Types of rape

Rape can be categorized in different ways: for example, by reference to the situation in which it occurs, by the identity or characteristics of the victim, and by the identity or characteristics of the perpetrator. These categories are referred to as types of rape. The types of rape described below are not mutually exclusive: a given rape can fit into multiple categories, by for example by being both a prison rape and a gang rape, or both a custodial rape and the rape of a child.

Date rape

The term "date rape" is used to refer to several types of rape, broadly acquaintance rape, which is a non-domestic rape committed by someone who knows the victim,[1] and drug facilitated sexual assault (DFSA), where the rapist intentionally drugs the victim with a date rape drug so that they are incapacitated. Acquaintance rape constitutes the vast majority of reported rapes, while DFSA is infrequent. A frequently overlapping category is incapacitated rape, where the victim is incapacitated and unable to give consent – this is often the result of intoxication, but can also simply be because the victim is asleep or has a medical condition. DFSA is when the rapist intentionally incapacitates the victim via drugs, while acquaintance rape can occur when the victim is not incapacitated.

Acquaintance rape can occur between two people who know one another usually in social situations, between people who are dating as a couple and have had consensual sex in the past, between two people who are starting to date, between people who are just friends, and between acquaintances. They include rapes of co-workers, schoolmates, family, friends, teachers and other acquaintances, providing they are dating;[2] it is sometimes referred to as "hidden rape" and has been identified as a growing problem in western society.[3] A college survey conducted by the United States' National Victim Center reported that one in four college women have been raped or experienced attempted rape.[4] This report indicates that young women are at considerable risk of becoming a victim of date rape while in college. In addition, there have been reported incidents of colleges questioning accounts of alleged victims, further complicating documentation and policing of student assaults, despite such preventative legislation as the Clery Act.[5][6]

Gang rape

Gang rape occurs when a group of people participate in the rape of a single victim. Rape involving two or more violators (usually at least three[7]) is widely reported to occur in many parts of the world. Systematic information on the extent of the problem, however, is scant.

One study showed that offenders and victims in gang rape incidents were younger with a higher possibility of being unemployed. Gang rapes involved more alcohol and other drug use, night attacks and severe sexual assault outcomes and less victim resistance and fewer weapons than individual rapes.[8] Another study found that group sexual assaults were more violent and had greater resistance from the victim than individual sexual assaults and that victims of group sexual assaults were more likely to seek crisis and police services, contemplate suicide, and seek therapy than those involved in individual assaults. The two groups were about the same in the amount of drinking and other drug use during the assault.[9]

Spousal rape

Also known as marital rape, wife rape, husband rape, partner rape or intimate partner sexual assault (IPSA), is rape between a married or de facto couple. Research reveals that victims of marital/partner rape suffer longer lasting trauma than victims of stranger rape.[10]

Rape of children

Rape of a child is a form of child sexual abuse. When committed by another child (usually older or stronger) or adolescent, it is called child-on-child sexual abuse. When committed by a parent or other close relatives such as grandparents, aunts and uncles, it is also incest and can result in serious and long-term psychological trauma.[11] When a child is raped by an adult who is not a family member but is a caregiver or in a position of authority over the child, such as school teachers, religious authorities, sports trainers (coaches) or therapists, to name a few, on whom the child is dependent, the effects can be similar to incestual rape.

Statutory rape

National and regional governments, citing an interest in protecting "young people" (variously defined but sometimes synonymous with minors) from sexual exploitation, treat any sexual contact with such a person as an offense (not always categorized as "rape"), even if he or she agrees to or initiates the sexual activity.

The offense is often based on a presumption that people under a certain age do not have the capacity to give consent. The age at which individuals are considered competent to give consent, called the age of consent, varies in different countries and regions; in the US, the age ranges from 16 to 18. Sexual activity that violates age-of-consent law, but is neither violent nor physically coerced, is sometimes described as "statutory rape", a legally-recognized category in the United States. Most states, however, allow persons younger than the age of consent to engage in sexual activity if the age difference between the partners is small; these are called close-in-age exemptions or a Romeo and Juliet exemption and even in countries where there is no official legal exemption prosecutions are infrequent.

Prison rape

Rates of prison rape have been reported as affecting between 3% and 12% of prison inmates in the US.[12] Although prison rapes are more commonly same-sex crimes (since prisons are usually separated by sex), the attacker usually does not identify as homosexual.[13] This phenomenon is much less common elsewhere in the western world. This is partly because of the differences in the structure of the prison system in the US as compared to the prison systems in Canada, Australia and Europe.

The attacker is most commonly another inmate.[14]

Serial rape

Serial rape is rape committed by a person over a relatively long period of time and committed on a number of victims. Most times this type of rapist is unknown to the victim and follows a specific and predictable pattern of targeting and assaulting victims.

Payback rape

"Payback rape", also called "punishment rape" or "revenge rape", is a form of rape specific to certain cultures, particularly the Pacific Islands. It consists of the rape of a female, usually by a group of several males, as revenge for acts committed by members of her family, such as her father or brothers. The rape is meant to humiliate the father or brothers, as punishment for their prior behavior towards the perpetrators.[15] Payback rape is sometimes connected to tribal fighting.[16]

War rape

Paul Jamin - Le Brenn et sa part de butin 1893
Brennus and His Share of the Spoils, by Paul Jamin, 1893

War rapes are rapes committed by soldiers, other combatants or civilians during armed conflict or war, or during military occupation. It also covers the situation where girls and women are forced into prostitution or sexual slavery by an occupying power.

During war, rape is often used as a means of psychological warfare in order to humiliate the enemy and undermine their morale. Rapes in war are often systematic and thorough, and military leaders may actually encourage their soldiers to rape civilians. Likewise, systematic rapes are often employed as a form of ethnic cleansing.

War rape has been considered a war crime only since 1949. Article 27 of the Fourth Geneva Convention explicitly prohibits wartime rape and enforced prostitution. These prohibitions were reinforced by the 1977 Additional Protocols to the 1949 Geneva Conventions.[17] Therefore, during the post-war Nuremberg Trials and Tokyo Trials, mass war rape was not prosecuted as a war crime.

In 1998, the International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda established by the United Nations made landmark decisions that rape is a crime of genocide under international law. In one judgement, Navanethem Pillay said: "From time immemorial, rape has been regarded as spoils of war. Now it will be considered a war crime. We want to send out a strong message that rape is no longer a trophy of war."[18]

The word rape only began to be used to refer to sexual assault in the early 15th century, and its dominant usage remained to refer to abduction and robbery without any connotation of sexual assault until the modern period. Many classical references to rape during war do not refer explicitly to instances of sexual assault, but rather to the practice of abducting the women or property of the enemy during warfare.[19]

Rape by deception

Rape by deception occurs when the perpetrator gains the victim's agreement through fraud. In one case, a man pretended to be an official for a government who had power to cause negative impacts on a woman to pressure a woman into sexual activities. The courts held that he had falsely represented himself and thus used deception against the woman.

Corrective rape

Corrective rape is targeted rape against non-heterosexuals as a punishment for violating gender roles.[20][21] It is a form of hate crime against LGBT individuals, mainly lesbians, in which the rapist justifies the act as an acceptable response to the victim's perceived sexual or gender orientation and a form of punishment for being gay.[20][21] Often, the stated argument of the corrective rapist is that the rape will turn the person straight, "correcting" their sex or gender, i.e. make them conform to societal norms.[20][21][22] The term was first coined in South Africa after well-known cases of corrective rape, such as that of sports star Eudy Simelane, became public.[23]

Custodial rape

Custodial rape is rape perpetrated by a person employed by the state in a supervisory or custodial position, such as a police officer, public servant or jail or hospital employee.[24][25][26] It includes the rape of children in institutional care such as orphanages.[27]

Custodial rape has been reported in India, Pakistan,[28] Bangladesh,[29] Malaysia,[30] Sri Lanka,[31] Iran,[32] Cambodia,[32] Nigeria,[32] Kenya,[32] Zambia[33] and the United States.[33]

In India custodial rape has been a major focus of women's rights organizations, and has been an official category of rape defined under law since 1983. Indian law says this type of rape takes advantage of the rapist's position of authority and is therefore subject to extra penalty.[34][35]

The term custodial rape is sometimes used broadly to include rape by anyone in a position of authority such as an employer, money-lender, contractor or landlord, but under Indian law it refers only to government employees.[36] Victims of custodial rape are frequently minorities, people who are poor, or low-status for example because of their caste.[32] Researchers say custodial rape is part of a broader pattern of custodial abuse, which can also include torture and murder.[37]

Perpetrator types

Nicholas Groth has described three types of rape, based on the goal of the rapist. This includes the anger rapist, power rapist and sadistic rapist.[38] According to Howard Barbaree, a psychologist at Queen's University in Kingston, Ontario, most rapes are impulsive and opportunistic, and committed by people who may commit other impulsive acts, including impulsive crimes. These rapists tend to show no anger except in response to their victim's resistance, and use little unnecessary force.

Further classification

As mentioned above, when differing acts of rape are defined and typified, whether by popular convention, research of the subject, or otherwise, the results are often neither exclusive nor exhaustive in scope. Some instances may fit two or more definitions, while others may remain as yet undefined. One example of this are the following sub-classifications created by American researcher Patricia Rozee:[39][40]

  • exchange rape - rape occurring as the result of bargaining or solidarity-displaying among men
  • punitive rape - rape used to punish or discipline
  • theft rape - rape that happens when a woman or man is abducted, in most cases to be used as a slave or a prostitute
  • ceremonial rape - rape involving defloration rituals
  • status rape - rape resulting from differences in hierarchy or social class

Where they are not already typed above, many of these otherwise distinct forms could equally apply to other classifications (e.g. prison rape that is also punitive rape, war rape that is also theft rape, etc.)

See also


  1. ^ Humphreys, Terence Patrick (1993). Gender differences in the perception of rape: The role of ambiguity (M.A. thesis) Wilfrid Laurier University
  2. ^ "Cambridge Police 97 crime report". Archived from the original on 2009-08-29.
  3. ^ "Perspectives on Acquaintance Rape". Retrieved 2011-01-25.
  4. ^ Office of Justice Programs (1996). "National Victimization Survey, U.S. Department of Justice".
  5. ^ "Feds launch investigation into Swarthmore's handling of sex assaults". Philadelphia Inquirer. 2013-07-16.
  6. ^ "Annual campus crime report may not tell true story of student crime". Daily Nebraskan. 2013-07-16.
  7. ^ Neumann, Stephani. Gang Rape: Examining Peer Support and Alcohol in Fraternities. Sex Crimes and Paraphilia. Hickey, Eric W., 397-407
  8. ^ Ullman, S.E. (1999). "A Comparison of Gang and Individual Rape Incidents". Violence and Victims. 14 (2): 123–133. PMID 10418766. Retrieved 2008-05-21.
  9. ^ Gidycz, C.A.; Koss, M.P. (1990). "A Comparison Of Group And Individual Sexual Assault Victims". Psychology of Women Quarterly. 14 (3): 325–342. CiteSeerX doi:10.1111/j.1471-6402.1990.tb00023.x.
  10. ^ Finkelhor and Yllo (1985) and Bergen (1996)
  11. ^ Courtois, Christine A. (1988). Healing the Incest Wound: Adult Survivors in Therapy. W. W. Norton & Company. p. 208. ISBN 978-0-393-31356-7.
  12. ^ Struckman-Johnson, C. & Struckman-Johnson, D. (2006). "A Comparison of Sexual Coercion Experiences Reported by Men and Women in Prison". Journal of Interpersonal Violence. 21 (12): 1591–1615. doi:10.1177/0886260506294240. PMID 17065656.
  13. ^ No Escape: Male Rape in U.S. Prisons - IV. Predators and Victims hrw.org
  14. ^ Beck, Allen J. & Harrison, Paige M., July 2006, "Sexual Violence Reported by Correctional Authorities, 2005", Bureau of Justice Statistics, Special Report
  15. ^ "Supplement to the HANDBOOK FOR LEGISLATION ON VIOLENCE AGAINST WOMEN: "Harmful Practices" against Women" (PDF). UN Women. 2012. Retrieved 28 May 2018.
  16. ^ "Many voices, one message". Amnesty International Australia. 24 November 2009. Archived from the original on 3 March 2012. Retrieved 28 May 2018.
  17. ^ Askin, Kelly Dawn (1997). War Crimes Against Women: Prosecution in International War Crimes Tribunals. Martinus Nijhoff Publishers. p. 17 ISBN 90-411-0486-0..
  18. ^ Quoted in citation for honorary doctorate, Rhodes University, April 2005 accessed at "Judge Navanethem Pillay". Archived from the original on 2007-09-26. Retrieved 2008-10-01.
  19. ^ Oxford Etymological Dictionary, "Rape".
  20. ^ a b c Bartle, EE (2000). "Lesbians And Hate Crimes". Journal of Poverty. 4 (4): 23–44. CiteSeerX doi:10.1300/J134v04n04_02.
  21. ^ a b c Di Silvio, Lorenzo. "Correcting Corrective Rape: Carmichele and Developing South Africa’s Affirmative Obligations To Prevent Violence Against Women." Georgetown Law Journal 99 (2011): 1469–515.
  22. ^ Mieses, A (2009). "Gender inequality and corrective rape of women who have sex with women" (pdf). GMHC Treatment Issues. asylumlaw.org.
  23. ^ Fihlani, P (2011-06-29). "South Africa's lesbians fear 'corrective rape'". BBC News. Retrieved 2012-04-16.
  24. ^ Kumbhare, Arun R. (2009). Women of India: Their Status Since the Vedic Times. iUniverse. p. 136. ISBN 978-1440156007.
  25. ^ Desai, A.R. (1991). Expanding Governmental Lawlessness and Organized Struggles. South Asia Books. p. 107. ISBN 978-8171545292.
  26. ^ Gonsalves, Lisa (2001). Women and Human Rights. APH Publishing Corporation. pp. 151–152. ISBN 978-8176482479.
  27. ^ Thukral, Enakshi Ganguly (2008). Still Out of Focus: Status of India's Children, 2008. HAQ Centre for Child Rights.
  28. ^ Hey, H. (1994). Human Rights in Developing Countries - Yearbook (Human Rights in Development Yearbook). Springer. p. 331. ISBN 978-9065448453.
  29. ^ Mittra, Sangh (2004). Encyclopaedia of Women in South Asia: Bangladesh. Gyan Publishing House. p. 225. ISBN 978-8178351902.
  30. ^ Ng, Cecilia (2006). Feminism and the Women's Movement in Malaysia: An Unsung (R)evolution. Routledge. p. 46. ISBN 978-0415374798.
  31. ^ Bhandare, Justice Sunanda (2010). Struggle for Gender Justice: Memorial Lectures. Chaman Offset Printers. p. 83. ISBN 978-0670084265.
  32. ^ a b c d e Freedom in the World 2011: The Annual Survey of Political Rights and Civil Liberties. Rowman & Littlefield Publishers. 2011. pp. 304, 321, 126, 495, 360. ISBN 978-1442209947.
  33. ^ a b Human Rights Watch World Report 1999. Human Rights Watch. 1999. pp. 86, 434–434. ISBN 978-1564321909.
  34. ^ Bhardwaj, A.P. (2009). Legal Apptitude And Legal Reasoning For The Clat. New Delhi: Dorling Kindersley (India) Pvt. Ltd. p. 38. ISBN 9788131727171.
  35. ^ Mathur, Kanchan (2004). Countering Gender Violence: Initiatives Towards Collective Action in Rajasthan. SAGE Publications. pp. 60–61. ISBN 978-0761932444.
  36. ^ Edwards, Louise (2000). Women in Asia: Tradition, Modernity and Globalisation. University of Michigan Press. p. 97. ISBN 978-0472087518.
  37. ^ Bergner, Jeffrey T. (2008). Country Reports on Human Rights Practices for 2008: Vols. I and II: Joint Committee Print, U. S. House of Representatives and U. S. Senate. DIANE Publishing. pp. 2297–2304.
  38. ^ "Center for Sex Offender Management Lecture Content & Teaching Notes Supervision of Sex Offenders in the Community: An Overview". Center for Sex Offender Management. Retrieved 2008-05-26.
  39. ^ Horvath, Miranda A.H (2013). Handbook on the Study of Multiple Perpetrator Rape: A multidisciplinary response to an international problem. Routledge. p. 30. ISBN 978-0415500449.
  40. ^ Nardos, Rahel (2003). Overcoming Violence against Women and Girls: The International Campaign to Eradicate a Worldwide Problem. Rowman & Littlefield Publishers. pp. 54–55. ISBN 978-0742525009.
Corrective rape

"Corrective rape", also called curative or homophobic rape, is a hate crime in which one or more people are raped because of their perceived sexual orientation or gender identity. The common intended consequence of the rape, as seen by the perpetrator, is to turn the person heterosexual or to enforce conformity with gender stereotypes.The term corrective rape was coined in South Africa after well-known cases of corrective rapes of lesbians such as Eudy Simelane (who was also murdered in the same attack) and Zoliswa Nkonyana became public. Popularisation of the term has raised awareness and encouraged LGBT+ people in countries across the world to come forward with their own stories of being raped as punishment for or in an attempt to change their sexual orientation or gender identity. Although some countries have laws protecting LGBT+ people, corrective rape is often overlooked.

Date rape

Date rape is a form of acquaintance rape. The two phrases are often used interchangeably, but date rape specifically refers to a rape in which there has been some sort of romantic or potentially sexual relationship between the two parties. Acquaintance rape also includes rapes in which the victim and perpetrator have been in a non-romantic, non-sexual relationship, for example as co-workers or neighbors. Date rape is particularly prevalent on college campuses, where it frequently occurs in situations involving alcohol or other date rape drugs, which may facilitate the execution of drug-facilitated sexual assault (DFSA).

Domestic violence in Argentina

Domestic violence in Argentina is a serious problem. Since the 1990s onwards, the Government of Argentina has taken steps to address this problem. Yet, the policies of Argentina have been criticized for being weak, primarily due to focusing on civil, rather than criminal dealing with this form of violence, and for stressing conciliation between the victim and perpetrator. The policy dealing with domestic violence has also been made more difficult due to the decentralized nature of the country: Argentina, being a decentralized federal state with 23 provinces, has led to significant variation between provincial policies on domestic violence, with women across the country, having differing levels of protection.

Domestic violence in Bolivia

Domestic violence in Bolivia is a pervasive and underreported problem. According to the Center for the Information and Development of Women (CIDEM), 70 percent of women suffer some form of abuse.CIDEM noted that their 2006 statistics "did not reflect the full magnitude of the problem of violence against women" and that "a great number of women" did not report the aggression they faced on a daily basis. The most exhaustive national survey on domestic violence conducted by the National Statistical Institute in 2003 showed 64 percent of women were the target of some form of emotional, physical, or sexual abuse from their partner.

Domestic violence in Colombia

Domestic violence in Colombia, although prohibited by law, remains a serious problem. Since the 1990s, Colombia has started to tackle this problem. Article 42 of the Constitution of Colombia provides that “Family relations are based on the equality of rights and duties of the couple and on the mutual respect of all its members. Any form of violence in the family is considered destructive of its harmony and unity, and will be sanctioned according to law.” Acts of domestic violence can be charged under a variety of laws, and victims can obtain protection orders. Despite this, the prevailing view continues to be that domestic violence should be treated as a "private" matter; and the laws are often unenforced.

Domestic violence in Ecuador

Although prohibited by law, domestic violence in Ecuador is widespread.

Family courts can impose fines for domestic violence, and have the power to remove an abusive spouse from the home. Ecuador has created specialized judicial units under the Ministry of Justice, with judges specializing in family violence. Serious cases of abuse can be referred to the Office of the Public Prosecutor for prosecution.

Domestic violence in Norway

Domestic violence in Norway is officially referred to as vold i nære relasjoner (English: violence in close relationships). It is defined as:

Violence or threats of violence against persons who are or have been married or who live or have lived in marriage-like relationships. It also applies to siblings, children, parents, grandparents and others in a straight ascending or descending line, as well as adoptive-, foster- and step-relationships. The exercise of violence is independent of location.

Domestic violence in Panama

Domestic violence in Panama is a serious problem and remains underreported.

Domestic violence, including spousal rape, psychological, physical, and economic abuse are criminalized. Panama enacted Ley No.38 del 2001 against domestic violence. In 2013, the country enacted Law 82 - Typifying Femicide and Violence Against Women (Ley 82 - Tipifica el Femicidio y la Violencia contra las Mujeres) a comprehensive law against violence against women.The Integrated National System for Criminal Statistics (SIEC) reported 1,283 cases of domestic violence from January through June 2013. Statistics for January through September from the Panamanian Observatory Against Gender-Based Violence showed that of the 47 women who died violently, 30 died as a result of domestic violence.

Domestic violence in Tajikistan

Domestic violence in Tajikistan is very high, due to traditional Tajik muslim family values, as well as a reluctance by the authorities to intervene in what is viewed in Tajikistan as a "private family matter".

Drug-facilitated sexual assault

Drug-facilitated sexual assault (DFSA) is a sexual assault (rape or otherwise) carried out on a person after the person has become incapacitated due to being under the influence of any mind-altering substances, such as having consumed alcohol or been intentionally administered another date rape drug. The rape form is also known as predator rape. 75% of all acquaintance rapes involve alcohol and/or drugs. Drugs, when used with alcohol, can result in a loss of consciousness and a loss of the ability to consent to sex.Researchers have found that alcohol-facilitated rape is the most common form of sexual violence against women. As with other types of rape, a DFSA is a crime of physical violence, and can be a result of sexual hedonism and entitlement. Most victims of DFSA are women and perpetrators men.

Forced abortion

A forced abortion may occur when the perpetrator causes abortion by force, threat or coercion, or by taking advantage of woman's incapability to give her consent, or where she gives her consent under duress. This may also include the instances when the conduct was neither justified by medical or hospital treatment. Like forced sterilization, forced abortion may include a physical invasion of female reproductive organs.

Forced pregnancy

Forced pregnancy is the practice of forcing a woman to become pregnant, often as part of a forced marriage, or as part of a programme of breeding slaves, or as part of a programme of genocide. Forced pregnancy is a form of reproductive coercion.

Gishiri cutting

Gishiri or gishiri cutting is a form of female genital mutilation performed commonly by the peoples of the Hausa and Fulani regions of northern Nigeria and southern Niger. The procedure is believed by traditional practitioners to treat a variety of gynaecological ailments, although there is no scientific basis for this procedure, and it is considered pseudoscience.


Infibulation is the surgical removal of the external female genitalia and the suturing of the vulva. It can also refer to placing a clasp through the foreskin in men.

List of domestic violence hotlines

Domestic violence hotlines provide emergency support and referral services over the phone those in volatile relationships. Hotlines are generally dedicated to women escaping abusive relationships and provide referral to women's shelters.

Domestic violence hotlines are generally available at all times during the day, however, problems with busy lines or disconnections due to lack of funding sometimes limit their usefulness. Additionally, battered gay men report that hotline workers will sometimes not provide them with services or will refer them to the batterers' line. Nonetheless, scholars assume that hotlines reduce frequency of domestic violence.


Matricide is the act of killing one's mother.

Murder of pregnant women

Murder of pregnant women is a type of homicide often resulting from domestic violence. Domestic violence—or intimate partner violence (IPV)—is suffered by many, and when analyzing cases in which victims came forward, majority of them are women. Many of these women fear harm not just to themselves but also to their unborn children. Recently, more focus has been placed on pregnancy-associated deaths due to violence. IPV may begin when the victim becomes pregnant. Research has shown that abuse while pregnant is a red flag for pregnancy-associated homicide.The murder of pregnant women represents a relatively recently studied class of murder. Limited statistics are available as there is no reliable system in place yet to track such cases. Whether pregnancy is a causal factor is hard to determine.

Rape by gender

Rape by gender classifies types of rape by the sex or gender of both the rapist and the victim. This scope includes both rape and sexual assault more generally. Most research indicates that rape affects women disproportionately, with the majority of people convicted being men; however, since the broadening of the definition of rape in 2012 by the FBI, more attention is being given to male rape, including females raping males.

Since only a small percentage of acts of sexual violence are brought to the attention of the authorities, it is difficult to compile accurate rape statistics. Conviction rates differ by the gender of both the perpetrator and victim. Various studies argue that male-male and female-female prison rape are quite common and may be the least reported form of rape. Furthermore, a large number of rape cases take place when the victims are below the age of consent, bringing in the issue of child sexual abuse or statutory rape.


Raptio (in archaic or literary English rendered as rape) is a Latin term for the large-scale abduction of women, i.e. kidnapping for marriage or enslavement (particularly sexual slavery). The equivalent term Frauenraub (literally wife robbery), originally from German, is used in English in the field of art history.

Bride kidnapping is distinguished from raptio in that the former is the abduction of one woman by one man (and his friends and relatives), whereas the latter is the abduction of many women by groups of men, possibly in a time of war.

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