The Type 055 destroyer (NATO/OSD Renhai-class cruiser) is a class of guided missile destroyers being constructed for the Chinese People's Liberation Army Navy Surface Force. It is a multi-mission design; the combination of sensors and weapons suggests a main role of area air defence, with anti-submarine warfare capabilities surpassing previous Chinese surface combatants.
The United States classifies these ships as cruisers. The United States Navy defines a cruiser as a large multi-mission surface combatant with flag facilities; this suggests the U.S. expects the Type 055 to fulfil a similar role as the Ticonderoga-class cruiser.
Artist impression of the Type 055 destroyer
|Operators:||PLA Navy Surface Force|
|Preceded by:||Type 052D|
|Cost:||CN¥6 billion/unit (including R&D)|
|In service:||2019 - present|
|Type:||Guided missile destroyer|
|Displacement:||12-13,000 tonnes (full load)|
|Length:||180 m (590 ft)|
|Beam:||20 m (66 ft)|
|Draught:||6.6 m (22 ft)|
|Speed:||30 knots (56 km/h; 35 mph)|
|Range:||5,000 nmi (9,300 km)|
|Sensors and |
|Electronic warfare |
|Aircraft carried:||2 × Changhe Z-18F ASW helicopters|
Interest within the People's Liberation Army Navy in a large destroyer dates back to at least the late-1960s. A development program, codenamed "055", was initiated in 1976 and encountered insurmountable technical obstacles from industrial underdevelopment. For example, China could neither produce the required gas turbine powerplants, nor import them at acceptable prices. The project was cancelled in 1983.
In April 2014, an image emerged of a full-scale mock-up of the Type 055 superstructure - with enclosed integrated mast for radar and other electronics - at the Chinese naval electronic testing range in Wuhan.
The first ship began construction in 2014 at the Jiangnan Shipyard in Shanghai, and launched on 28 June 2017. When launched, it was among the largest post-Second World War warships launched in East Asia, and the largest surface combatant launched by China.
The Type 055 adopts a conventional flared hull with distinctive stealthy features including an enclosed bulbous bow that hides mooring points, anchor chains and other equipment. The bow and main deckhouse are configured similarly to previous Type 052C/D destroyers. A continuous structure amidship increases internal volume and reduces radar cross-section. The smoke stack design reduces both infrared signature and radar cross-section. Chinese sources credit the design as being generally stealthy, with reduced radar, noise, infrared, and electromagnetic radiation signatures.
Propulsive power is generated by four 28 MW QC-280 gas turbines in combined gas and gas arrangement. Additional power may be provided by six 5 MW QD-50 gas turbines. It does not have integrated electric propulsion.
The maximum speed is estimated to be 30 knots.
The Type 055's battle management system may allow integration with carrier strike groups.
The integrated mast may mount X band radar in four fixed active electronically scanned arrays (AESA). The deckhouse may mount four Type 346B AESA panels; the previous Type 346 was a dual S and C band radar, but the Type 346B may only be S band as a X band radar is included. The X band radar may be mounted higher as it is better suited for horizon search and low altitude object detection. The Type 346B arrays can be larger and have higher power when mounted on the deckhouse below the X band radar.
Various electronic warfare support measures (ESM), electronic countermeasures (ECM), and electro-optic (EO) sensors and datalinks are mounted. They are likely more advanced than those deployed on older ships.
A deployment port exists for variable depth and towed array sonar. The large bulbous bow likely contains a bow sonar; the Type 055 may mount a larger bow sonar than previous Chinese surface combatants.
The primary armament are missiles carried in 112 universal vertical launch cells (VLS); 64 cells forward and 48 cells aft. The same VLS model is used on the Type 052D destroyer, which is believed to be an implementation of the GJB 5860-2006 standard. The longest variant, with 9-metre cells, is likely used. The Type 055 is expected to carry HHQ-9 surface-to-air missiles, YJ-18 anti-ship cruise missiles, CJ-10 land-attack cruise missiles, and missile-launched anti-submarine torpedoes upon entering service.
It has been suggested that future variants may be armed with lasers or electromagnetic railguns. However, these would require the installation of integrated electric propulsion to meet power requirements.
|1||101||南昌 / Nanchang||Jiangnan Shipyard (Group) Co. Ltd.||28 June 2017||Active|
|2||Jiangnan Shipyard (Group) Co. Ltd.||28 April 2018||Fitting out|
|3||Dalian Shipbuilding Industry Company||3 July 2018||Fitting out|
|4||Dalian Shipbuilding Industry Company||3 July 2018||Fitting out|
|5||Jiangnan Shipyard (Group) Co. Ltd.||Under construction|
|6||Dalian Shipbuilding Industry Company||Under construction|
An active electronically scanned array (AESA) is a type of phased array antenna, which is a computer-controlled array antenna in which the beam of radio waves can be electronically steered to point in different directions without moving the antenna. In the AESA, each antenna element is connected to a small solid-state transmit/receive module (TRM) under the control of a computer, which performs the functions of a transmitter and/or receiver for the antenna. This contrasts with a passive electronically scanned array (PESA), in which all the antenna elements are connected to a single transmitter and/or receiver through phase shifters under the control of the computer. AESA's main use is in radar, and these are known as active phased array radar (APAR).
The AESA is a more advanced, sophisticated, second-generation of the original PESA phased array technology. PESAs can only emit a single beam of radio waves at a single frequency at a time. The AESA can radiate multiple beams of radio waves at multiple frequencies simultaneously. AESA radars can spread their signal emissions across a wider range of frequencies, which makes them more difficult to detect over background noise, allowing ships and aircraft to radiate powerful radar signals while still remaining stealthy.CG(X)
The CG(X) program, also known as the Next Generation Cruiser program, was a United States Navy research program to develop a replacement vessel for its 22 Ticonderoga-class cruisers. Original plans were for 18–19 ships, based on the 14,500 ton Zumwalt-class destroyer with additional ballistic missile defense and area air defense for a carrier group. These vessels were to enter service beginning in 2017. The program was ended in 2010 with the intention of instead achieving the desired result with a successor to the Flight III Arleigh Burke–class destroyers.CJ-10 (missile)
The CJ-10 (simplified Chinese: 长剑-10; traditional Chinese: 長劍-10; pinyin: Cháng Jiàn 10; literally: 'long sword 10') is a second-generation Chinese ground-based land-attack missile. It is derived from the Kh-55 missile. It is reportedly manufactured by the China Aerospace Science and Industry Corporation Third Academy and the China Haiying Electro-Mechanical Technology Academy.Initially, the CJ-10 was identified as the DH-10 (Chinese: 东海-10; pinyin: Dong Hai 10; literally: 'east sea 10') by Western media and analysts. United States Department of Defense reports used "DH-10" until 2011, and then "CJ-10" from 2012. Publications may use both terms interchangeably. The Center for Strategic and International Studies believes that the CJ-10 is a member of the Hongniao (HN) series of missiles; Ian Easton believes that the CJ-10 is the same missile as the HN-2, and that the HN-3 is the "DH-10A".Changhe Z-18
The Changhe Z-18 is a medium transport helicopter developed by Changhe Aircraft Industries Corporation (CAIC) to replace the Z-8.Cruiser
A cruiser is a type of warship. Modern cruisers are generally the largest ships in a fleet after aircraft carriers and amphibious assault ships, and can usually perform several roles.
The term has been in use for several hundred years, and has had different meanings throughout this period. During the Age of Sail, the term cruising referred to certain kinds of missions—independent scouting, commerce protection, or raiding—fulfilled by a frigate or sloop-of-war, which were the cruising warships of a fleet.
In the middle of the 19th century, cruiser came to be a classification for the ships intended for cruising distant waters, commerce raiding, and scouting for the battle fleet. Cruisers came in a wide variety of sizes, from the medium-sized protected cruiser to large armored cruisers that were nearly as big (although not as powerful or as well-armored) as a pre-dreadnought battleship. With the advent of the dreadnought battleship before World War I, the armored cruiser evolved into a vessel of similar scale known as the battlecruiser. The very large battlecruisers of the World War I era that succeeded armored cruisers were now classified, along with dreadnought battleships, as capital ships.
By the early 20th century after World War I, the direct successors to protected cruisers could be placed on a consistent scale of warship size, smaller than a battleship but larger than a destroyer. In 1922, the Washington Naval Treaty placed a formal limit on these cruisers, which were defined as warships of up to 10,000 tons displacement carrying guns no larger than 8 inches in calibre; heavy cruisers had 8-inch guns, while those with guns of 6.1 inches or less were light cruisers, which shaped cruiser design until the end of World War II. Some variations on the Treaty cruiser design included the German Deutschland-class "pocket battleships" which had heavier armament at the expense of speed compared to standard heavy cruisers, and the American Alaska class, which was a scaled-up heavy cruiser design designated as a "cruiser-killer".
In the later 20th century, the obsolescence of the battleship left the cruiser as the largest and most powerful surface combatant after the aircraft carrier. The role of the cruiser varied according to ship and navy, often including air defense and shore bombardment. During the Cold War, the Soviet Navy's cruisers had heavy anti-ship missile armament designed to sink NATO carrier task forces via saturation attack. The U.S. Navy built guided-missile cruisers upon destroyer-style hulls (some called "destroyer leaders" or "frigates" prior to the 1975 reclassification) primarily designed to provide air defense while often adding anti-submarine capabilities, being larger and having longer-range surface-to-air missiles (SAMs) than early Charles F. Adams guided-missile destroyers tasked with the short-range air defense role. By the end of the Cold War, the line between cruisers and destroyers had blurred, with the Ticonderoga-class cruiser using the hull of the Spruance-class destroyer but receiving the cruiser designation due to their enhanced mission and combat systems. Indeed, the newest U.S. and Chinese destroyers (for instance the Zumwalt class and Type 055) are more heavily armed than some of the cruisers that they succeeded.
Currently only two nations operate cruisers: the United States and Russia, and in both cases the vessels are primarily armed with guided missiles. BAP Almirante Grau was the last gun cruiser in service, serving with the Peruvian Navy until 2017.Destroyer
In naval terminology, a destroyer is a fast, maneuverable, long-endurance warship intended to escort larger vessels in a fleet, convoy or battle group and defend them against smaller powerful short-range attackers. They were originally developed in the late 19th century by Fernando Villaamil for the Spanish Navy as a defense against torpedo boats, and by the time of the Russo-Japanese War in 1904, these "torpedo boat destroyers" (TBDs) were "large, swift, and powerfully armed torpedo boats designed to destroy other torpedo boats". Although the term "destroyer" had been used interchangeably with "TBD" and "torpedo boat destroyer" by navies since 1892, the term "torpedo boat destroyer" had been generally shortened to simply "destroyer" by nearly all navies by the First World War.Before World War II, destroyers were light vessels with little endurance for unattended ocean operations; typically a number of destroyers and a single destroyer tender operated together. After the war, the advent of the guided missile allowed destroyers to take on the surface combatant roles previously filled by battleships and cruisers. This resulted in larger and more powerful guided missile destroyers more capable of independent operation.
At the start of the 21st century, destroyers are the global standard for surface combatant ships, with only two nations (United States and Russia) operating the heavier class cruisers, with no battleships or true battlecruisers remaining. Modern guided missile destroyers are equivalent in tonnage but vastly superior in firepower to cruisers of the World War II era, and are capable of carrying nuclear-tipped cruise missiles. At 510 feet (160 m) long, a displacement of 9,200 tons, and with armament of more than 90 missiles, guided missile destroyers such as the Arleigh Burke-class are actually larger and more heavily armed than most previous ships classified as guided missile cruisers.
Some European navies, such as the French, Spanish, or German, use the term "frigate" for their destroyers, which leads to some confusion.HQ-9
The HQ-9 (simplified Chinese: 红旗-9; traditional Chinese: 紅旗-9; pinyin: Hóng Qí-9; literally: 'Red Banner-9') is a medium- to long-range, active radar homing surface-to-air missile.Similar in capability to the Russian S-300 and American Patriot systems, the HQ-9 uses a HT-233 PESA radar system. The naval variant, HHQ-9 (simplified Chinese: 海红旗-9; traditional Chinese: 海紅旗-9; pinyin: Hǎi Hóng Qí-9; literally: 'Sea Red Banner-9'), appears to be identical to the land-based variant. HHQ-9 is equipped in the PLAN Type 052C Lanzhou class destroyer in VLS launch tubes.The HQ-9 system has an anti-radiation variant, known as the FT-2000 for export. The export designation for air defense version is FD-2000 (with FD stands for Fang Dun [防盾], meaning defensive shield), and its developer China Precision Machinery Import-Export Corporation (CPMIEC) first made it public at the Africa Aerospace and Defence Exhibition held at Cape Town in March 2009Jiangnan Shipyard
Jiangnan Shipyard (Chinese: 江南造船厂; pinyin: Jiāngnán Zàochuán Chǎng) is a historic shipyard in Shanghai, China. The shipyard has been state-owned since its founding in 1865 and is now operated as Jiangnan Shipyard (Group) Co. Ltd.
Before 2009, the company was south of central Shanghai (at 2 Gaoxing Road (31°11′49″N 121°28′59″E). In 2009, the shipyard was moved to Changxing Island, in the mouth of the Yangtze River to the north of urban Shanghai. (31°21′14.81″N 121°44′14.69″E).
The shipyard builds, repairs and converts both civilian and military ships. Other activities include the manufacture of machinery and electrical equipment, pressure vessels and steel works for various land-based products.List of active People's Liberation Army Navy ships
List of active People's Liberation Army Navy ships is a list of ships currently in active service with the People's Liberation Army Navy. There are approximately 496 ships listed in the tables below that constitute active ships, but this figure does not include the 232 various auxiliary vessels of the PLAN. A summary of ship types in service with the PLAN include an aircraft carrier, amphibious transport docks, landing ship tanks, landing ship medium, destroyers, frigates, corvettes, missile boats, submarine chasers, gunboats, mine countermeasures vessels, replenishment oilers and various auxiliaries. In addition, there are also nuclear and conventional submarines presently in service.
All ships and submarines currently in commission with the People's Liberation Army Navy were built in China, with the exception of the Sovremenny-class destroyers, Kilo-class submarines and the aircraft carrier Liaoning. Those vessels were either imported from, or originated from Russia or Ukraine.
The convention for naming naval ships is as follows: Aircraft carriers are named after provinces. Nuclear-powered submarines are all named Changzheng (Long March) and number. Destroyers and frigates are named after cities. Smaller anti-submarine ships are named for counties. Tank landing ships and dock landing ships carry the names of mountains. Infantry landing ships are named for rivers. Replenishment ships are named for lakes.PLA Navy Platinum Jubilee Parade
The PLA Navy Platinum Jubilee Parade (Chinese: 中国人民解放军海军白金禧游行) was a Chinese naval military parade which was held in the port city of Qingdao on April 23, 2019, in honor of the 70th anniversary (Platinum Jubilee) of the People's Liberation Army Navy (PLAN). It was the first naval parade by the PLAN since the 2018 South China Sea Parade just over year prior. Xi Jinping, General Secretary of the Communist Party of China and Chairman of the Central Military Commission reviewed the parade in his position as party leader and commander-in-chief. 32 naval vessels and 39 naval warplanes of the PLAN took part in the parade.People's Liberation Army Navy Surface Force
The People's Liberation Army Navy Surface Force is a branch of the People's Liberation Army Navy in China. It consists of all surface warships in operational service with the PLAN. It operates 661 ships. The ships are organized into three fleets: the North Sea Fleet, the East Sea Fleet, and the South Sea Fleet. The People's Liberation Army Navy is turning away from its traditional focus on coastal and littoral warfare and instead prioritising the development of blue water capabilities. This has led to a significant reduction in fleet numbers as the PLAN has replaced a larger number of smaller ships with a smaller number of larger and more capable ships, including destroyers, frigates, corvettes, amphibious warfare ships and large auxiliary ships.Sejong the Great-class destroyer
The Sejong the Great-class destroyers (Sejongdaewang-Geup Guchukam or Hangul: 세종대왕급 구축함, Hanja: 世宗大王級驅逐艦), also known as KD-III, are three guided missile destroyers of the Republic of Korea Navy (ROKN). The second ship was commissioned in August 2010 and the third in August 2012. As at 2013, the ROKN has deployed three ships with an option for three more; in December 2013 the option to acquire the second three was taken up.Stealth ship
A stealth ship is a ship which employs stealth technology construction techniques in an effort to ensure that it is harder to detect by one or more of radar, visual, sonar, and infrared methods.
These techniques borrow from stealth aircraft technology, although some aspects such as wake and acoustic signature reduction (Acoustic quieting) are unique to stealth ships' design. Though radar cross-section (RCS) reduction is a fairly new concept many other forms of masking a ship have existed for centuries or even millennia.Stealth technology
Stealth technology, also termed low observable technology (LO technology), is a sub-discipline of military tactics and passive and active electronic countermeasures, which covers a range of methods used to make personnel, aircraft, ships, submarines, missiles, satellites, and ground vehicles less visible (ideally invisible) to radar, infrared, sonar and other detection methods. It corresponds to military camouflage for these parts of the electromagnetic spectrum (i.e., multi-spectral camouflage).
Development of modern stealth technologies in the United States began in 1958, where earlier attempts to prevent radar tracking of its U-2 spy planes during the Cold War by the Soviet Union had been unsuccessful. Designers turned to developing a specific shape for planes that tended to reduce detection by redirecting electromagnetic radiation waves from radars. Radiation-absorbent material was also tested and made to reduce or block radar signals that reflect off the surfaces of aircraft. Such changes to shape and surface composition comprise stealth technology as currently used on the Northrop Grumman B-2 Spirit "Stealth Bomber".The concept of stealth is to operate or hide while giving enemy forces no indication as to the presence of friendly forces. This concept was first explored through camouflage to make an object's appearance blend into the visual background. As the potency of detection and interception technologies (radar, infrared searching and tracking, surface-to-air missiles, etc.) have increased, so too has the extent to which the design and operation of military personnel and vehicles have been affected in response. Some military uniforms are treated with chemicals to reduce their infrared signature. A modern stealth vehicle is designed from the outset to have a chosen spectral signature. The degree of stealth embodied in a given design is chosen according to the projected threats of detection.Type 052D destroyer
The Type 052D destroyer (NATO/OSD Luyang III-class destroyer) is a class of guided missile destroyers in the Chinese People's Liberation Army Navy Surface Force. The Type 052D is a larger variant of the Type 052C; the Type 052D uses a canister-type, instead of revolver-type, vertical launching system (VLS) and has flat-panelled active electronically scanned array (AESA) radar. The new VLS is not limited to anti-air missiles, making the Type 052D China's first dedicated multi-role destroyer.Chinese media informally calls the Type 052D the Chinese Aegis, portraying it as a peer of contemporary United States Navy ships equipped with the Aegis Combat System. The appearance of the Type 052D, with flat-panelled radar and canister-based VLS, has encouraged the moniker's use.Type 730 CIWS
The Type 730 is a Chinese seven-barrelled 30 mm Gatling gun CIWS. It has a PLA-N designation H/PJ12. It is mounted in an enclosed automatic turret and directed by radar, and electro-optical tracking systems. The maximum rate of fire is 5800 rd/m, and the effective range is up to 3 km.Vertical launching system
A vertical launching system (VLS) is an advanced system for holding and firing missiles on mobile naval platforms, such as surface ships and submarines. Each vertical launch system consists of a number of cells, which can hold one or more missiles ready for firing. Typically, each cell can hold a number of different types of missiles, allowing the ship flexibility to load the best set for any given mission. Further, when new missiles are developed, they are typically fitted to the existing vertical launch systems of that nation, allowing existing ships to use new types of missiles without expensive rework. When the command is given, the missile flies straight up long enough to clear the cell and the ship, and then turns on course.
A VLS allows surface combatants to have a greater number of weapons ready for firing at any given time compared to older launching systems such as the Mark 13 single-arm and Mark 26 twin-arm launchers, which were fed from behind by a magazine below the main deck. In addition to greater firepower, VLS is much more damage tolerant and reliable than the previous systems, and has a lower radar cross-section (RCS). The U.S. Navy now relies exclusively on VLS for its guided missile destroyers and cruisers.
The most widespread vertical launch system in the world is the Mark 41, developed by the United States Navy. More than 11,000 Mark 41 VLS missile cells have been delivered, or are on order, for use on 186 ships across 19 ship classes, in 11 navies around the world. This system currently serves with the US Navy as well as the Australian, Danish, Dutch, German, Japanese, New Zealand, Norwegian, South Korean, Spanish, and Turkish navies, while others like the Greek Navy preferred the similar Mark 48 system.The advanced Mark 57 vertical launch system is used on the new Zumwalt-class destroyer. The older Mark 13 and Mark 26 systems remain in service on ships that were sold to other countries such as Taiwan and Poland.
When installed on an SSN (nuclear-powered attack submarine), a VLS allows a greater number and variety of weapons to be deployed, compared with using only torpedo tubes.YJ-18
The YJ-18 (Chinese: 鹰击-18; pinyin: yingji-18; literally: 'eagle strike 18', NATO designation CH-SS-NX-13) is a Chinese family of anti-ship and land attack cruise missiles.
* = Under construction or procurement, CG= Classified as guided missile cruiser by NATO