Typhoon Fitow

Typhoon Fitow, known in the Philippines as Typhoon Quedan, was the strongest typhoon to make landfall in Mainland China during October since 1949. The 21st named storm of the 2013 Pacific typhoon season, Fitow developed on September 29 to the east of the Philippines. It initially tracked north-northwestward, gradually intensifying into a tropical storm and later to typhoon status, or with winds of at least 120 km/h (75 mph). Fitow later turned more to the west-northwest due to an intensifying ridge to the east, bringing the typhoon over the Ryukyu Islands with peak winds of 140 km/h (85 mph) on October 5. The next day, the typhoon struck China at Fuding in Fujian province. Fitow quickly weakened over land, dissipating on October 7.

Across its path, Fitow spurred many airlines to cancel flights and caused other transport disruptions. In Japan, the typhoon damaged 1,464 houses and left about 6,800 households without power on Miyako-jima. Heavy rainfall in Taiwan flooded houses and caused mudslides that closed two highways. Damage was heaviest in Fujian and Zhejiang provinces in China near where Fitow struck. In the latter province, rainfall peaked at 803 mm (31.6 in) in Yuyao, which flooded 70% of the town with up to 3 m (9.8 ft) of waters; as a result, the floods were the worst in a century for Yuyao, which disrupted aid distribution in the storm's aftermath. Across China, Fitow damaged about 95,000 houses and left at least 159,000 other houses without power. The storm also flooded about 75,000 hectares (185,000 acres) of fields and killed thousands of fish at fish farms. Total damage in the country reached ¥63.14 billion (2013 RMB, $10.4 billion USD),[nb 1] of which ¥6 billion (RMB, US$1 billion) was from insured losses, the second-costliest event on record. There were also 12 deaths in China, eight of them related to electrocutions.

Typhoon Fitow (Quedan)
Typhoon (JMA scale)
Category 2 typhoon (SSHWS)
Fitow Oct 5 2013 0210Z
Typhoon Fitow at peak intensity on October 5
FormedSeptember 29, 2013
DissipatedOctober 7, 2013
Highest winds10-minute sustained: 140 km/h (85 mph)
1-minute sustained: 165 km/h (105 mph)
Lowest pressure960 hPa (mbar); 28.35 inHg
Fatalities12 total
Damage$10.4 billion (2013 USD)
Areas affectedTaiwan, China, Japan
Part of the 2013 Pacific typhoon season

Meteorological history

Fitow 2013 track
Map plotting the track and the intensity of the storm, according to the Saffir–Simpson scale

The origins of Typhoon Fitow were from a persistent area of convection, or thunderstorms, about 310 kilometres (195 miles) north-northeast of Palau, an island in the western Pacific Ocean during mid-late September. At the time, wind shear dislocated the convection to the west of a broad and poorly-defined circulation. Although the system was poorly organized, tropical cyclone forecast models noted the potential for development to occur.[2] The convection gradually consolidated and outflow increased to the west, indicative of increased organization.[3] Early on September 29, the Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA)[nb 2] declared that a tropical depression formed about 310 km (195 mi) to the northeast of Palau.[5] Around the same time, the Philippine Atmospheric, Geophysical and Astronomical Services Administration (PAGASA) also began issuing warnings on the depression, giving it the local name Quedan.[6] Early on September 30, the Joint Typhoon Warning Center (JTWC)[nb 3] initiated advisories on Tropical Depression 22W, noting that the circulation had become increasingly well-defined amid decreasing wind shear.[8]

With a ridge to the east, the system tracked to the north-northwest through an area of warm water temperatures.[8] At 1200 UTC on September 30, the JMA upgraded the depression to Tropical Storm Fitow.[9] Although outflow and convection increased in general, the thunderstorm activity diminished over the center due to sinking air.[10] By late on October 1, however, convection increased over Fitow's center,[11] and the next day the JMA upgraded it to a severe tropical storm.[5] On October 2, an eye began developing on satellite imagery,[12] although the rainbands wrapping into the eye were fragmented.[13] It took until midday on October 3 for the JTWC to upgrade Fitow to typhoon status, with 1–minute sustained winds of 120 km/h (75 mph). By that time, the convection had increased in coverage and intensity, with outflow increased by a trough to the north.[14] The JMA did not follow suit until 1200 UTC on October 4,[5] by which time the eye had become better defined.[15]

Fitow & Danas Oct 06 2013 0255Z
Typhoons Fitow (left) and Danas (right) existing simultaneously on October 6

After officially becoming a typhoon, Fitow turned more to the northwest due to the ridge building to the east. Despite increasing wind shear, the typhoon continued to intensify due to amplified outflow.[15] Late on October 4, the JMA upgraded Fitow to peak 10–minute winds of 140 km/h (85 mph).[5] Early the next day, the JTWC estimated peak 1–minute winds of 105 mph (165 km/h),[16] and shortly thereafter the typhoon passed about 225 km (140 mph) south of Okinawa. By that time, the eye had expanded to 75 km (45 mi), which initially remained unaffected by the increased wind shear.[17] Also on October 5, PAGASA issued the final advisory as the storm exited the agency's area of responsibility.[18] Around 1500 UTC on October 5, Fitow passed about 40 km (65 mi) north of Miyako-jima, by which time the eye began deteriorating.[19] As the typhoon passed northeast of Taiwan, the ragged eye became cloud-filled and the convection weakened.[20] Late on October 6, Fitow made landfall just south of Wenzhou in eastern China,[21] at Fuding in Fujian province.[22] Fitow became the strongest China typhoon landfall for the month since 1949 according to the China Meteorological Administration (CMA), with a landfall pressure of 955 mbar (28.2 inHg) and sustained winds of 151 km/h (94 mph).[22] While continuing northwestward near the border of Zhejiang and Fujian provinces, Fitow rapidly weakened, dissipating on October 7.[5]

Preparations

THSR Typhoon Notice 20131005
Taiwan High Speed Rail warning issued ahead of the storm

On the Japanese island of Okinawa, 288 flights at Naha Airport were canceled, affecting 28,000 people. Officials also canceled bus, monorail, and ferry services.[23] In South Korea, workers involved with the 2013 Formula One season issued a typhoon alert and began planning contingencies in the event Fitow affected the Korean Grand Prix.[24] Officials in Taiwan issued a storm warning before Fitow passed north of the island.[25] The Taiwan military activated 20,000 troops to protect and be on standby. Seventeen ferry services between Taiwan and the offshore islands were terminated,[26] and over 200 flights were canceled. Schools and government offices closed in portions of Taiwan due to the storm.[27]

Ahead of the storm, officials in China issued warnings for Zhejiang and Fujian for the potential of high winds and flooding, which was later credited for reducing casualties.[22] The Chinese army was utilized to assist in mitigating against potential flooding. Officials told boat owners to put their property in shelter, totaling 65,000 vessels ordered to return to report. Coastal facilities such as seaside bathing centers were closed. Before Fitow struck China, 177,000 people evacuated in Fujian and a further 574,000 evacuated their houses in Zhejiang, totaling 751,000 people.[28] In Shanghai, 42 train or bus rides were canceled, along with 40 canceled flights.[29] Two airports in Zhejiang had 49 canceled flights, with another 20 canceled in Fujian.[30]

Impact

Costliest known Pacific typhoons
Rank Typhoon Season Damage
(2018 USD)
1 Mireille 1991 $18.4 billion
2 Jebi 2018 $15 billion
3 Songda 2004 $12.3 billion
4 Fitow 2013 $11.2 billion
5 Saomai 2000 $9.17 billion
6 Prapiroon $8.93 billion
7 Bart 1999 $8.65 billion
8 Rammasun 2014 $8.5 billion
9 Herb 1996 $7.99 billion
10 Flo 1990 $7.67 billion
Source: [1]

In Japan, Fitow produced peak wind gusts of 133 km/h (83 mph) on Miyako-jima,[31] where about 6,800 homes lost power.[32] Winds gusted to 193 km/h (120 mph) on Yoronjima to the north of Okinawa, while 167 km/h (104 mph) gusts were recorded at Kunigami on the northern tip of Okinawa.[23] In Okinawa, the typhoon caused power outages, disrupted transportation, and damaged farms.[31] In Japan, Fitow damaged 1,464 homes and injured five people.[23][33]

While passing north of Taiwan, Fitow dropped heavy rainfall reaching 536 mm (21.1 in) at a station in Hsinchu County. In the county, the rains forced 224 people to evacuate their houses. Mudslides and the threat for flooding spurred officials to close portions of two provincial highways. The typhoon also produced strong winds that caused power outages for 6,900 people.[27]

China

Throughout eastern China, the high winds and rains knocked down trees and ruined local shrimp and seaweed farms,[28] and overall 75,000 hectares (185,000 acres) of crops were flooded,[33] including 46,800 ha (116,000 acres) in Wenzhou.[34] Widespread areas were flooded, forcing residents to travel by boats.[28] Fitow damaged or destroyed about 95,000 houses.[33] The typhoon killed 12 people in the country,[35] and left ¥63.1 billion in damage (2013 RMB, $10.4 billion USD).[22] Insured losses from Fitow totaled ¥6 billion (RMB, US$1 billion), the second costliest event on record for China.[33]

As Fitow made landfall in mainland China, it produced wind gusts of 274 km/h (170 mph) in the Shiping Mountains of Zhejiang, setting a record for the province. The typhoon spread heavy rainfall across eastern China in the Jiangnan region, in conjunction with a plume of cold air. An area 175,000 km2 (68,000 sq mi) wide received 50 mm (2.0 in) of precipitation, while an area of 38,000 km2 (15,000 sq mi) wide received over 250 mm (9.8 in) of rainfall.[22] Yuyao in Zhejiang reported a peak rainfall total of 803 mm (31.6 in), a record for the city,[36] while Ningbo reported a daily average of 390 mm (15 in) over three days, setting a record. A station in Shanghai reported 152.9 mm (6.02 in), the highest daily rainfall total since 1961.[37] The rains increased levels along 17 rivers, rising from 0.09 to 2.79 m (0.30 to 9.15 ft), and Lake Tai rose by 3.60 m (11.8 ft). The Yaojiang River, a tributary of the Yongjiang river, reached its highest levels on record,[22] reaching a height of 5.33 m (17.5 ft) in Yuyao.[38]

Across eastern China, Fitow left heavy damage due to strong winds, heavy rainfall, and a powerful storm surge.[33] Floodwaters covered about 70% of the metropolis of Yuyao, reaching 3 m (9.8 ft) in some areas, which cut off power and water supply.[36][39] The floods were the worst in a century for the city, covering most roadways,[40] and forcing most schools, health facilities, and factories to close. In the city, about 100,000 people were forced to evacuate, with 289 temporary shelters opened.[41] Damage in the city alone totaled about ¥20 billion (RMB, US$3.27 billion).[42] In Ningbo in eastern Zhejiang, Fitow wrecked 26,180 houses and damaged local fish farms, killing 51,000 tons of fish. The storm forced 18,134 factories to shut down, and there were also power and telecommunication outages.[43]

In Shanghai, high waters along the Huangpu River damaged a portion of a flood prevention wall.[37] Rainfall caused several matches to be canceled at the 2013 Shanghai Masters.[44] Flooding closed the city zoo and 60 parks,[45] and entered 600 houses.[46] In Cangnan County in Wenzhou, Fitow wrecked 1,200 houses, and throughout Wenzhou, two people died – one after being blown off a hill, and the other trapped under collapsed rubble.[25] High winds left 254,746 people in Zhejiang without power, and eight people died in the province from electrocutions. Another two people died after driving into a flooded river.[47] Throughout China, Fitow damaged or destroyed 95,000 houses.[33]

Aftermath

In Zhejiang, about 10,000 utility men worked to restore the widespread power outages.[47] In the days following the storm, about 1.24 million people were forced to stay in shelters due to damage.[39] A total of 11,732 soldiers or militia members assisted in helping in the storm's aftermath. Many cleared mudslides from roads, repaired dams, and helped people leave flooded homes.[48] In Tongxiang in Zhejiang province, thousands of people blocked a highway in protest for not receiving aid, prompting the riot police to break up the gathering. The town did not receive supplies other than water tanks, due to it being designated a "self-rescuing area" according to a local official.[49] Ping An Insurance received insurance claims for 11,348 flooded cars in the days after the storm.[50] The storm caused slight delays to shipping in Ningbo and Shanghai.[51] The Chinese Ministry of Finance and Civil Affairs allocated ¥118 million (US$19.3 million) in funding for Zhejiang and Fujian provinces after the storm.[52]

In general, local governments assisted the affected storm victims by providing food, water, and clothing, even traveling by canoe to distribute aid. However, residents in Yuyao complained about insufficient assistance, as many people were without food or clean water for several days,[39] due to ongoing flooding making distribution difficult.[41] This sparked thousands of people to protest the government, although they dispersed after increased numbers of policemen.[53] Residents were initially required to show food coupons to receive meals, but later anyone with a residence permit could receive the meals; however, the food distribution was disorganized, and there were reports of people looting for food.[38] By October 18, the flooding in Yuyao had subsided and roadways had reopened,[35] and power service was gradually restored. Due to the extended disruptions to the city, garbage service was halted.[38] Two people in Yuyao were arrested after spreading false rumors online that reservoir collapsed during the storm, killing 40 people.[54]

Retirement

During their 2014 annual session, the ESCAP/WMO Typhoon Committee announced that the name Fitow would be retired from the naming lists. The name Mun was chosen to replace Fitow.[55]

See also

Notes

  1. ^ The total was originally reported in Chinese yuan. Total converted via the XE.com website.[1]
  2. ^ The Japan Meteorological Agency is the official Regional Specialized Meteorological Center for the western Pacific Ocean.[4]
  3. ^ The Joint Typhoon Warning Center is a joint United States Navy – United States Air Force task force that issues tropical cyclone warnings for the western Pacific Ocean and other regions.[7]

References

  1. ^ "Chinese Yuan Renminbi to US Dollar Chart". XE. 2013. Retrieved March 6, 2014.
  2. ^ "Significant Tropical Weather Advisory". Joint Typhoon Warning Center. 2013-09-26. Archived from the original on September 28, 2013. Retrieved 2014-03-02.CS1 maint: Unfit url (link)
  3. ^ "Significant Tropical Weather Advisory". Joint Typhoon Warning Center. 2013-09-27. Archived from the original on September 28, 2013. Retrieved 2014-03-02.CS1 maint: Unfit url (link)
  4. ^ Annual Report on Activities of the RSMC Tokyo: Typhoon Center 2003 (PDF) (Report). Japan Meteorological Agency. 8. Retrieved 2014-01-20.
  5. ^ a b c d e RSMC Tokyo — Typhoon Center (2013-11-01). Typhoon Fitow (RSMC Tropical Cyclone Best Track). Japan Meteorological Agency. Archived from the original on 2013-11-01. Retrieved 2013-12-01.
  6. ^ Tropical Depression "Quedan" Weather Bulletin Number One (Report). Philippine Atmospheric, Geophysical and Astronomical Services Administration. 2013-09-29. Archived from the original on 2013-09-29. Retrieved 2014-03-03.
  7. ^ "Joint Typhoon Warning Center Mission Statement". Joint Typhoon Warning Center. 2011. Archived from the original on July 26, 2007. Retrieved January 20, 2014.
  8. ^ a b "Prognostic Reasoning for Tropical Depression 22W (Twenty-Two) Warning NR 01". Joint Typhoon Warning Center. 2014-09-30. Archived from the original on September 30, 2013. Retrieved 2014-03-03.CS1 maint: Unfit url (link)
  9. ^ "TS 1323 Fitow (1323) Upgraded from TD". Japan Meteorology Agency. 2013-09-30. Archived from the original on October 1, 2013. Retrieved 2014-03-03.CS1 maint: Unfit url (link)
  10. ^ "Prognostic Reasoning for Tropical Storm 22W (Fitow) Warning NR 04". Joint Typhoon Warning Center. 2014-10-01. Archived from the original on October 1, 2013. Retrieved 2014-03-03.CS1 maint: Unfit url (link)
  11. ^ "Prognostic Reasoning for Tropical Storm 22W (Fitow) Warning NR 06". Joint Typhoon Warning Center. 2014-10-01. Archived from the original on October 4, 2013. Retrieved 2014-03-03.CS1 maint: Unfit url (link)
  12. ^ "Prognostic Reasoning for Tropical Storm 22W (Fitow) Warning NR 08". Joint Typhoon Warning Center. 2014-10-02. Archived from the original on October 4, 2013. Retrieved 2014-03-03.CS1 maint: Unfit url (link)
  13. ^ "Prognostic Reasoning for Tropical Storm 22W (Fitow) Warning NR 10". Joint Typhoon Warning Center. 2014-10-02. Archived from the original on October 4, 2013. Retrieved 2014-03-03.CS1 maint: Unfit url (link)
  14. ^ "Prognostic Reasoning for Typhoon 22W (Fitow) Warning NR 14". Joint Typhoon Warning Center. 2014-10-03. Archived from the original on October 4, 2013. Retrieved 2014-03-03.CS1 maint: Unfit url (link)
  15. ^ a b "Prognostic Reasoning for Typhoon 22W (Fitow) Warning NR 17". Joint Typhoon Warning Center. 2014-10-04. Archived from the original on October 4, 2013. Retrieved 2014-03-03.CS1 maint: Unfit url (link)
  16. ^ "Prognostic Reasoning for Typhoon 22W (Fitow) Warning NR 20". Joint Typhoon Warning Center. 2014-10-05. Archived from the original on October 6, 2013. Retrieved 2014-03-03.CS1 maint: Unfit url (link)
  17. ^ "Prognostic Reasoning for Typhoon 22W (Fitow) Warning NR 21". Joint Typhoon Warning Center. 2014-10-05. Archived from the original on October 6, 2013. Retrieved 2014-03-03.CS1 maint: Unfit url (link)
  18. ^ Tropical Depression "Quedan" Weather Bulletin Number One (Report). Philippine Atmospheric, Geophysical and Astronomical Services Administration. 2013-10-05. Archived from the original on 2013-10-05. Retrieved 2014-03-03.
  19. ^ "Prognostic Reasoning for Typhoon 22W (Fitow) Warning NR 22". Joint Typhoon Warning Center. 2014-10-05. Archived from the original on October 6, 2013. Retrieved 2014-03-03.CS1 maint: Unfit url (link)
  20. ^ "Prognostic Reasoning for Typhoon 22W (Fitow) Warning NR 25". Joint Typhoon Warning Center. 2014-10-06. Archived from the original on October 7, 2013. Retrieved 2014-03-03.CS1 maint: Unfit url (link)
  21. ^ "Tropical Storm 22W (Fitow) Warning NR 27". Joint Typhoon Warning Center. 2014-10-06. Archived from the original on October 7, 2013. Retrieved 2014-03-03.CS1 maint: Unfit url (link)
  22. ^ a b c d e f Member Report: China (PDF) (Report). 8th Integrated Workshop/2nd TRCG Forum. ESCAP/WMO Typhoon Committee. 2013. Retrieved 2014-03-06.
  23. ^ a b c "Typhoon Fitow hits northern Okinawa". Japan Update. 2013-10-08. Retrieved 2014-03-08.
  24. ^ "Typhoon alert for Korean Grand Prix". Deutsche Presse-Agentur. 2013-10-02. – via Lexis Nexis (subscription required)
  25. ^ a b Carol Huang (2013-10-07). "Typhoon Fitow slams into China, kills five". ReliefWeb. Agence France-Presse. Retrieved 2014-03-08.
  26. ^ "China on highest alert for Typhoon Fitow". Australia Network News. 2013-10-06. Retrieved 2014-03-08.
  27. ^ a b Shelley Shan (2013-10-07). "Typhoon Fitow cancels flights, closes highways". Taipei Times. Retrieved 2014-03-08.
  28. ^ a b c "Typhoon Fitow kills five in China". BBC.com. 2013-10-07. Retrieved 2014-03-07.
  29. ^ Typhoon Fitow Hits Shanghai, Closes Transportation Systems (Report). Forbes. 2013-10-06. Retrieved 2014-03-08.
  30. ^ "Typhoon kills five in east China". Xinhua. 2013-10-07. – via Lexis Nexis (subscription required)
  31. ^ a b Member Report: Japan (PDF) (Report). 8th Integrated Workshop/2nd TRCG Forum. ESCAP/WMO Typhoon Committee. 2013. Retrieved 2014-03-04.
  32. ^ Jae Hur (2013-10-06). "Typhoon Fitow Slams Okinawa on Way to China Followed by Danas". Bloomberg L.P. Retrieved 2014-03-08.
  33. ^ a b c d e f October 2013 Global Catastrophe Recap (PDF) (Report). AON Benfield. Retrieved 2015-02-18.
  34. ^ "Typhoon Fitow affects 4.56 mln lives in eastern China". China Business News. 2013-10-08. – via Lexis Nexis (subscription required)
  35. ^ a b "Typhoon-ravaged Chinese city recovers from flooding". ReliefWeb. Xinhua. 2013-10-18. Retrieved 2014-03-08.
  36. ^ a b Zhang Hong (2013-10-10). "Fitow's remnants continue to batter Zhejiang province". South China Morning Post. – via Lexis Nexis (subscription required)
  37. ^ a b "Typhoon Fitow-triggered downpours lash E. China". Xinhua. 2013-10-08. Retrieved 2014-03-08.
  38. ^ a b c Wang Zhenghua (2013-10-11). "Flood victims still without food, power". China Daily European Edition. – via Lexis Nexis (subscription required)
  39. ^ a b c "Disaster response gets a helping hand". ReliefWeb. Xinhua. 2013-10-14. Retrieved 2014-03-08.
  40. ^ "Chinese city recovering from floods". China Daily European Edition. 2013-10-10. – via Lexis Nexis (subscription required)
  41. ^ a b Wang Zhenghua (2013-10-10). "Floodwaters hamper relief efforts". China Daily European Edition. – via Lexis Nexis (subscription required)
  42. ^ "China Focus: Difficult relief for flood-ravaged Chinese city". Xinhua. 2013-10-10. – via Lexis Nexis (subscription required)
  43. ^ "Ningbo Municipal Government: Flood Victims Rises to 137 Mln". China Business News. 2013-10-11. – via Lexis Nexis (subscription required)
  44. ^ Justin Bergman (2013-10-07). "Isner rallies to beat Giraldo in Shanghai". Associated Press. – via Lexis Nexis (subscription required)
  45. ^ "China hit by floods after typhoon". BreakingNews.ie. 2013-10-08. – via Lexis Nexis (subscription required)
  46. ^ "Homes and roads flooded, 30-plus flights canceled". Shanghai Daily. 2013-10-09. – via Lexis Nexis (subscription required)
  47. ^ a b "Typhoon Fitow leaves 10 dead in E China city". ReliefWeb. Xinhua. 2013-10-09. Retrieved 2014-03-08.
  48. ^ "Ningbo Municipal Government: PLA Troops Plunged Into Flood Relief". China Business News. 2013-10-11. – via Lexis Nexis (subscription required)
  49. ^ "Thousands of Angry Flood Victims Block Highway After Typhoon". Radio Free Asia. 2013-10-11. – via Lexis Nexis (subscription required)
  50. ^ "Floods in southeast coastal China trigger huge claims on property insurers". Xinhua. 2013-10-09. – via Lexis Nexis (subscription required)
  51. ^ "Typhoon Fitow causes slight delays in China chemical shipments". Chemical News and Intelligence. 2013-10-10. – via Lexis Nexis (subscription required)
  52. ^ "China allocates funds for typhoon relief". China Daily European Edition. 2013-10-16. – via Lexis Nexis (subscription required)
  53. ^ "China city locked down after typhoon relief protests". Agence France-Presse. 2013-10-16. – via Lexis Nexis (subscription required)
  54. ^ "Two Zhejiang women detained for spreading false typhoon rumors". Shanghai Daily. 2013-10-10. – via Lexis Nexis (subscription required)
  55. ^ Forty-Sixth Session of Typhoon Committee (PDF) (Report). Typhoon Committee. 2014. Retrieved 2014-03-09.

External links

2007 Pacific typhoon season

The 2007 Pacific typhoon season was a below average season which featured 24 named storms, fourteen typhoons, and five super typhoons. It was an event in the annual cycle of tropical cyclone formation, in which tropical cyclones form in the western Pacific Ocean. The season ran throughout 2007, though most tropical cyclones typically develop between May and November. The season's first named storm, Kong-rey, developed on March 30, while the season's last named storm, Mitag, dissipated on November 27. The season's first typhoon, Yutu, reached typhoon status on May 18, and became the first super typhoon of the year on the next day.

The scope of this article is limited to the Pacific Ocean, to the north of the equator between 100°E and the 180th meridian. Within the northwestern Pacific Ocean, there are two separate agencies that assign names to tropical cyclones, which can often result in a cyclone having two names. The Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA) will name a tropical cyclone should it be judged to have 10-minute sustained wind speeds of at least 65 km/h (40 mph) anywhere in the basin. PAGASA assigns unofficial names to tropical cyclones which move into or form as a tropical depression in their area of responsibility, located between 115°E–135°E and between 5°N–25°N, regardless of whether or not a tropical cyclone has already been given a name by the JMA. Tropical depressions that are monitored by the United States' Joint Typhoon Warning Center (JTWC) are given a numerical designation with a "W" suffix.

2013 Pacific typhoon season

The 2013 Pacific typhoon season was a catastrophic typhoon season. It was the most active Pacific typhoon season since 2004, as well as the deadliest since 1975. This season also featured one of the most powerful storms in recorded history. It was an above-average season with 31 named storms, 13 typhoons, and five super typhoons. The season's first named storm, Sonamu, developed on January 4 while the season's last named storm, Podul, dissipated on November 15. Most of the first seventeen named storms before mid-September were relatively weak, as only two of them reached typhoon intensity. Total damage amounted to at least $25.75 billion (USD), making it the costliest Pacific typhoon season on record.

Typhoon Soulik in July was the strongest tropical cyclone to affect Taiwan in 2013. In August, Typhoon Utor cost US$2.6 billion damage and killed 97 people, becoming the second deadliest tropical cyclone of the Philippines in 2013. Three systems in August, Pewa, Unala and 03C, continuously crossed the International Date Line from the Central Pacific and entered this basin. Typhoon Haiyan caused catastrophic damage and devastation to the Philippines as a Category 5 super typhoon, killing more than 6,300 people, making it one of the deadliest Pacific typhoons on record.

The scope of this article is limited to the Pacific Ocean to the north of the equator between 100°E and the 180th meridian. Within the northwestern Pacific Ocean, there are two separate agencies that assign names to tropical cyclones, which often results in a storm having two names. The Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA) will name a tropical cyclone should it be judged to have 10-minute sustained wind speeds of at least 65 km/h (40 mph) anywhere in the basin, whilst the Philippine Atmospheric, Geophysical and Astronomical Services Administration (PAGASA) assigns names to tropical cyclones which move into or form as tropical depressions in their area of responsibility, located between 115°E and 135°E and between 5°N and 25°N, regardless of whether or not the tropical cyclone has already been given a name by the JMA. Tropical depressions monitored by the United States' Joint Typhoon Warning Center (JTWC) are given a number with a "W" suffix.

List of disasters by cost

Disasters can be particularly notable for the high costs associated with responding to and recovering from them. This page lists the estimated economic costs of relatively recent disasters.

The costs of disasters vary considerably depending on a range of factors, such as the geographical location where they occur. When a large disaster occurs in a wealthy country, the financial damage may be large, but when a comparable disaster occurs in a poorer country, the actual financial damage may appear to be relatively small. This is in part due to the difficulty of measuring the financial damage in areas that lack insurance. For example, the 2004 Indian Ocean earthquake and tsunami, with a death toll of over 230,000 people, cost a 'mere' $15 billion, whereas in the Deepwater Horizon oil spill, in which 11 people died, the damages were six-fold.

Note: All damage figures are listed in billions of United States dollars.

List of retired Pacific typhoon names

This is a list of all Pacific typhoons that have had their names retired by the Japan Meteorological Agency. A total of 43 typhoon names have been retired since the start of official tropical cyclone naming in the western North Pacific Ocean in 2000. Tropical cyclone names are retired by the World Meteorological Organization (WMO) in a meeting in January or February. Those typhoons that have their names retired tend to be exceptionally destructive storms. Several names were removed or altered naming list for various reasons other than retirement. Collectively, retired typhoons have caused over $108 billion in damage (2019 USD), as well as over 12,000 deaths.

Seishō Bypass

The Seishō Bypass (西湘バイパス, Seishō Baipasu) (lit. West Shōnan Bypass) is a toll road in Kanagawa Prefecture, Japan. It is owned and managed by Central Nippon Expressway Company.

Timeline of the 2007 Pacific typhoon season

This timeline documents all events that have taken place during the 2007 Pacific typhoon season. This article is limited to the Western Pacific basin which is located north of the equator and between 100°E and the International Date Line. Systems that reach tropical storm intensity are assigned a name by the Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA). Tropical depressions that form within the basin are assigned a number with a "W" suffix by the Joint Typhoon Warning Center (JTWC). Additionally, the Philippine Atmospheric, Geophysical and Astronomical Services Administration (PAGASA) assigns names to tropical cyclones (including tropical depressions) that either form in or move into its self defined area of responsibility, which runs from 135°E to 115°E and 5°N to 25°N.

For the PAGASA, only 13 systems formed or entered in their area during 2007, which only 3 of them directly made landfall over the Philippines.

Timeline of the 2013 Pacific typhoon season

This timeline documents all of the events of the 2013 Pacific typhoon season. Most of the tropical cyclones formed between May and November. The scope of this article is limited to the Pacific Ocean, north of the equator between 100°E and the International Date Line. Tropical storms that form in the entire Western Pacific basin are assigned a name by the Japan Meteorological Agency. Tropical depressions that form in this basin are given a number with a "W" suffix by the United States' Joint Typhoon Warning Center. In addition, the Philippine Atmospheric, Geophysical and Astronomical Services Administration (PAGASA) assigns names to tropical cyclones (including tropical depressions) that enter or form in the Philippine area of responsibility. These names, however, are not in common use outside of the Philippines.

During the season, 51 systems were designated as Tropical Depressions by either, the Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA), the Philippine Atmospheric, Geophysical and Astronomical Services Administration (PAGASA), the Joint Typhoon Warning Center (JTWC), or other National Meteorological and Hydrological Services such as the China Meteorological Administration and the Hong Kong Observatory. As they run the Regional Specialized Meteorological Centre for the Western Pacific, the JMA assigns names to Tropical Depressions should they intensify into a tropical storm. PAGASA also assign local names to tropical depressions which form within their area of responsibility; however, these names are not in common use outside of PAGASA's area of responsibility. In this season, 25 systems entered or formed in the Philippine area of responsibility, which 11 of them directly made landfall over the Philippines.

During the season, October was the most busiest and active month with 9 systems formed or active, 8 were all typhoons and 1 weak storm. 3 storms: Pewa, Unala and 03C entered the Western Pacific basin during August, while during early October and early November, 2 tropical depressions crossed the 100th meridian and one became Cyclone Phailin and this is the first time since Cyclone Jal in 2010. Similar to the month October, in the month of August, 13 storms formed by the JMA. Typhoon Haiyan underwent rapid deepening for nearly 100 millibars, becoming the strongest storm of 2013. In this season, 7 storms underwent rapid deepening. This season has the most tropical depressions formed, tied with 1964.

Tropical Storm Bilis

Severe Tropical Storm Bilis, known in the Philippines as Tropical Storm Florita, was a weak tropical cyclone in July 2006 that caused significant damage to areas of the Philippines, Taiwan, and southeastern China. The word Bilis, submitted by the Philippines, means 'speed' or 'swiftness' in Tagalog.Despite never officially reaching typhoon strength, Bilis was responsible for $4.4 billion (2006 USD) in damage and 859 fatalities in the Philippines, Taiwan, and China. Most of the damage was caused by heavy rain, which triggered widespread flash flooding and landslides. Many of the areas Bilis flooded were later affected by Typhoon Kaemi, Typhoon Prapiroon, and intense Typhoon Saomai.

Tropical Storm Rumbia

Tropical Storm Rumbia was a rather weak but very destructive tropical cyclone that caused widespread and disastrous flooding in East China in August 2018. The twenty-second officially recognized tropical cyclone of the 2018 Pacific typhoon season, Rumbia developed from an area of low pressure that developed southeast of the Ryukyu Islands on August 13. Favorable environmental conditions supported development of the low into a tropical depression by August 15. At 12:00 UTC that day, the depression strengthened into Tropical Storm Rumbia, which refers to the Sago Palm. Initially moving northward, the cyclone turned westward in response to a building ridge to its northeast while slowly strengthening, reaching its peak intensity with maximum 10-minute sustained winds of 85 km/h (50 mph) on August 16. At 20:05 UTC that day, the storm made landfall in Shanghai at peak intensity, maintaining its strength as it moved inland due to ample environmental moisture. However, Rumbia began to weaken as it continued further inland, degenerating into a tropical depression on August 17 shortly before becoming extratropical over central China. The extratropical remnants of Rumbia accelerated northeastward into the Russian Far East, where they dissipated on August 23.

Rumbia, the third tropical cyclone to strike East China in 2018, succeeding tropical storms Ampil and Yagi, produced widespread heavy rainfall over regions already saturated by rains from the previous storms, causing flooding which claimed 53 lives and destroyed thousands of homes throughout the northeastern provinces of Anhui, Henan, Jiangsu, Shandong, and Xuzhou. Total economic losses from Tropical Storm Rumbia are estimated at ¥36.91 billion (US$5.36 billion).

Typhoon Aere (2004)

Typhoon Aere, known in the Philippines as Typhoon Marce, was a mid-season category two typhoon that brought severe damage to Taiwan and the People's Republic of China in August 2004. Aere is the Marshallese word for 'storm'.

Typhoon Fitow (2007)

Typhoon Fitow was the ninth named tropical storm of the 2007 Pacific typhoon season that made landfall in Japan.

At its peak, it was thought to have been a minimal Category 2 typhoon by the JTWC, but was, in post-storm analysis, downgraded to a Category 1-equivalent typhoon by the Joint Typhoon Warning Center. The name Fitow was contributed by the Federated States of Micronesia, and is Yapese for a beautiful fragrant flower. The typhoon killed at least 2 people in Tokyo and was the first typhoon to hit the city since Typhoon Mawar in 2005. Damage from Fitow totaled to around 1 billion (2007 USD).

Typhoon Fitow (disambiguation)

The name Fitow has been used to name three tropical cyclones in the northwestern Pacific Ocean. The name was contributed by the Federated States of Micronesia and is the name of a flower in the Yapese language.

Tropical Storm Fitow (2001) (T0114, 18W) – struck Hainan island and mainland China, killing 4.

Typhoon Fitow (2007) (T0709, 10W) – struck Japan, killing at least 2.

Typhoon Fitow (2013) (T1323, 22W, Quedan)The name Fitow was retired after the 2013 season, due to extreme damages over China. The name to replace Fitow is Mun (Yapese for June) for future seasons.

Tropical Storm Mun (2019) (T1904, 05W)

Typhoon Kalmaegi (2008)

Typhoon Kalmaegi (pronounced [kal.mɛ.ɟi]), known in the Philippines as Typhoon Helen, was the seventh named storm and the fifth typhoon that was recognised by the Japan Meteorological Agency. The Joint Typhoon Warning Center also recognised it as the eighth tropical depression, the seventh tropical storm and the sixth typhoon of the 2008 Pacific typhoon season.

Kalmaegi (Helen) formed as a tropical depression on 13 July when it was located to the east of the Philippines. It was named Kalmaegi by RSMC Tokyo on 15 July; the storm reached its peak winds of 75 knots (139 km/h) on 17 July. Shortly afterwards it made a direct landfall on Taiwan and then moved into China's Fujan province the next day it emerged into the Taiwan Strait and raced towards North Korea where it became fully extratropical and the last advisories were released.

Typhoon Matsa

Typhoon Matsa, known in the Philippines as Typhoon Gorio, was the second of eight Pacific tropical cyclones to make landfall on China during the 2005 Pacific typhoon season. The ninth tropical storm and fifth typhoon of the season, Matsa developed on July 30 to the east of the Philippines. Matsa intensified as it tracked northwestward, and attained peak 10-minute sustained winds of 150 km/h (90 mph) near Taiwan before weakening and striking the Chinese province of Zhejiang on August 5. The system continued northward into the Yellow Sea, and on August 7 Matsa became extratropical after again moving ashore along the Liaodong Peninsula. Matsa is a Laotian name for a lady fish.In Taiwan, Matsa dropped torrential rainfall of up to 1,270 mm (50 in), which caused mudslides and moderate damage across the island. Flooding from the rainfall contaminated some water supplies, leaving around 80,000 homes without water at one point; much of Taoyuan County (now Taoyuan City) was without water for at least 5 days. As in Taiwan, the typhoon dropped heavy precipitation in the People's Republic of China, and in combination with strong winds destroyed about 59,000 houses and damaged more than 20,000 km2 (7,700 sq mi) of croplands. Throughout the country, Matsa caused 25 direct fatalities and ¥18 billion (2005 CNY, $2.23 billion 2005 USD) in damage.

Typhoon Quedan

Typhoon Quedan may refer to:

Tropical Storm Kajiki (2001) (T0124, 30W, Quedan) – struck the Philippines

Tropical Depression Quedan (2005) (25W) – a tropical depression that was only recognized by PAGASA and JTWC

Typhoon Melor (2009) (T0918, 20W, Quedan)

Typhoon Fitow (2013) (T1323, 22W, Quedan)

Severe Tropical Storm Saola (2017) (T1722, 27W, Quedan)

Typhoon Rananim

Typhoon Rananim, known in the Philippines as Typhoon Karen, was the strongest typhoon to make landfall on the Chinese province of Zhejiang since 1956. It formed on August 6, 2004, intensifying into a tropical storm on August 8. Rananim gradually intensified, initially moving northward before turning to the northwest and attaining typhoon status. After developing a small eye, the typhoon attained peak winds of 150 km/h (90 mph) as it passed between Taiwan and Okinawa. On August 12, Rananim moved ashore in China, and it dissipated three days later. The name Rananim means "hello" in the Chuukese language.Impact outside of China was minimal and largely limited to heavy rains, although one death was reported in Taiwan. In the country, strong winds and heavy rainfall left heavy damage near the coast, as well as to farms further inland. Rananim destroyed 64,300 houses and damaged another 125,000. The typhoon affected 75 counties, affecting 18 million people, and overall damage was estimated at ¥20.1 billion ($2.44 billion 2004 USD, $3.24 billion 2019 USD), primarily in Zhejiang. There were 168 deaths in China, which caused the name Rananim to be retired from the naming list.

Typhoon Saola (2012)

Typhoon Saola, known in the Philippines as Typhoon Gener and in Taiwan as Typhoon Sura, was a strong tropical cyclone affecting the Philippines, Taiwan and China. It was the ninth named storm and the fourth typhoon of the 2012 Pacific typhoon season. Saola is the name of a rare mammal found in Vietnam.

Typhoon Sinlaku (2002)

Typhoon Sinlaku was a damaging typhoon that affected Okinawa, Taiwan, and eastern China in September 2002. The 16th named storm of the 2002 Pacific typhoon season, Sinlaku formed on August 27 northeast of the Northern Marianas Islands. After initially moving to the north, it began a generally westward motion that it maintained for the rest of its duration. Sinlaku strengthened into a typhoon and attained its peak winds on August 31. Over the next few days, it fluctuated slightly in intensity while moving over or near the Ryukyu Islands. On September 4, the typhoon's eye crossed over Okinawa. It dropped heavy rainfall and produced strong winds that left over 100,000 people without power. Damage on the island was estimated at $14.3 million.After affecting Okinawa, Sinlaku threatened northern Taiwan, which was previously affected by two deadly typhoons in the previous year. Officials enacted many preparations, although damage ended up being minimal on the island. Two people were killed on Taiwan, however. Sinlaku weakened slightly before making its final landfall in eastern China near Wenzhou on September 7. There, the storm produced a record wind gust of 204 km/h (127 mph), and just south of the city, high waves destroyed several piers and a large boat. High rainfall and winds from Sinlaku destroyed 58,000 houses, and large areas of crops were destroyed. Damage in China was estimated at $709 million, and there were 28 deaths there.

Typhoon Wipha (2007)

Typhoon Wipha, known in the Philippines as Typhoon Goring, was the strongest typhoon to threaten the Chinese coastline since Typhoon Saomai in August 2006. Forming out of a tropical disturbance on September 15, 2007, it quickly developed into a tropical storm, and intensified into a typhoon the following day with the appearance of an eye feature. After a period of rapid intensification, Wipha attained its peak intensity on September 18, with winds of 185 km/h (115 mph) and a barometric pressure of 925 mbar (hPa), according to the Japan Meteorological Agency. Later that day, the storm began to weaken as it interacted with the mountainous terrain of Taiwan before brushing the northern edge of the island. Wipha subsequently made landfall near Fuding along the Fujian-Zhejiang provincial border with winds estimated at 185 km/h (115 mph) by the JTWC. Shortly thereafter, the typhoon weakened as it moved inland, weakening to a tropical storm within 18 hours of moving over land.

Nearly 2 million residents along the Chinese coastline evacuated ahead of Typhoon Wipha's arrival. Nearly 20,000 Chinese soldiers were deployed to the area to assist residents in reinforcing flood barriers and speeding up evacuations. The typhoon triggered severe flooding with rainfall in excess of 353 mm (13.9 in). Roughly 13,000 homes were destroyed, 57,000 more were damaged and 100,000 hectares of farmland was inundated. Throughout China, 14 people were killed and damage amounted to ¥7.45 billion (US$1 billion).

Although the center of the storm did not pass near the Philippines, its outer rainbands brought severe flooding to Negros Occidental. Two people died and three others were listed as missing. Damage amounted to PHP 15.3 million (US$314,000). In Taiwan, high winds killed one person and injured another. Up to 495 mm (19.5 in) of precipitation caused landslides and flooding across the island. Agricultural losses in Taiwan amounted to NT$7.8 million (US$236,300). In Okinawa, high winds and rainfall up to 335 mm (13.2 in) caused significant damage and resulted in two fatalities. Seven homes across the islands were destroyed and damage totaled ¥28.3 billion (US$285 million).

Pre 2000's
2000s
2010s
Tropical cyclones of the 2013 Pacific typhoon season

Languages

This page is based on a Wikipedia article written by authors (here).
Text is available under the CC BY-SA 3.0 license; additional terms may apply.
Images, videos and audio are available under their respective licenses.