific Ocean.

The scope of this article is limited to the Pacific Ocean, north of the equator and west of the international date line. Storms that form east of the date line and north of the equator are called hurricanes; see 1991 Pacific hurricane season. Tropical Storms formed in the entire west pacific basin were assigned a name by the Joint Typhoon Warning Center. Tropical depressions in this basin have the "W" suffix added to their number. Tropical depressions that enter or form in the Philippine area of responsibility are assigned a name by the Philippine Atmospheric, Geophysical and Astronomical Services Administration or PAGASA. This can often result in the same storm having two names.

1991 in Japan

Events in the year 1991 in Japan. It corresponds to Heisei 3 (平成3年) in the Japanese calendar.

List of disasters by cost

Disasters can be particularly notable for the high costs associated with responding to and recovering from them. This page lists the estimated economic costs of relatively recent disasters.

The costs of disasters vary considerably depending on a range of factors, such as the geographical location where they occur. When a large disaster occurs in a wealthy country, the financial damage may be large, but when a comparable disaster occurs in a poorer country, the actual financial damage may appear to be relatively small. This is in part due to the difficulty of measuring the financial damage in areas that lack insurance. For example, the 2004 Indian Ocean earthquake and tsunami, with a death toll of over 230,000 people, cost a 'mere' $15 billion, whereas in the Deepwater Horizon oil spill, in which 11 people died, the damages were six-fold.

Note: All damage figures are listed in billions of United States dollars.

List of retired Pacific typhoon names

This is a list of all Pacific typhoons that have had their names retired by the Japan Meteorological Agency. A total of 43 typhoon names have been retired since the start of official tropical cyclone naming in the western North Pacific Ocean in 2000. Tropical cyclone names are retired by the World Meteorological Organization (WMO) in a meeting in January or February. Those typhoons that have their names retired tend to be exceptionally destructive storms. Several names were removed or altered naming list for various reasons other than retirement. Collectively, retired typhoons have caused over $108 billion in damage (2019 USD), as well as over 12,000 deaths.

Lloyd's of London

Lloyd's of London, generally known simply as Lloyd's, is an insurance and reinsurance market located in London, United Kingdom. Unlike most of its competitors in the industry, it is not an insurance company; rather, Lloyd's is a corporate body governed by the Lloyd's Act 1871 and subsequent Acts of Parliament and operates as a partially-mutualised marketplace within which multiple financial backers, grouped in syndicates, come together to pool and spread risk. These underwriters, or "members", are a collection of both corporations and private individuals, the latter being traditionally known as "Names".

The business underwritten at Lloyd's is predominantly general insurance and reinsurance, although a small number of syndicates write term life assurance. The market has its roots in marine insurance and was founded by Edward Lloyd at his coffee house on Tower Street in c. 1686. Today, it has a dedicated building on Lime Street within which business is transacted at each syndicate's "box" in the underwriting "Room", with the insurance policy documentation being known traditionally as a "slip".The market's motto is Fidentia, Latin for "confidence", and it is closely associated with the Latin phrase uberrima fides, or "utmost good faith", representing the relationship between underwriters and brokers.Having survived multiple scandals and significant challenges through the second half of the 20th century, most notably the asbestosis affair, Lloyd's today promotes its strong financial "chain of security" available to promptly pay all valid claims. At the end of 2018, this chain consisted of £53.5 billion of syndicate-level assets; £26.5bn of members' "funds at Lloyd's"; over £3.2bn in a third mutual link which includes the Central Fund, plus a £0.9bn callable layer.In 2018 there were 84 syndicates managed by 55 managing agencies that collectively wrote £35.5bn of gross premiums on risks placed by 303 approved brokers. Around 50 per cent of premiums emanated from North America, 30 per cent from Europe and 20 per cent from the rest of the world. Direct insurance represented around 70 per cent of the premiums, mainly covering property and casualty (liability), while the remaining 30 per cent was reinsurance. The market collectively reported a pre-tax loss of £1bn for 2018, resulting from above-average major claims and a weak investment environment.

Mireille (disambiguation)

Mireille is a female given name.

Mireille may also refer to:

Mireille (opera), by Charles Gounod

594 Mireille, an asteroid

Typhoon Mireille, one of the deadliest typhoons of the 1991 Pacific season

Typhoon Higos (2002)

Typhoon Higos was considered the third strongest typhoon to affect Tokyo since World War II. The 21st named storm of the 2002 Pacific typhoon season, Higos developed on September 25 east of the Northern Marianas Islands. It tracked west-northwestward for its first few days, steadily intensifying into a powerful typhoon by September 29. Higos subsequently weakened and turned to the north-northeast toward Japan, making landfall in that country's Kanagawa Prefecture on October 1. It weakened while crossing Honshu, and shortly after striking Hokkaidō, Higos became extratropical on October 2. The remnants passed over Sakhalin and dissipated on October 4.

Before striking Japan, Higos produced strong winds in the Northern Marianas Islands while passing to their north. These winds damaged the food supply on two islands. Later, Higos moved across Japan with wind gusts as strong as 161 km/h (100 mph), including record gusts at several locations. A total of 608,130 buildings in the country were left without power, and two people were electrocuted in the storm's aftermath. The typhoon also dropped heavy rainfall that peaked at 346 mm (13.6 in). The rains flooded houses across the country and caused mudslides. High waves washed 25 boats ashore and killed one person along the coast. Damage in the country totaled JP¥261 billion ($2.14 billion in 2002 USD), and there were five deaths in the country. Later, the remnants of Higos affected the Russian Far East, killing seven people involved in two shipwrecks offshore Primorsky Krai.

Typhoon Nabi

Typhoon Nabi (pronounced [na.bi]), known in the Philippines as Typhoon Jolina, was a powerful typhoon that struck southwestern Japan in September 2005. The 14th named storm of the 2005 Pacific typhoon season, Nabi formed on August 29 to the east of the Northern Mariana Islands. It moved westward and passed about 55 km (35 mi) north of Saipan on August 31 as an intensifying typhoon. On the next day, the Joint Typhoon Warning Center upgraded the storm to super typhoon status, with winds equivalent to that of a Category 5 hurricane on the Saffir–Simpson Hurricane Scale. The Japan Meteorological Agency estimated peak ten-minute winds of 175 km/h (110 mph) on September 2. Nabi weakened while curving to the north, striking the Japanese island of Kyushu on September 6. After brushing South Korea, the storm turned to the northeast, passing over Hokkaido before becoming extratropical on September 8, before dissipating on September 12.

The typhoon first affected the Northern Mariana Islands, where it left US$2.5 million in damage, while damaging or destroying 114 homes. The damage was enough to warrant a disaster declaration from the United States government. While passing near Okinawa, Nabi produced gusty winds and caused minor damage. Later, the western fringe of the storm caused several traffic accidents in Busan, South Korea, and throughout the country Nabi killed six people and caused US$115.4 million in damage. About 250,000 people evacuated along the Japanese island of Kyushu ahead of the storm, and there were disruptions to train, ferry, and airline services. In Kyushu, the storm left ¥4.08 billion (US$36.9 million) in crop damage after dropping 1,322 mm (52.0 in) of rain over three days. During the storm's passage, there were 61 daily rainfall records broken by Nabi's precipitation. The rains caused flooding and landslides, forcing people to evacuate their homes and for businesses to close. Across Japan, Nabi killed 29 people and caused ¥94.9 billion (US$854 million) in damage. Soldiers, local governments, and insurance companies helped residents recover from the storm damage. After affecting Japan, the typhoon affected the Kuril Islands of Russia, where it dropped the equivalent of the monthly precipitation, while also causing road damage due to high waves. Overall, Nabi killed 35 people.

Typhoon Robyn (1993)

Typhoon Robyn, known in the Philippines as Typhoon Openg, was a mid-season tropical cyclone that brushed Japan during August 1993. Typhoon Robyn originated from a near equatorial monsoon trough in the eastern Caroline Islands in late July. Tracking west-northwest, a tropical depression developed on August 1, and became a tropical storm the next day. Following an increase in organization, Robyn obtained typhoon intensity on August 5. The typhoon briefly tracked west before veering to the northwest while intensifying. On August 7, Robyn attained its peak intensity of 160 km/h (100 mph), with a barometric pressure of 940 mbar (27.8 inHg). After passing through the Ryukyu Islands, Robyn skirted past western Kyushu on August 9 while steadily weakening. Midday on August 10, Robyn lost typhoon intensity over the Sea of Japan. The next day, the system was declared an extratropical cyclone.

In advance of the storm, 5,300 individuals were evacuated from Nagasaki Prefecture. Around 100 flights in and out of Kagoshima Airport were called off. Throughout Japan, nine people were killed, and fifty others were wounded. A total of 564 structures were destroyed, 80 homes were damaged, 220 houses were flooded, roads were cut in 15 locations, and two dikes were ruined. On the island of Kyushu, over 10,000 people fled their homes and around 285,000 households lost electricity. Damage in the country totaled ¥10.3 billion, equal to US$92.3 million. In South Korea, 45 people were killed and damage was estimated at US$86 million. The remnants of the storm also dropped rainfall across the Russian Far East.

Typhoon Rosing

The name Rosing has been used in the Philippines by PAGASA for nine tropical cyclones in the Western Pacific.

Typhoon Kit (1963) (T6318, 35W, Rosing) – became a Category 4-equivalent super typhoon but did not affect any land areas.

Typhoon Marge (1967) (T6718, 22W, Rosing) – struck the Philippines.

Typhoon Lucy (1971) (T7116, 17W, Rosing) – struck the Philippines and China.

Typhoon June (1975) (T7520, 23W, Rosing) – one of the most intense tropical cyclones on record, reaching 875 millibars.

Typhoon Owen (1979) (T7915, 19W, Rosing) – struck Japan and caused 12 deaths.

Severe Tropical Storm Joe (1983) (T8314, 15W, Rosing) – struck the Philippines and China.

Tropical Storm Maury (1987) (T8721, 21W, Rosing) – struck the Philippines and Vietnam.

Typhoon Mireille (1991) (T9119, 21W, Rosing) – struck Japan and became the country's costliest typhoon ever.

Typhoon Angela (1995) (T9520, 29W, Rosing) – a strong Category 5-equivalent typhoon that caused 882 fatalities and severe damage across the Philippines.The name Rosing was retired because of the destruction it caused in the Philippines in 1995.

Typhoon Songda (2004)

Typhoon Songda, known in the Philippines as Typhoon Nina, was the third-costliest typhoon on record. The 18th named storm of the 2004 Pacific typhoon season, Songda developed on August 26 near the Marshall Islands. Following a path that Typhoon Chaba took nine days prior, Songda moved west-northwestward and strengthened quickly amid favorable conditions.

Typhoon Tokage (2004)

Typhoon Tokage, known in the Philippines as Typhoon Siony, was the deadliest typhoon to strike Japan since Typhoon Bess in 1982. The twenty-third storm to be named using an international list of names during the 2004 Pacific typhoon season, Tokage was the last of three typhoons to impact Japan from late-September to mid-October 2004. Typhoon Tokage began as a tropical depression near the Northern Mariana Islands on October 10. With very warm waters, the system started to undergo a rapid deepening phase early on October 13 and reached its peak strength on the 17th. Tokage made landfall over Japan on October 20, just before becoming extratropical.

Typhoon Vera

Typhoon Vera, also known as the Isewan Typhoon (伊勢湾台風, Ise-wan Taifū), was an exceptionally intense tropical cyclone that struck Japan in September 1959, becoming the strongest and deadliest typhoon on record to make landfall on the country. The storm's intensity resulted in catastrophic damage of unparalleled severity and extent, and was a major setback to the Japanese economy, which was still recovering from World War II. In the aftermath of Vera, Japan's disaster management and relief systems were significantly reformed, and the typhoon's effects would set a benchmark for future storms striking the country.

Vera developed on September 20 between Guam and Chuuk State, and initially tracked westward before taking a more northerly course, reaching tropical storm strength the following day. By this point Vera had assumed a more westerly direction of movement and had begun to rapidly intensify, and reached its peak intensity on September 23 with maximum sustained winds equivalent to that of a modern-day Category 5 hurricane. With little change in strength, Vera curved and accelerated northward, resulting in a landfall on September 26 near Shionomisaki on Honshu. Atmospheric wind patterns caused the typhoon to briefly emerge into the Sea of Japan before recurving eastward and moving ashore Honshu for a second time. Movement over land greatly weakened Vera, and after reentering the North Pacific Ocean later that day, Vera transitioned into an extratropical cyclone on September 27; these remnants continued to persist for an additional two days.

Though Vera was accurately forecast and its track into Japan was well anticipated, limited coverage of telecommunications, combined with lack of urgency from Japanese media and the storm's intensity, greatly inhibited potential evacuation and disaster mitigation processes. Rainfall from the storm's outer rainbands began to cause flooding in river basins well in advance of the storm's landfall. Upon moving ashore Honshu, the typhoon brought a strong storm surge that destroyed numerous flood defense systems, inundating coastal regions and sinking ships. Damage totals from Vera reached US$600 million (equivalent to US$5.16 billion in 2018). The number of fatalities caused by Vera remain discrepant, though current estimates indicate that the typhoon caused at least 4,000 deaths, making it the deadliest typhoon in Japanese history.

Relief efforts were initiated by Japanese and American governments immediately following Typhoon Vera. Due to the inundation caused by the typhoon, localized epidemics were reported, including those of dysentery and tetanus. The spread of disease and blocking debris slowed the ongoing relief efforts. Due to the unprecedented damage and loss of life following Vera, the National Diet passed legislation in order to more efficiently assist affected regions and mitigate future disasters. This included the passage of the Disaster Countermeasures Basic Act in 1961, which set standards for Japanese disaster relief, including the establishment of the Central Disaster Prevention Council.

Typhoon Yancy (1993)

Typhoon Yancy, known in the Philippines as Typhoon Tasing, was one of the costliest and most intense tropical cyclones to strike Japan on record. Yancy was the sixth typhoon of the annual typhoon season and sixth tropical cyclone overall to impact Japan that year. Developing out of an area of disturbed weather in the open northwest Pacific on August 29, 1993, the precursor to Yancy tracked westward and quickly intensified to reach tropical storm strength on August 30. Just two days later, the tropical storm reached typhoon intensity as it recurved towards the northeast. A period of rapid intensification followed, allowing Yancy to quickly reach super typhoon intensity. The strong tropical cyclone reached peak intensity on September 2 with maximum sustained winds of 175 km/h (110 mph). The following day Yancy made its first landfall on Iōjima at nearly the same strength; over the course of the day the typhoon would make three subsequent landfalls on Japanese islands. Land interaction forced the tropical cyclone to weaken, and after its final landfall on Hiroshima Prefecture, Yancy weakened below typhoon intensity. After emerging into the Sea of Japan, Yancy transitioned into an extratropical cyclone; these remnants persisted as they meandered in the sea before dissipating completely on September 7.

Pre 2000's


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