Type 45 destroyer

The Type 45 destroyer, also known as the D or Daring class, is a class of six guided missile destroyers built for the United Kingdom's Royal Navy. The class is primarily designed for anti-aircraft and anti-missile warfare and is built around the PAAMS (Sea Viper) air-defence system utilizing the SAMPSON AESA and the S1850M long-range radars. The first three destroyers were assembled by BAE Systems Surface Fleet Solutions from partially prefabricated "blocks" built at different shipyards, the remaining three were built by BAE Systems Maritime – Naval Ships. The first ship in the Daring class, HMS Daring, was launched on 1 February 2006 and commissioned on 23 July 2009.[16]

The Type 45 destroyers were built to replace the Type 42 (Sheffield class) destroyers that had served during the Falklands War, with the last Type 42 being decommissioned in 2013. The National Audit Office reported that, during an "intensive attack", a single Type 45 could simultaneously track, engage and destroy more targets than five Type 42 destroyers operating together.[17] After the launch of Daring on 1 February 2006 Admiral Sir Alan West, a former First Sea Lord, stated that it would be the Royal Navy's most capable destroyer ever, as well as the world's best air-defence ship.[18] The reduction in the number to be procured from twelve, then to (up to) eight, finally with only six confirmed (in 2008) was controversial.[19][20]

Another controversy arose when it was revealed that due to a design flaw on the Northrop Grumman intercooler which, when attached to the Rolls-Royce WR-21 gas turbines and functioning in the warm climate of the Persian Gulf power availability was diminished considerably,[21][22] and it quickly became apparent that the class was not operating as originally envisioned.[23] A refit will take place from 2019-21 to fully resolve the problems with the six ships in the class.[24]

HMS Daring-1
HMS Daring departing Portsmouth Naval Base, 1 March 2010.
Class overview
Name: Type 45 destroyer
Builders: BAE Systems Maritime – Naval Ships Glasgow Scotland
Operators:  Royal Navy
Preceded by: Type 42
Cost: Over £1.050B per ship incl. R&D
Planned: 6[N 1]
Completed: 6
Active: 6
General characteristics
Type: Guided missile destroyer
Displacement: 8,700[3] to 9,400 t (9,300 long tons; 10,400 short tons)[4][5][6]
Length: 152.4 m (500 ft 0 in)
Beam: 21.2 m (69 ft 7 in)
Draught: 7.4 m (24 ft 3 in)
Installed power:
Propulsion:
Speed: In excess of 32 kn (59 km/h; 37 mph)[8]
Range: In excess of 7,000 nautical miles (13,000 km) at 18 kn (33 km/h; 21 mph)[8]
Complement: 191[9] (accommodation for up to 285)
Sensors and
processing systems:
Electronic warfare
& decoys:
Armament:
Aircraft carried:
  • 2 × Wildcat, armed with:
    • 4 × anti ship missiles, or
    • 2 × anti submarine torpedoes
    • Mk 11 depth charges
  • or
  • 1 × Westland Merlin,[15] armed with:
    • 4 × anti-submarine torpedoes
Aviation facilities:

Development

The UK had sought to procure a new class of air-defence guided missile destroyers in collaboration with seven other NATO nations under the NFR-90 project; the project collapsed due to varying requirements of the different countries involved. The UK then joined France and Italy in the Horizon-class frigate programme; however, differing national requirements, workshare arguments and delays led to the UK withdrawing on 26 April 1999 and starting its own national project.[25] On 23 November 1999 Marconi Electronic Systems (MES) was confirmed as prime contractor for the Type 45 project.[26] Seven days later MES and British Aerospace merged to form BAE Systems (BAE), making the latter the prime contractor.

The Type 45 project has been criticised for rising costs and delays, with the six ships costing £6.46 billion, an increase of £1.5 billion (29%) on the original budget.[27] The first ship entered service in 2010,[28] rather than 2007 as initially planned. In 2007, the Defence Select Committee expressed its disappointment that the Ministry of Defence (MOD) and BAE had failed to control rising costs.[29][30]

Construction

The Type 45 destroyers take advantage of some Horizon development work and use the Sea Viper air-defence system and the SAMPSON radar. The ships are built by BAE Systems Maritime – Naval Ships, originally created as BVT Surface Fleet by the merger of the surface shipbuilding arms of BAE Systems and VT Group. These two companies previously built the ships in collaboration. BAE's two Glasgow shipyards and single Portsmouth shipyard are responsible for different "blocks". BAE's Govan yard is responsible for Block A (stern to edge of helicopter hangar). The Scotstoun yard builds Blocks B/C (a 2600 tonne section which contains the Rolls-Royce WR-21 gas turbines, starts with the helicopter hangar to the bridge section) and Block D (bridge section itself). BAE's Portsmouth shipyard is responsible for Blocks E/F (bridge to the bow) and the funnels and masts. For ships 2 to 6 blocks A-D were assembled in the Ships Block and Outfit Hall of the Govan shipyard, and taken fully outfitted to the Scotstoun berth. The masts and funnels were also fitted before launch.

HMS Dauntless D33
Construction of blocks of Dauntless at Portsmouth.

For the first-of-class, Block A was assembled at Govan and moved to Scotstoun, where it was mated to Block B/C, which was already fitted with the WR-21 turbines and machinery. Block D, also assembled at Scotstoun, was fitted to these three blocks. The bow sections (E/F) were mated at Portsmouth and taken by barge to Scotstoun. These were the final blocks to be attached. At this point the hull was launched into the Clyde and towed to the Scotstoun Dry Dock where the masts and funnels were fitted (the masts are partially outfitted with equipment, for example the mast for the S1850M radar is sent from Portsmouth to Thales Nederland to be fitted with radar equipment). Once this is complete, the remaining equipment is fitted: radar arrays, bow-mounted sonar, propellers, missile equipment and 4.5-inch gun.

This modular construction arrangement was agreed in February 2002. However, when the original contract for three ships was signed in July 2000, BAE Systems Marine was to build the first and third ships, and Vosper Thornycroft (now VT) was to build the second.

By the end of 2010, all six Type 45 destroyers had been launched, with the first two in commission and the remainder fitting out. By 2012, all destroyers were structurally complete and the production lines had been closed. Duncan, the last of the Type 45 destroyers, was commissioned at Portsmouth Naval Base on 26 September 2013, and entered service in 2014 after trials and training.[31]

The Daring class are the largest escorts ever built for the Royal Navy in terms of displacement.[N 3]

In 2009 delivery of the ships' Aster missiles was delayed due to a failure during testing.[32] A subsequent investigation revealed a manufacturing fault with a single batch of missiles, making delivery of the Aster 30 possible in 2010.[33]

Characteristics

General specifications

The Type 45 destroyers are 152.4 m (500 ft) in length, with a beam of 21.2 m (70 ft), a draught of 7.4 m. (24.3 ft) and a displacement of approximately 8,500 tonnes.[3][4] This makes them significantly larger than the Type 42 they replace (displacement 5,200 tonnes). The Type 45 destroyers are the first British warships built to meet the Lloyd's Register's Naval Ship Rules for hull structure requiring design approval by Lloyd's Register for the principal structural arrangements of the vessel.[34] BAE Systems is the Design Authority for the Type 45, a role traditionally held by the UK Ministry of Defence.[35] The design of the Type 45 brings new levels of radar signature reduction to the Royal Navy. Deck equipment and life rafts are concealed behind the ship's superstructure panels, producing a very "clean" superstructure, somewhat similar to that of the French La Fayette-class frigates. The mast is also sparingly equipped externally. Speculation by the press suggests that this design gives the ship the radar cross-section of a small fishing boat.[36]

The Daring class is notable for being the first Royal Navy vessels to include gender-neutral living spaces to accommodate male and female crew members; communal shower and heads facilities have given way to individual cubicles, and six-person berths for junior ratings are far more flexible in accommodating a mixture of male and female sailors.[37] Men and women will continue to sleep in separate spaces, in common with most other navies.

Propulsion and power

The Type 45 is fitted with an advanced and innovative integrated electric propulsion system. Historically, electric-drive ships (like USS Langley) have supplied power to their electric motors using DC, and ship's electrical load, where necessary at all, was either separately supplied or was supplied as DC with a large range of acceptable voltage. Integrated electric propulsion seeks to supply all propulsion and ship's electrical load using alternating current at a high quality of voltage and frequency.[N 4] This is achieved by computerised control, high quality transformation, and electrical filtering. Two Rolls-Royce WR-21 gas turbine alternators and two Wärtsilä 12V200 diesel generators provide electrical power at 4,160 volts to a high voltage system. The high voltage supply is then used to provide power to two GE Power Conversion advanced induction motors with outputs of 20 MW (27,000 hp) each. Ship's services, including hotel load and weapons system power supplies, are supplied via transformers from the high voltage supply at 440 V and 115 V.[38] The benefits of integrated electric propulsion are cited as:

HMS Defender at Greenwich
HMS Defender moored at Greenwich in London
  • The ability to place the electric motors closer to the propeller, thus shortening the shaftline, obviating the need for a gearbox or controllable pitch propellers, and reducing exposure to action damage.[38]
  • The opportunity to place prime movers (diesel generators and gas turbine alternators) at convenient locations away from the shaftline, thus reducing the space lost to funnels, while at the same time improving access for maintenance and engine changes.[39]
  • The freedom to run all propulsion and ship services from a single prime mover for much of the ship's life, thus dramatically reducing engine running hours and emissions.[38]

The key to the efficient use of a single prime mover is the choice of a gas turbine that provides efficiency over a large load range; the WR-21 gas turbine incorporates compressor intercooling and exhaust heat recovery, making it significantly more efficient than previous marine gas turbines, especially at low and medium load. The combination of greater efficiency and high fuel capacity gives an endurance of 7,000 nautical miles (13,000 km) at 18 knots (33 km/h).[38] High power density and the hydrodynamic efficiency of a longer hull form allow high speeds to be sustained. It has been reported that Daring reached her design speed of 29 knots (54 km/h) in 70 seconds and achieved a speed of 31.5 knots (58 km/h) in 120 seconds during sea trials in August 2007.[40]

Engine trouble

In January 2016, the Ministry of Defence acknowledged that the Northrop Grumman intercooler in the propulsion system was unreliable.[22][41][42] A staggered refit was also announced, which will involve cutting into the ships's hulls and fitting additional diesel generation capacity.[43][44] On occasion there have been near-complete power generation failures, temporarily disabling propulsion, power generation for weapons, navigational systems and other purposes, leaving the ships vulnerable to "total electric failure".[45][46]

In June 2016, defence chiefs stated that the Northrop Grumman intercooler could not cope with the warm waters of the Gulf. The manufacturers, Rolls-Royce, said that while the engines for the WR-21 had been built as specified by the Ministry of Defence, the conditions in the Middle East were not "in line with the specs of the intercooler".[47][48] The First Sea Lord, Admiral Philip Jones, clarified that the "WR-21 gas turbines were designed in extreme hot weather conditions to what we call "gracefully degrade" in their performance, until you get to the point where it goes beyond the temperature at which they would operate... we found that the resilience of the diesel generators and the WR-21 in the ship at the moment was not degrading gracefully; it was degrading catastrophically, so that is what we have had to address".[23]

While the Ministry of Defence does not release detailed information related to the number of problems experienced by the class, including total engine failure, several such occasions have been reported in the media. Daring broke down in November 2010 and April 2012, Dauntless in February 2014 and Duncan in November 2016.[49][50][51][52][53]

On 23 November 2017, The Register, a British technology news and opinion website, quoting The Times, reported that a Type 45 destroyer had been recalled to Britain with propeller problems, leaving the Royal Navy's traditional "east of Suez" deployment without proper warship cover. It was stated that "HMS Diamond is on her way back to the UK after a propeller problem proved too much for the ship's crew to repair on their own. The problem is not linked to the Type 45's notoriously unreliable WR-21 engines. Rumours have swirled that Diamond is a testbed for an interim fix before a proper solution is rolled out in 2019... the withdrawal of Diamond from her planned nine-month deployment leaves naval planners in a very difficult situation. While the RN does have a permanent presence in the Middle East, at the moment it is down to four minesweepers and their lightly armed support ship."[54]

On 21 March 2018, it was announced that each ship would have their two diesel engines replaced by three new ones at Cammell Laird in Birkenhead.[55]

Advanced air-defence

The Type 45 destroyers are primarily designed for anti-air warfare with the capability to defend against targets such as fighter aircraft and drones as well as highly maneuverable sea skimming anti-ship missiles travelling at supersonic speeds.[56] The Royal Navy describes the destroyers' mission as being "to shield the Fleet from air attack".[3]

Operations Room HMS Daring MOD 45149880
The operations room aboard HMS Daring

The Type 45 destroyer is equipped with the Sea Viper (PAAMS) air-defence system utilizing the SAMPSON active electronically scanned array multi-function radar and the S1850M long-range radar. PAAMS is able to track over 2,000 targets and simultaneously control and coordinate multiple missiles in the air at once, allowing a large number of tracks to be intercepted and destroyed at any given time. This makes it particularly difficult to swamp PAAMS during a saturation attack, even if the attacking elements are supersonic.[57] The US Naval War College has suggested that the SAMPSON radar is capable of tracking 1,000 objects the size of a cricket ball travelling at three times the speed of sound (Mach 3), emphasising the system's capabilities against high performance stealth targets.[56]

Type 45 Destroyer HMS Daring Passing Through The Suez Canal MOD 45153569
48-cell A50 Sylver Vertical Launching System on Daring

A core component of PAAMS is the Aster missile, comprising Aster 15 and Aster 30. MBDA describe Aster as a "hit-to-kill" anti-missile missile capable of intercepting all types of high performance air threats at a maximum range of 120 km.[58] The Aster missile is autonomously guided and equipped with an active RF seeker enabling it to cope with "saturated attacks" thanks to a "multiple engagement capability" and a "high rate of fire".[58] Presently the Daring-class destroyers are equipped with a 48-cell A50 Sylver Vertical Launching System allowing for a mix of up to 48 Aster 15 and 30 missiles.

In addition to its anti-air warfare role, PAAMS offers additional ballistic missile defence capabilities. In March 2013 the United States Naval Institute reported that the Royal Navy along with the United States Missile Defense Agency will explore the potential of the Daring class to provide ballistic missile defence in Europe along with United States Navy Aegis equipped destroyers.[59] In May 2014, it was reported by Jane's Information Group that the United Kingdom is committing more funds to explore the capabilities of the SAMPSON multi-function radar and the Type 45 destroyer in a ballistic missile defence role. This followed a successful live firing event hundreds of miles north of Kwajalein Atoll in the Western Pacific Ocean, where Daring demonstrated the ability to "detect at the earliest opportunity" and track "through to intercept" two medium-range ballistic missiles. BAE systems reportedly told Jane's that the SAMPSON multi-function radar "exceeded expectations in all respects". An "Experiment Concurrency and Cueing (TECC)" event for the Type 45 was planned for late 2015.[60]

Because of the marked increase in capabilities delivered by the Type 45 destroyers in relation to their predecessors, the exceptionally high price per ship, and the large amount of public attention they have attracted, defence analysts and correspondents commonly refer to the Daring class as being the "most advanced" or "most powerful" air-defence destroyers in the world.[61][62] Likewise, the ships' builders BAE Systems claim: "Able to detect and track hundreds of targets simultaneously, the Type 45 Destroyer is recognised as the most advanced anti-air warfare vessel in the world."[63] Nick Brown, the editor-in-chief of Jane's International Defence Review, was quoted by The Huffington Post (a US online news aggregator and blog) saying, "It's [Type 45 destroyer] certainly one of the most advanced air defence ships in the world... The US Aegis system is similar, but Sea Viper is more advanced."[64]

Weapons, countermeasures, capabilities and sensors

SAMPSON-rotation-composite-3
The SAMPSON AESA each of two faces of multi-function air tracking radar makes a full 360° rotation every 4 seconds.
HMS Daring S1850M Long Range Radar
The S1850M long-range air surveillance radar on HMS Daring. A 20mm Phalanx CIWS gun mount can be seen in the foreground.
Defence Imagery - Missiles 19
HMS Diamond firing her Aster missiles for the first time.
RAN-IFR 2013 D4 07
The BAE 4.5 inch Mark 8 naval gun on Daring.

Anti-air warfare

The Sea Viper air-defence system:

A 48-cell A50 Sylver Vertical Launching System for a mix of up to 48:

  • Aster 15 missiles, range 1.7–30 km (1.1–18.6 mi).
  • Aster 30 Block 0 missiles, range 3–120 km (1.9–74.6 mi).

The Type 45 does not have a formal theatre ballistic missile defence (TBMD) capability but its potential for such a role is being assessed.[65] Land-based Aster 30 Block 1 missiles have intercepted short-range ballistic missiles[66] and trials of a land-based SAMPSON modified for BMD were planned for early 2012.[67] The Ministry of Defence announced in 2013 that the first ship, Daring, would take part in ballistic defence trials with the US Missile Defence Agency (MDA) as part of a major research and development programme.[68] In March 2016 Britain and France announced a joint procurement programme with the intention of France acquiring Brimstone missiles to equip the Tiger Mk3 helicopter and Britain acquiring Aster Block 1NT missiles capable of intercepting medium range ballistic missiles of 1,000–1,500 km (620–930 mi) range. A block 2 version of the Aster 30 NT is under development by France and Italy capable of intercepting 3,000 km (1,900 mi) range missiles.[69] MBDA are the prime contractor for both the weapons systems (Sea Viper) and the Samson radar with BAE systems as the secondary contractor reporting to MBDA.

Guns

Aviation

The flight deck of the Type 45 is large enough to accommodate aircraft up to the size of a Chinook helicopter.[74] It has hangar space for either one Merlin HM1 or two Lynx helicopters.[74] Both types have a dipping sonar, sonobuoys and radar; the Merlin carries four anti-submarine Sting Ray torpedoes whilst the smaller Lynx HMA8 carries either two Sting Ray or four Sea Skua anti-ship missiles. From 2015 the Lynx will be replaced in RN service by the AW159 Wildcat whose weapons will include the Lightweight Multirole Missile and FASGW(H) missile.[75]

Anti-ship, submarine and land-attack

  • It was revealed through a FOIA request in August 2013 that four of the six Type 45 destroyers would receive Harpoon launchers recycled from the last four decommissioned Type 22 frigates.[76] On 2 March 2015, Duncan set sail on her maiden deployment equipped with Harpoon anti-ship missiles.[77] On 23 March 2015, the crew of Diamond were reunited with their ship following a refit, which included the installation of Harpoon.[78] HMS Daring is currently undergoing maintenance to receive Harpoon missiles.[79]
  • The Type 45 has a bow-mounted medium-frequency Ultra/EDO MFS-7000 sonar but its main anti-submarine weapon is its helicopter(s). As of August 2013 there are no plans to fit anti-submarine torpedo tubes.[76]
  • The 4.5" Mark 8 Mod 1 naval gun has an anti-ship and naval gunfire support (NGS) role.

Countermeasures

Communications and other systems

  • Fully Integrated Communications System (FICS45): a combined external and internal communications system supplied by Thales and Selex ES Ltd.[81]
  • In 2012, the UAT Mod2.0 digital Radar Electronic Surveillance system was fitted to Daring and Diamond as part of a £40m contract with Thales UK that will see UAT Mod2.1 fitted to the other Type 45's.[12]
  • METOC Meteorology and Oceanography: The Metoc system by BAE Systems comprises the Upper Air Sounding System using launchable radiosondes by Eurodefence Systems Ltd and Graw Radiosondes (Germany) joint venture, as well as a comprehensive weather satellite receiving system and a bathymetrics system. These sensors provide each vessel with full environmental awareness for tasks such as radar propagation, ballistics and general self-supporting meteorological and oceanographic data production.

Additional capabilities

  • Type 45 has sufficient space to embark 60 Royal Marines and their equipment.[3]
  • The Type 45 destroyers are designed with the configuration and capacity to be tasked in a flagship role.[82]

Provisioned for but not fitted

Ships in the class

HMS Daring and HMS Dauntless MOD 45151056
Dauntless (front) operating with Daring off the Isle of Wight in 2010.
Duncan (7899777334)
Duncan, the last ship of the class, departing for sea trials in 2012.

Six ships have been ordered, and transfer of custody of the first happened on 10 December 2008.[83] The MoD's initial planning assumption was to procure twelve ships (essentially a like-for-like replacement of a similar number of Type 42s), with the size of the second batch to be determined between 2005 and 2010.[1] However this was reduced to eight ships in the 2003 defence white paper entitled Delivering Security in a Changing World: Future Capabilities. It was reported in December 2006 that the last two could be cut.[84] In July 2007, Ministry of Defence officials stated that they "still planned to build eight Type 45 destroyers" and that "the extra two ships were still included in planning assumptions".[85] This plan was officially abandoned on 19 June 2008 when the Minister for the Armed Forces, Bob Ainsworth, announced in Parliament that options for the seventh and eighth destroyers would not be taken up.[2][86] The continual scaling back of the project, first from twelve to eight, and subsequently to six ships, has been criticised for leaving the Royal Navy with insufficient ships to meet its requirements.[19][20]

On 9 March 2007, The Independent reported that Saudi Arabia was considering buying "two or three" Type 45s.[87] On 7 September 2007 it was reported that Saudi Arabian officials had been invited to observe Daring's sea trials.[88]

In July 2016, it was reported that all six of the class were docked in Portsmouth. A spokesperson of the Directorate of Defense Communications attributed it to manpower issues.[89][90] The Ministry of Defence further stated that "All Type 45 destroyers are currently in port as they have either just returned from operations, or are about to be deployed, are conducting training or carrying out maintenance or are home for crew to take summer leave."[91]

In an interview with the Sunday Times, former Rear Admiral Chris Parry claimed that the Type 45 destroyers are noisy ships which can be heard 100 miles away by submarines.[92]

The entire class is based at HMNB Portsmouth.[93][94][95][96]

Name Pennant No. Builder First steel cut[N 6] Launched Date of commission Status
Daring D32 BAE Systems Surface Ships 28 March 2003 1 February 2006 23 July 2009[97] As of July 2019, laid up since 2017, pending refit[98]
Dauntless D33 BAE Systems Surface Ships 26 August 2004 23 January 2007 3 June 2010[99] As of July 2019, undergoing refit, returning to service 2021[100]
Diamond D34 BAE Systems Surface Ships 25 February 2005 27 November 2007 6 May 2011[101] In active service
Dragon D35 BAE Systems Surface Ships 19 December 2005 17 November 2008 20 April 2012[102] In active service
Defender D36 BAE Systems Surface Ships 31 July 2006 21 October 2009 21 March 2013[103] In active service
Duncan D37 BAE Systems Surface Ships 26 January 2007 11 October 2010 26 September 2013[104] In active service

Only three ships of the Type 45 Daring class carry the same names as members of the previous Daring-class destroyers of 1949; these are: Daring, Diamond and Defender. These names had been used for the D-class destroyers of the 1930s, with the addition of Duncan, which was also one of the Type 14 frigates in the 1950s. The remaining Type 45 names, Dauntless and Dragon, were previously carried by D-class cruisers of 1918, which served until 1945.

See also

Footnotes

  1. ^ Six hulls were originally ordered, with a planning assumption that a further six would be ordered between 2005 and 2010.[1] This planning assumption was later reduced to a further two. In the 2008 defence budget, the Global Combat Ship programme (known then as the FSC) was brought forward at the expense of ships 7 and 8, resulting in the final order being left at six, with options for further ships not being taken up.[2]
  2. ^ The Harpoon missile is to be fitted to four of the six ships. HMS Duncan is to be the first.[14]
  3. ^ Largest in terms of displacement; however, the 6,200-ton County-class destroyers were some 6 metres (20 ft) longer, and the 6,300-ton Type 82 destroyer was 2 metres (6.6 ft) longer.
  4. ^ High quality indicates that the frequency and voltage are stable, with an absence of spikes, even under changes in power demand.
  5. ^ Early in the design phase it was estimated that 16 strike-length tubes could be fitted and this number has been widely circulated, but as of 2010 the RN website said 12.
  6. ^ The Type 45 is constructed in modules, so the keel is not "laid down" as in the past. The ceremonial start of the ships' construction is "cutting the first sheet" of steel.

References

  1. ^ a b "Appendix – Warship Building Strategies". Major Procurement Projects: Government Response. House of Commons Defence Committee. 24 October 2002. ISBN 978-0-21-500586-1. HC 1229. Archived from the original on 29 August 2012. Retrieved 29 May 2010. The MoD intends to make a decision on the size of the next batch of Type-45s in the second half of the decade. Until the main investment decision on the next batch is made, the size of that batch will remain a planning assumption.
  2. ^ a b Ministry of Defence Annual Report and Accounts Volume I including the Annual Performance Report and Consolidated Departmental Resource Accounts (PDF). Ministry of Defence (Report). HM Government. 21 July 2008. p. 98. ISBN 978-0-10-295509-5. HC 850-I. Archived from the original (PDF) on 7 June 2011. Retrieved 26 July 2011. Six of these highly advanced and capable ships have been ordered, but following the 2008 planning round we no longer intend to place orders for any further Type 45 destroyers.
  3. ^ a b c d "Type 45 Destroyer". Royal Navy. Retrieved 6 November 2011.
  4. ^ a b "HMS Daring leaves Sydney after spectacular week of celebrations". Royal Navy. 11 October 2013. Retrieved 13 October 2013.
  5. ^ "For Queen and Country". Navy News. Royal Navy. July 2012. p. 8. One hundred or so miles west of the largest city of Abidjan lies the fishing port of Sassandra, too small to accommodate 8,500-tonnes of Type 45.
  6. ^ "HMS Duncan joins US Carrier on strike operations against ISIL". Navy News. Royal Navy. 7 July 2015. Retrieved 9 July 2015. As well as supporting the international effort against the ISIL fundamentalists – the 8,500-tonne warship has also joined the wider security mission in the region.
  7. ^ "HMS Daring". Wärtsilä. Archived from the original on 28 October 2014. Retrieved 1 August 2011.
  8. ^ a b "HMS Daring - Type 45 facts". Royal Navy. Retrieved 22 July 2016.
  9. ^ Aquilina, Pauline J.; Michell, Simon, eds. (24 April 2013). "Royal Navy Fleet Guide". A Global Force 2012/13 (PDF). Newsdesk Media. p. 2. ISBN 978-1-906940-75-1. Archived from the original (PDF) on 29 November 2014.
  10. ^ "Raytheon Systems Ltd awarded further contract for Integrated Navigation System shipsets for the Type 45" (PDF). Raytheon. 8 March 2006. Archived from the original (PDF) on 13 March 2012. Retrieved 31 January 2008.
  11. ^ "Ultra Electronics Series 2500 electro-optic tracking and fire-control system (United Kingdom)". Jane's Electro-Optic Systems. 28 October 2010. Archived from the original on 3 May 2012. Retrieved 21 August 2011.
  12. ^ a b "Fleet to get the latest in electronic surveillance" (PDF). DESider. Ministry of Defence. September 2012. p. 18. Archived from the original (PDF) on 5 September 2012.
  13. ^ Scott, Richard (29 June 2014). "UK to buy Shaman CESM for Seaseeker SIGINT programme". IHS Jane's 360. Archived from the original on 7 July 2014.
  14. ^ "HMS Duncan (D37)". Royal Navy.
  15. ^ "Air Defence Destroyer (T45)". Royal Navy. Archived from the original on 31 October 2007. Retrieved 20 November 2007.
  16. ^ "UK Royal Navy Commissions Type 45 Destroyer HMS Daring". Defence Professionals. 24 July 2009. Archived from the original on 26 July 2009. Retrieved 25 July 2009.
  17. ^ "Providing Anti Air Warfare Capability: the Type 45 destroyer" (PDF). National Audit Office. 13 March 2009. p. 12. Retrieved 8 March 2014. In an intensive attack, a Type 45 destroyer would be able to simultaneously track, engage and destroy more targets than the remaining Type 42 destroyers operating together.
  18. ^ Nicoll, Alexander (1 February 2006). "Countess of Wessex Launches Royal Navy's New Warship". Government News Network. Archived from the original on 27 September 2007. Retrieved 17 August 2007.
  19. ^ a b "Six of the best but scrap the rest". Shipping Times. 20 June 2008. Retrieved 16 November 2009.
  20. ^ a b See statement by the then First Sea Lord, Admiral Sir Alan West, Jane's Defence Weekly 25 June 2008, p.6 reproduced from an interview in February 2006.
  21. ^ Chuter, Andrew (23 March 2016). "Fix to UK Destroyer Power Plant Problem Some Way Off". Defence News. Retrieved 17 October 2016.
  22. ^ a b "Putting the Type 45 propulsion problems in perspective". Save The Royal Navy. 3 February 2016. Retrieved 17 October 2016.
  23. ^ a b "Oral evidence: Naval Procurement: Type 26 and Type 45 HC 221". UK House of Commons Defence Select Committee. 21 July 2016. Retrieved 21 July 2016.
  24. ^ "Final cure for Type 45 destroyer propulsion problems announced". Save The Royal Navy. 21 March 2018. Retrieved 8 April 2019.
  25. ^ Nicoll, Alexander (27 April 1999). "National differences scupper frigate project". Financial Times.
  26. ^ Sinclair, Keith (24 November 1999). "Jobs boost for shipyard; Yarrow confirmed as main contractor for MoD's Type 45 destroyer programme". The Herald. Scottish Media Newspapers. p. 13.
  27. ^ Public Accounts Committee (1 June 2009). Ministry of Defence: Type 45 Destroyer (PDF) (Report). House of Commons. Retrieved 12 July 2009.
  28. ^ "Air Defence Destroyer (Type 45)". Royal Navy. Archived from the original on 13 August 2008. Retrieved 14 October 2008.
  29. ^ Robertson, David (29 January 2008). "Taxpayers face £500m bill for BAE projects". The Times. London, UK. Archived from the original on 12 October 2008. Retrieved 31 January 2008.
  30. ^ Wilson, Graeme (9 December 2007). "MPs accuse MoD of £2.6bn overspend". The Daily Telegraph. London, UK. Retrieved 31 January 2008.
  31. ^ "Type 45 destroyer HMS Duncan 'christened' at Portsmouth Naval Base". BBC News. 26 September 2013.
  32. ^ "Royal Navy destroyers at sea with faulty weapons systems". The News. Portsmouth. 7 December 2009. Retrieved 6 November 2011.
  33. ^ "MBDA completes four successful ASTER missile firings in less than a month". MBDA Systems. 28 June 2010. Retrieved 9 June 2016.
  34. ^ Beedall, Richard (18 May 2011). "Type 45 ("D" Class) Destroyer Daring Class: Part 2". Navy Matters. Archived from the original on 5 December 2013. Retrieved 3 January 2014.
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External links

Carrier strike group

A carrier strike group (CSG) is an operational formation of the United States Navy. It is composed of roughly 7,500 personnel, an aircraft carrier, at least one cruiser, a destroyer squadron of at least two destroyers or frigates, and a carrier air wing of 65 to 70 aircraft. A carrier strike group also, on occasion, includes submarines, attached logistics ships and a supply ship. The carrier strike group commander operationally reports to the commander of the numbered fleet, who is operationally responsible for the area of waters in which the carrier strike group is operating.

Carrier strike groups comprise a principal element of U.S. power projection capability. Previously referred to as carrier battle groups (a term still used by other nations), they are often referred to by the carrier they are associated with (e.g., Enterprise Strike Group). As of March 2016 there were 10 carrier strike groups in the U.S. Navy.

The carrier strike group is a flexible naval force that can operate in confined waters or in the open ocean, during day and night, in all weather conditions. The principal role of the carrier and its air wing within the carrier strike group is to provide the primary offensive firepower, while the other ships provide defense and support. These roles are not exclusive, however. Other ships in the strike group sometimes undertake offensive operations (launching cruise missiles, for instance) and the carrier's air wing contributes to the strike group's defense (through combat air patrols and airborne anti-submarine efforts). Thus, from a command and control perspective, carrier strike groups are combat organized by mission rather than by platform.

Since 2016, the French carrier strike group based upon the nuclear-powered aircraft carrier Charles de Gaulle can plan and conduct strike operations in a U.S. Fleet area of operations with up to 35 aircraft including 30 Dassault Rafale.The Royal Navy is in the process of rebuilding its Fleet Air Arm capacity, led by Commander UK Carrier Strike Group, a Royal Navy commodore. The Royal Navy's new carrier air wings will count up to 36 F-35Bs between them but the Queen Elizabeth-class aircraft carriers may routinely deploy with only 12 F-35Bs or two squadrons joining 12 United States Marine Corps aircraft, probably from either VMFA-211 or VMFA-122. Only twenty-four F-35Bs have been ordered by the Fleet Air Arm and will be the flagship of her Carrier strike Group 21, so British carrier operations will be very strongly influenced by US Marine Corps amphibious ready groups plus early warning aircraft and numerous helicopters. The group will consist of at least one Type 45 destroyer, two Type 23 frigates, one Astute-class attack submarine plus a number of support vessels.

Combined diesel-electric and gas

Combined diesel-electric and gas (CODLAG) is a modification of the combined diesel and gas propulsion system for ships. A variant, called the combined diesel-electric or gas (CODLOG) system, contains the same basic elements but will not allow simultaneous use of the alternative drive sources.A CODLAG system employs electric motors which are connected to the propeller shafts (usually 2). The motors are powered by diesel generators. For higher speeds, a gas turbine powers the shafts via a cross-connecting gearbox; for cruise speed, the drive train of the turbine is disengaged with clutches.

This arrangement combines the diesel engines used for propulsion and for electric power generation, greatly reducing service cost, since it reduces the number of different diesel engines and electric motors, requiring considerably less maintenance. Also, electric motors work efficiently over a wide range of revolutions and can be connected directly to the propeller shaft so that simpler gearboxes can be used to combine the mechanical output of turbine and diesel-electric systems.

Another advantage of the diesel-electric transmission is that without the need of a mechanical connection, the diesel generators can be decoupled acoustically from the hull of the ship, making it less noisy. This has been used extensively by military submarines but surface naval vessels like anti-submarine vessels will benefit as well.

Daring-class destroyer

Daring-class destroyer may refer to:

Daring-class destroyer (1893), Royal Navy ships launched in 1893 and 1894

Daring-class destroyer (1949), Royal Navy ships launched during the late 1940s and through the 1950s

Type 45 destroyer, also known as Daring class, Royal Navy ships launched from 2006 onwards

HMS Dauntless

Five ships and one shore establishment of the Royal Navy have borne the name HMS Dauntless:

HMS Dauntless (1804) was an 18-gun sloop launched at Hull, England in November 1804. In 1807 she ran aground during a battle in the Vistula River and was forced to surrender to the French.

HMS Dauntless (1808) was a 26-gun sloop launched in 1808 and sold for breaking in 1825.

HMS Dauntless (1847) was a 24-gun (from 1854, 33-gun) frigate launched in 1847 and sold for breaking in 1885.

HMS Dauntless (D45) was a Danae-class light cruiser launched in 1918. She was used as a training vessel from 1943 before being sold for breaking in 1946.

HMS Dauntless was the WRNS training establishment at Burghfield, near Reading, Berkshire, from 1947 until 1981.

HMS Dauntless (D33) is a Type 45 destroyer launched on 23 January 2007 at the BAE Systems Govan shipyard in Glasgow, and commissioned in June 2010.

HMS Defender

Eight ships of the Royal Navy have borne the name HMS Defender:

HMS Defender (1797), a 12-gun Courser-class gun-brig launched in 1797 and on the Navy List until 1802.

HMS Defender (1804), a 14-gun Archer-class gun-brig launched in 1804 and wrecked in 1809.

HMS Defender (1809), an 8-gun lugger, previously the French privateer Beau Marseille. She was captured in 1809 by HMS Royalist and sold in 1814.

HMS Defender (1883), a second-class colonial-service torpedo boat built in 1883 for service in New Zealand and abandoned at Lyttelton, New Zealand sometime after 1900. Her remains can be seen at the Torpedo Boat Museum, Magazine Bay, Lyttelton.

HMS Defender (1911), an Acheron-class destroyer, launched in 1911, present at the Battle of Jutland and sold in 1921.

HMS Defender (H07), a D-class destroyer launched in 1932 and sunk in 1941.

HMS Defender (D114), a Daring-class destroyer launched in 1950 and broken up in 1972.

HMS Defender (D36), a Type 45 destroyer launched on 21 October 2009.The name was also used between 1941(?) and 1945 for a small shore establishment just outside Liverpool.

HMS Defender (D36)

HMS Defender is the fifth of the Type 45 or Daring-class air-defence destroyers built for the Royal Navy. She is the eighth ship to bear the name. Construction of Defender began in 2006, and she was launched in 2009. The ship completed her first sea trials in October–November 2011, and was commissioned during March 2013.

HMS Diamond

Several Royal Navy ships have been named HMS Diamond.

HMS Diamond (1652), a 50-gun ship launched at Deptford in 1652 and captured by France in 1693.

HMS Diamond (1708), a fifth-rate 50 gun ship launched at Blackwall Yard in 1708 and rebuilt at Deptford Dockyard in 1722, sold in 1744.

HMS Diamond (1741), a fifth-rate launched at Limehouse in 1741 and sold in 1756.

HMS Diamond (1774), a fifth-rate launched at Hull in 1774 and sold in 1784.

HMS Diamond (1794), a fifth-rate launched at Deptford in 1794 and broken up in 1812.

HMS Diamond (1816), a fifth-rate launched at Chatham in 1816 and broken up following a serious fire at Portsmouth in 1827.

HMS Diamond (1848), a sixth-rate frigate launched in 1848. She was used as a training ship and renamed Joseph Straker between 1866 and 1868, and sold in 1885.

HMS Diamond (1874), a 14-gun Amethyst-class corvette launched in 1874 and sold in 1889.

HMS Diamond (1904), a Topaze-class cruiser built by Cammell Laird, launched in 1904 and scrapped in 1921

HMS Diamond (H22), a D-class destroyer launched in 1931 and lost in action in 1941.

HMS Diamond (D35), a Daring-class destroyer launched in 1950 and sold in 1980.

HMS Diamond (D34), a Type 45 destroyer which began construction in 2005 and was launched on 27 November 2007.

HMS Dragon

Several ships of the Royal Navy have been named HMS Dragon.

English ship Dragon (1512), a ship of 100 tons built in 1512 under Sir William Sidney in the war with France. Last mentioned 1514.

English ship Dragon (1542), a 140-ton three-masted ship depicted in the Anthony Roll of 1546. Built 1542 or 1544 and rebuilt 1551. Last mentioned 1553

English galleon Dragon (or Red Dragon), a galleon built in 1593 and last mentioned 1613.

HMS Dragon (1647), a fourth-rate frigate launched in 1647, rebuilt in 1690 and 1707 and wrecked in 1711.

HMS Ormonde (1711), a 50-gun fourth-rate ship of the line launched in 1711, renamed HMS Dragon in 1715, and broken up in 1733.

HMS Dragon (1736), a 60-gun fourth-rate ship of the line launched in 1736, and scuttled as a breakwater in 1757.

HMS Dragon (1760), a 74-gun third-rate ship of the line built in 1760 and sold in 1784.

HMS Dragon (1798), a 74-gun third-rate ship of the line built in 1798 at Rotherhithe. Refitted in 1814, she served until 1815. She was broken up in 1850.

HMS Dragon (1845), a 6-gun wooden paddle second-rate frigate built in 1845 and sold 1865, designed by Sir William Symonds, which served in the Baltic during the Crimean War.

HMS Dragon (1878), a 6-gun Doterel-class screw sloop launched in 1878 and sold in 1892.

HMS Dragon (1894), a twin-screw Banshee-class torpedo boat destroyer launched in 1894 and sold in 1912.

HMS Dragon (D46), a Danae-class light cruiser launched in 1917 and scuttled off Normandy in 1944 while serving in the Polish navy as ORP Dragon.

HMS Dragon (1982) was a stone frigate of the Royal Naval Reserve in Swansea and acted as a Communications Training Centre. She was decommissioned in 1994.

HMS Dragon (D35), is a Type 45 destroyer launched in November 2008

HMS Duncan

Seven Royal Navy ships have been named HMS Duncan, after Admiral Adam Duncan, 1st Viscount Duncan of Camperdown, hero of the Battle of Camperdown.

HMS Duncan (1804) was the mercantile Carron, launched at Bombay Dockyard in 1792. She made three voyages from India to Britain for the British East India Company between 4 November 1795 and 17 June 1801. The Royal Navy purchased her in 1804 for service as a fifth rate and renamed her HMS Dover in 1807. She was wrecked off Madras in 1811.

HMS Duncan (1811) was a 74-gun third-rate launched in 1811, reduced to harbour service in 1826, and broken up 1863.

HMS Duncan (1859) was a 101-gun screw-propelled first-rate launched in 1859, employed on harbour service as HMS Pembroke in 1890, renamed HMS Tenedos in 1905, and sold in 1910.

HMS Duncan (1901), launched in 1901, was a Duncan-class battleship that saw action against German installations on the Belgian coast in World War I and was sold in 1920.

HMS Duncan (D99) was a D-class destroyer, launched in 1932 and scrapped in 1945.

HMS Duncan (F80) was a Type 14 frigate in service from 1957 to 1985.

HMS Duncan (D37) is a Type 45 destroyer launched on 11 October 2010.

HMS Duncan (D37)

HMS Duncan is the sixth and last of the Type 45 or Daring-class air-defence destroyers built for the Royal Navy and launched in 2010. Duncan is named after Adam Duncan, 1st Viscount Duncan (1 July 1731 – 4 August 1804), who defeated the Dutch fleet at the Battle of Camperdown on 11 October 1797. The destroyer has served in the Mediterranean, Black and Caribbean Seas and in 2019 was deployed to the Persian Gulf in response to increased tensions with Iran in the region.

Horizon-class frigate

The Horizon class is a class of air-defence destroyers in service with the French Navy and the Italian Navy, locally known as frigates though they are classified as destroyers using NATO classification. The programme started as the Common New Generation Frigate (CNGF), a multi-national collaboration to produce a new generation of air-defence frigates. In Italy the class is known as the Orizzonte class, which translates to "horizon" in French and English. The UK then joined France and Italy in the Horizon-class frigate programme; however, differing national requirements, workshare arguments and delays led to the UK withdrawing on 26 April 1999 and starting its own national project, the Type 45 destroyer.The FREMM multipurpose frigate are currently under construction using the same company structure as the Horizon project.

Integrated electric propulsion

Integrated electric propulsion (IEP) or full electric propulsion (FEP) or integrated full electric propulsion (IFEP) is an arrangement of marine propulsion systems such that gas turbines or diesel generators or both generate three-phase electricity which is then used to power electric motors turning either propellers or waterjet impellors. It is a modification of the combined diesel-electric and gas propulsion system for ships which eliminates the need for clutches and reduces or eliminates the need for gearboxes by using electrical transmission rather than mechanical transmission of energy, so it is a series hybrid electric propulsion, instead of parallel.

List of ship commissionings in 2011

The list of ship commissionings in 2011 includes a chronological list of all ships commissioned in 2011.

List of ship commissionings in 2012

The list of ship commissionings in 2012 includes a chronological list of all ships commissioned in 2012.

List of ship commissionings in 2013

The list of ship commissionings in 2013 includes a chronological list of all ships commissioned in 2013.

List of ship launches in 2007

The list of ship launches in 2007 includes a chronological list of all ships launched in 2007.

NFR-90

NFR-90 (NATO Frigate Replacement for 90s) was a multi-national programme designed to produce a common frigate for several NATO nations. However, the varying requirements of the different countries led to the project being abandoned in the early 1990s.The project sought to achieve economies of scale in the production of the next generation warship. Feasibility studies began in 1985 and reported that with a modularity in design, collaboration should be possible.Arguments erupted in the design definition stage over such issues as the choice of a primary anti-ship weapon. France pushed its Exocet missile while the majority of the nations preferred the Boeing AGM-84 Harpoon. The United Kingdom in particular was uneasy about the absence of a close-in weapon system due to its experiences of being on the receiving end of Exocets during the Falklands War.The collapse of the project was guaranteed by the withdrawal of the two largest participants, the US and UK. The US Navy was not happy with the final single mission design - the multi-mission Arleigh Burke class destroyers demonstrate what the US had in mind. The UK considered withdrawing from the project in 1988, but committed to it to guarantee work for its shipyards and defence equipment suppliers. However, the UK finally withdrew in 1989 fearing that the requirement for a replacement for its type 42 destroyers would not be met by the new frigate.France, Italy and the UK set up the Horizon CNGF project in 1992. This was a further attempt at collaboration that was only moderately more successful, with the UK eventually withdrawing and starting its own national project, the type 45 destroyer. France and Italy are continuing with the Horizon project, although far fewer ships will be built than initially intended. Spain, Germany and the Netherlands agreed to develop a trilateral basic design, which should be built and finally developed by each nation by itself. Within the framework of this so-called Trilateral Frigate Cooperation Germany built the Sachsen class frigate (F124), Spain the Álvaro de Bazán class frigate (F100) and the Netherlands the De Zeven Provinciën class frigate.

Rolls-Royce WR-21

The Rolls-Royce WR-21 is an advanced gas turbine marine engine, designed with a view to powering the latest naval surface combatants of the partner nations, and currently fitted to the Type 45 destroyer of the Royal Navy.

UXV Combatant

The UXV Combatant is a concept warship designed by BVT Surface Fleet (now BAE Systems Maritime – Naval Ships), which was displayed at the Defence Security and Equipment International (DSEI) in 2007. Designed to "launch, operate and recover large numbers of small unmanned vehicles for extended periods, the UXV plays the role of mother ship - a permanent base and control centre for the futuristic unmanned land, sea and air vehicles before, during and on completion of their missions". UXV Combatant shares some common design features with the Type 45 destroyer.

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