Tynwald Day

Tynwald Day (Manx: Laa Tinvaal) is the National Day of the Isle of Man, usually observed on 5 July (if this is a Saturday or Sunday, then on the following Monday).[1]

On this day, the Island's legislature, Tynwald, meets at St John's, instead of its usual meeting place in Douglas. The session is held partly in the Royal Chapel of St John the Baptist and partly in the open air on the adjacent Tynwald Hill (a small artificial mound). The meeting, the first recorded instance of which dates to 1417, is known as Midsummer Court. It is attended by members of the two branches of Tynwald: the House of Keys, and the Legislative Council. The Lieutenant Governor, the representative of the Lord of Mann, presides except on the occasions when the Lord of Mann or another member of the British Royal Family is present.

All bills that have received Royal Assent are promulgated on Tynwald Day; any Act of Tynwald which is not so promulgated within 18 months of passage ceases to have effect. Other proceedings include the presentation of petitions and the swearing in of certain public officials.

Tynwald Day
Tynwald Hill before the Tynwald Day proceedings
Observed byIsle of Man
Date5 July (if this is a Saturday or Sunday: the following Monday)


Since the first recorded Tynwald Day in 1417, Tynwald Day had traditionally been held on 24 June, which is the feast day of St John the Baptist and also Midsummer's Day. In 1753, the Isle of Man legislated to replace the Julian Calendar with the Gregorian Calendar after Great Britain had done so in the previous year: making a difference of 11 days. But the legislation retained the Julian Calendar for the purpose of determining Tynwald Day: it provided that "Midsummer Tynwald Court shall be holden and kept ... upon or according to the same natural Days upon or according to which the same should have been so kept or holden ... in case this Act had never been made." Hence Tynwald Day occurred on 24 June in the Julian Calendar, but on 5 July according to the Gregorian Calendar. It was not subsequently moved back to 7 July, even though the Gregorian Calendar is now 13 days ahead of the Julian Calendar as the Gregorian Calendar had no leap day in 1800 or 1900. If Tynwald Day occurs on a Saturday or Sunday, it is normally commemorated on the next Monday, as happened in 2008 and 2009.


Midsummer Courts were sometimes presided over personally by the Lords of Mann, but more often by his representatives, as the Lords of Mann were often British aristocrats or monarchs who were not resident in the island. After the Duke of Atholl presided in 1736, over two centuries passed before a Lord of Mann participated in Tynwald Day ceremonies. George VI presided in 1946; his successor Elizabeth II presided in 1979 (the millennial anniversary of Tynwald's establishment) and again in 2003. Occasionally another member of the Royal Family may preside, as HRH The Prince Edward did in 1986, and HRH The Prince of Wales did in 2000.

Flag of the Isle of Mann
National flag of the Isle of Man

The Lieutenant Governor is preceded by the Sword-Bearer, who wears a scarlet uniform and bears the Sword of State. The Sword of State probably dates from the 15th century, and may have been made for Sir John Stanley. The Sword, which is blunt for the sake of safety, displays the Manx triskelion (the traditional "three legs" symbol which also appears on the Manx flag).

Members of the House of Keys and of the Legislative Council are also in attendance. The Speaker of the House of Keys wears a wig and black robes with gold decorations. The President of Tynwald wears a wig and blue robes with silver decorations. The President's robes also display the triskelion.

The Isle of Man's highest judicial officers, the Deemsters, participate in the ceremony, wearing scarlet robes and long wigs. There are currently three Deemsters, including the First and Second Deemster. Their office is of great antiquity, as is reflected by the curious phraseology of their ancient oath, during which they promise to "execute the laws of this isle justly … betwixt party and party, as indifferently as the herring's backbone doth lie in the midst of the fish."

Some individuals are invited to attend as Guests of Honour. Guests of Honour include representatives of the United Kingdom and of other nations, usually including the Republic of Ireland and some Scandinavian countries. In recent years, Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland have sent separate representatives, in addition to those for the United Kingdom. Notable guests in recent years have included: The Lord Waddington (1998), The Lord Williams of Mostyn (1999), Dr Rory O'Hanlon (1999/2005), Senator Liam T. Cosgrave (2002), HM The King of Norway (2002), The Lord Steel of Aikwood (2002), The Rt Hon. Jack McConnell and the British Lord Chancellor Charles Falconer, Baron Falconer of Thoroton (2003).

Other participants include clergymen, leaders of local governments and several other officials, including all the State Officials of the Isle of Man. All participants wear bollan bane, otherwise known as mugwort. Detachments and bands from the Constabulary and the military also take part in the ceremony, which is also attended by members of the general public.

The ceremony is coordinated by the Tynwald Ceremony Arrangements Committee. The President of Tynwald is the ex officio chairman; the Committee's other members include the Speaker of the House of Keys and the Chief Minister. Recently, a Tynwald Settings Enhancements Sub-Committee was constituted to improve Tynwald Day celebrations; the President and Speaker both serve on it, with the former serving as chairman.


Before Tynwald sits, the individual presiding inspects the Guard of honour and lays a wreath at the National War Memorial, which was inaugurated in 1923. A foreign head of state attending the ceremony may accompany the Lieutenant Governor, as HM The King of Norway did in 2002.

At eleven o'clock, Tynwald convenes in the Chapel of St John the Baptist for a religious service. Thereafter, they proceed to the adjacent Tynwald Hill. The path is strewn with rushes; the tradition is traceable to the Celtic custom of propitiating the sea god Manannan by offering bundles of rushes on Midsummer's Eve. The path is lined with numerous flagpoles, which fly both the red national flag and the blue parliamentary flag.

The first procession includes clergymen and certain government officials. The second procession, known as the Tynwald Court Procession, follows; in order, it comprises the officers of the House of Keys, the members of the House of Keys, the Chief Minister of the Isle of Man, the Speaker of the House of Keys, a messenger of the House of Keys, officers of the Legislative Council, members of the Legislative Council, the Attorney General, the Deemsters, the Bishop of Sodor and Man, the President of Tynwald and a messenger of the Legislative Council. Thereafter, two guards, the Sword-bearer, the Presiding Officer and the Lieutenant Governor (if not presiding).

Dr John Clague described the procession as such in his 1911 book Cooinaghtyn Manninagh (Manx Reminiscences)

Er Laa Tin Vaal ta sleih cheet voish dy chooilley ard jeh Mannin dy chlashtyn ny slattyssyn focklit magh. Ta ny shenn tosheeyioarree livrey ny slattyn oc da'n Chiannoort, as ta'n chied vriw loo ny feallagh noa stiagh. Eisht ta dy chooilley hoshiagh-jioarey gliooney sheese roish yn Chiannoort, as goaill yn tlat echey veih laueyn yn Chiannoort. Ta toshiaghjioarey Glenfaba lhaih ny slattyssyn ayns Gaelg.

On Tynwald Day people come from every part of the Isle of Man to hear the laws pronounced. The old coroners deliver their rods to the Governor, and the first Deemster swears the new coroners in. Then every coroner kneels down before the Governor, and takes his rod from the hands of the Governor. The coroner of Glenfaba reads the laws in Manx.

(Glenfaba is the sheading in which St John's is situated.)

Tynwald Hill

Tynwald Hill
Tynwald Hill, Isle of Man
"Turnwake, with figures at base of flagpole" - is Tynwald Hill, Isle of Man (26966343094)
Tynwald mound in the late 19th or early 20th century

The main ceremonies of the day take place on Tynwald Hill, known in the Manx language as Cronk-y-Keeillown, or the Hill of the Church of John, in the village of St John's. This mound is said to include soil from all 17 of the Island's parishes. The mound, approximately 12 feet (3.7 metres) in height, includes four circular platforms, which are of successively decreasing size, thereby giving Tynwald Hill a somewhat conical shape.

The ceremony of proclaiming laws on Tynwald Hill is traceable to the Norse practice of making public proclamations from mounds: Iceland, for example, once used the Lögberg (Law-Rock or Law-Hill) for the same purpose. The origins of the man-made Tynwald Hill are unclear, but it existed by the end of the 14th century. It was used in 1393 for the inauguration of Sir William le Scrope, and again in 1408 for the inauguration of Sir John Stanley, as Lords of Mann. Its first recorded use for the promulgation of laws dates to 24 June 1417, when Sir John Stanley presided.

The Lieutenant Governor, together with the Sword-Bearer and the officers and members of the Legislative Council, occupy the highest level of the Hill; officers and members of the House of Keys occupy the next level. Other officials are accommodated on the lower levels and at the foot of the mound. A tent covers the top platform. The flag of the Isle of Man flies from the flagpole except when the British Sovereign presides, when the Royal Standard flies.

After the Royal Anthem is sung, the First Deemster and Clerk of the Rolls, upon the instruction of the Lieutenant Governor, directs the Coroner of Glenfaba to "fence the Court". The coroner accomplishes the task by declaring, "I fence this Court of Tynwald in the name of our most gracious Sovereign Lady The Queen. I charge that no person do quarrel, brawl or make any disturbance and that all persons do answer to their names when called. I charge this audience to witness this Court is fenced. I charge this audience to witness this Court is fenced. I charge this whole audience to bear witness this Court is now fenced." Yn Lhaihder (the Reader) then repeats the same words in Manx.

After the Court is fenced, the coroners appointed for the coming year take the oath. The Coroners of the six sheadings ascend the Hill in order of precedence (there are now four such Coroners) commencing with the Coroner of Glenfaba and Michael, followed (in a clockwise direction around the Island) by the Coroner of Ayre and Garff, the Coroner of Middle and the Coroner of Rushen. The First Deemster administers the oath to the kneeling coroners: "By that book and by the holy contents thereof and by the wonderful works that God hath miraculously wrought in heaven above and in the earth beneath in six days and seven nights, you shall, without respect of favour or friendship, love or gain, consanguinity or affinity, envy or malice, well and truly execute the office of coroner for each sheading to which you have been appointed for the ensuing year. So help you God." The phrase "wonderful works that God hath miraculously wrought ... in six days and seven nights" alludes to the Book of Genesis. The Coroners then receive ceremonial staves from the Lieutenant Governor.

After the Coroners take the oath, the Lieutenant Governor states, "Learned deemsters, I exhort you to proclaim to the people in ancient form such laws as have been enacted during the past year and which have received the Royal Assent." Each law is promulgated by the First Deemster in English and by the Second Deemster in Manx. The deemsters state the title, and a brief description of the effects, of each act. For example, on Tynwald Day in 2003, one Act was promulgated with the words "Transfer of Deemsters' Functions Act 2003, which transfers certain functions of the deemsters to the Treasury." If an Act of Tynwald is not promulgated within 18 months of receiving the Royal Assent, it ceases to remain valid.

Once the deemsters promulgate the laws, individuals may present petitions for the redress of grievances. Petitions are presented at the foot of Tynwald Hill to the Clerk of Tynwald, who conveys them to the Lieutenant Governor. The petitions are then referred to a committee of Tynwald. Thereafter, after the singing of the first verse of the National Anthem, the Deputy Chief Constable of the Isle of Man Constabulary calls the participants individually off the Hill and they proceed to the Chapel.

Captioning ceremony

Tynwald then reconvenes in the Chapel. While Tynwald conducts substantive business in Douglas, it only participates in the captioning ceremony at St John's. During the ceremony, the Lieutenant Governor, the President of Tynwald and the Speaker of the House of Keys use quills to sign certificates documenting the promulgation of the laws.

Once the captioning of the acts has concluded, the Lieutenant Governor and the Legislative Council withdraw, leaving members of the House of Keys for a session of their house. If there are any bills that have not completed all of their stages in the House of Keys, a member moves "That all Bills and other business before the House remaining unfinished at this date be suspended and continued at the same stage at the first sitting of the House in the next legislative year." This pro forma motion is approved by a voice vote; the House of Keys then adjourns. Even if there remains no unfinished business before it, the House of Keys still meets, but no motion is made, and adjournment is immediate.

After Tynwald Day, Tynwald Court returns to Douglas for three further sittings, normally held on the Tuesday, Wednesday and Thursday following Tynwald Day. If, however, Tynwald Day falls on a Monday, the sittings are not held until the following week. Following these sittings, Tynwald adjourns for the summer, not reconvening until October.

Other celebrations

Traditionally, Tynwald Day was also marked by a fair and market; these customs still continue. In recent years, the Tynwald Settings Enhancements Sub-Committee has introduced several other forms of celebration. Since 2000, the week of Tynwald Day has been commemorated as Manx National Week. Concerts are held in the evening; at the conclusion, the Manx national anthem is played, and a fireworks display is staged.

See also


  1. ^ "Tynwald Day". www.isle-of-man.com. Retrieved 7 January 2014.

Further reading

  • Broderick, George (2003): "Tynwald: A Manx cult-site and institution of pre-Scandinavian origin". Cambrian Medieval Celtic Studies 46 (Winter 2003): 55–94 and in Studeyrys Manninagh (e-journal of the Centre for Manx Studies) No. 4 (2003).

External links


The 1410s decade ran from January 1, 1410, to December 31, 1419.


Year 1417 (MCDXVII) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar.

Archdeacon of Man

The Archdeacon of Man (sometimes incorrectly referred to as Archdeacon of the Isle of Man) is a senior cleric second only to the Bishop of Sodor and Man in the Anglican Diocese of Sodor and Man (which comprises the Isle of Man). This is unusual, as in the Church of England, Deans are usually the senior priests of the diocese. In Sodor and Man, however, the role of the Dean was fulfilled by the Bishop for many years, until becoming distinct again only in October 2011. According to advice given by Her Majesty Queen Elizabeth II, Lord of Mann, the Archdeacon "is the bishop's second in command", and this seniority is reflected, e.g., on Tynwald Day in the Order of the Procession, and by the fact that until 1919 the Archdeacon of Man was an ex officio member of the Legislative Council.

Brian Stowell

Thomas Brian Stowell (6 September 1936 – 18 January 2019) was a Manx radio personality, linguist, physicist and author. He was formerly Yn Lhaihder ("The reader") to the Parliament of the Isle of Man, Tynwald. He is considered one of the primary people behind the revival of the Manx language.

While a student he became fluent in the language, and made tape recordings of its elderly speakers. He became fluent in Irish and used his fluency to translate Irish language courses into Manx use. He has made weekly broadcasts about history and current events for Manx Radio.In 2008, Stowell was awarded the Manx Heritage Foundation's Reih Bleeaney Vanannan ("Manannan's Choice of the Year") award for outstanding contributions to Manx culture. On Tynwald Day 2010, he was awarded the Tynwald Honour, the highest honour that Tynwald can award a citizen.Stowell published Contoyryssyn Ealish ayns Çheer ny Yindyssyn, a Manx translation of Alice's Adventures in Wonderland, in 1990. In March 2006 Stowell's Dunveryssyn yn Tooder-Folley ("The Vampire Murders"), the first recorded full-length novel in Manx, was published.

Culture Vannin

Culture Vannin is the trading name for the Manx Heritage Foundation, established in 1982 by the Isle of Man Government to promote Manx culture, heritage and language. It was rebranded in February 2014, having previously been known as the "Manx Heritage Foundation" (Manx: Undinys Eiraght Vannin), since the former title "held connotations more towards the cultural history of the island" which were not felt to be accurate to the organisation's progressive approach to invigorating Manx culture. Culture Vannin's motto is "Taking our culture forward".


Cursus monuments are Neolithic structures which represent some of the oldest prehistoric monumental structures of the Islands of Britain and Ireland. Relics found within them show that they were built between 3400 and 3000 BC.

Superficially resembling ditches or trenches, they range in length from 50 yards (46 m) to almost 6 miles (9.7 km) and the distance between the parallel earthworks can be up to 100 yards (91 m). Banks at the terminal ends enclose the cursus. Over fifty have been identified via aerial photography while many others have doubtless been obliterated by farming and other subsequent landscaping activities.Examples include the four cursuses at Rudston in Yorkshire, that at Fornham All Saints in Suffolk, the Cleaven Dyke in Perthshire and the Dorset cursus. A notable example is the Stonehenge Cursus, within sight of the more famous stone circle, on land belonging to The National Trust's Stonehenge Landscape.


A deemster (Manx: briw) is a judge in the Isle of Man. The High Court of Justice of the Isle of Man is presided over by a deemster or, in the case of the appeal division of that court, a deemster and the Judge of Appeal. The deemsters also promulgate the Laws on Tynwald Day by reading them out to the people in English and Manx.

In the past, the First and Second Deemsters had ex officio seats in the Legislative Council of the Isle of Man. The Second Deemster was removed from the Council in 1965 and the First Deemster in 1975.There are currently (2017) three full-time Deemsters. These are the First Deemster and Clerk of the Rolls (who is also the Deputy Governor), the Second Deemster, and an additional full-time Deemster. The offices of First Deemster, Second Deemster and Clerk of the Rolls are ancient offices. The offices of First Deemster and Clerk of the Rolls were combined in 1918, and a new office of Deputy Deemster was created in 2002 but abolished in 2009. Additional deemsters, full-time or part-time, may now be appointed; the present full-time additional deemster previously held the office of Deputy Deemster, and additional part-time deemsters (previously called 'Acting Deemsters') are appointed from time to time to hear a particular case.

The current Deemsters (from November 2018) are:

the First Deemster (Manx: Y Chied Vriw) and Clerk of the Rolls (Manx: Cleragh ny Lioaryn), Andrew Corlett

the Second Deemster (Y Nah Vriw), John Needham

Deemster Alastair Montgomerie and

the Judge of Appeal, Geoffrey Tattersall QCThe First Deemster, Second Deemster and Judge of Appeal are appointed by, and hold office during the pleasure of, the Lord of Mann, (acting on the advice of the UK's Secretary of State for Justice). Additional Deemsters are appointed by the Lieutenant Governor on the recommendation of the First Deemster. As ex officio Deputy Governor, the First Deemster acts in place of the Lieutenant Governor in the latter's absence, or during a vacancy in that office.

Unlike judges in the United Kingdom, Deemsters have no security of tenure and thus have no legal protection against dismissal by the government. The process whereby the appointment and removal of Manx judges occur on the formal advice of United Kingdom politicians is seen as an effective alternative.

Donald Gelling

Donald James Gelling CBE CP, CInstSMM (born 5 July 1938) is a Manx former politician, who is a former Chief Minister of the Isle of Man who served two terms as Head of the Government.

House of Keys

The House of Keys (Manx: Yn Kiare as Feed) is the directly elected lower branch of Tynwald, the parliament of the Isle of Man, the other branch being the Legislative Council.


July is the seventh month of the year (between June and August) in the Julian and Gregorian Calendars and the fourth of seven months to have a length of 31 days. It was named by the Roman Senate in honour of Roman general Julius Caesar, it being the month of his birth. Prior to that, it was called Quintilis, being the fifth month of the 10-month calendar.

It is on average the warmest month in most of the Northern hemisphere, where it is the second month of summer, and the coldest month in much of the Southern hemisphere, where it is the second month of winter. The second half of the year commences in July. In the Southern hemisphere, July is the seasonal equivalent of January in the Northern hemisphere.

"Dog days" are considered to begin in early July in the Northern Hemisphere, when the hot sultry weather of summer usually starts. Spring lambs born in late winter or early spring are usually sold before 1 July.

July is the traditional period known as "fence month," the closed season for deer in England. The end of England's High Court of Justice Trinity Term takes place on 31 July. July is also the time in which the elections take place for the Japanese House of Councillors, held every three years and replacing half of its seats.

In Ancient Rome, the festival of Poplifugia was celebrated on 5 July, and Ludi Apollinares was held on 13 July and for several days afterwards. However, these dates do not correspond to the modern Gregorian calendar.

July 5

July 5 is the 186th day of the year (187th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. There are 179 days remaining until the end of the year.

Legislative Council of the Isle of Man

The Legislative Council (Manx: Yn Choonceil Slattyssagh) is the upper chamber of Tynwald, the legislature of the Isle of Man. The abbreviation "LegCo" is often used.It consists of eleven members (MLCs):

Eight members elected by the House of Keys

Three ex officio members:

President of Tynwald, ex officio President of the Legislative Council (casting vote)

Bishop of Sodor and Man

Attorney General for the Isle of Man (non-voting)The MLCs are elected by the members of the House of Keys for a term of five years. Four MLCs retire at a time, and four new MLCs are then elected. An MLC must be at least 21 years old and resident in the Isle of Man. Historically the election procedure has been cumbersome, and on some occasions in recent years the election has required a large number of ballots, stretching over a period of weeks or even months. However the Standing Orders of the House of Keys regarding the election of MLCs were amended on 4 April 2017, and a relevant Guidance Note was issued by the Speaker of the House of Keys in June 2017. In 2018, only one ballot was required, although some feel that that was at the cost of allowing members to vote for an excessive number of candidates (one member voted for 13 candidates out of 15 and another for 11).Historically, most or all elected MLCs were former MHKs, but this practice has now much reduced or ceased.

Formerly, the Lieutenant Governor presided over the Legislative Council and over Tynwald Court (a joint session of the Council and the House of Keys). Now, however, the President of Tynwald, who is chosen by the whole Tynwald for a five-year term, is the ex officio President of the Legislative Council, and presides over both the Legislative Council and Tynwald Court, except that the Lieutenant Governor presides once a year on Tynwald Day.

Furthermore, the Church of England Bishop of Sodor and Man and the Attorney General have seats on the Legislative Council. The Bishop is a voting member, the Attorney General is a non-voting member, and the President has the casting vote.

The Council does not usually originate legislation (until recently the last Act originating from the Council was the Sharing of Church Buildings Act 1986). Instead, it reviews draft legislation originating from the House of Keys. However, it is possible for legislation to originate in the Council: a recent example is the Equality Act 2017.


Mugwort is a common name for several species of aromatic plants in the genus Artemisia. In Europe, mugwort most often refers to the species Artemisia vulgaris, or common mugwort. While other species are sometimes referred to by more specific common names, they may be called simply "mugwort" in many contexts.

Public holidays in the Isle of Man

This is a list of public holidays on the Isle of Man.

St John's, Isle of Man

St John's (Manx: Balley Keeill Eoin) is a small village in the sheading of Glenfaba in the Isle of Man, in the island's central valley. It is in the House of Keys constituency of Glenfaba & Peel, which elects two MHKs.

State officials of the Isle of Man

The following State Officials (not in order of precedence) are some of the most important in the Isle of Man. They take place in the annual Tynwald Day procession and have precedence or importance at other occasions.

Lord of Mann

Lieutenant Governor of the Isle of Man (representative of the Lord of Mann)

Yn Lhaihder (The Reader)

First Deemster and Clerk of the Rolls - Head of the Judiciary and Deputy Governor

Second Deemster

Deputy Deemster

Attorney General

High Bailiff

Deputy High Bailiff

President of Tynwald

Speaker of the House of Keys

Members of the House of Keys

Clerk of Tynwald

Chaplain of the House of Keys

Members of Legislative Council

Clerk of the Legislative Council

Chief Minister

Minister of Agriculture, Fisheries and Forestry

Minister of Education

Minister of Health and Social Security

Minister of Home Affairs

Minister of Local Government and the Environment

Minister of Tourism and Leisure

Minister of Trade and Industry

Minister of Transport

Minister of the Treasury

Bishop of Sodor and Man

Vicar General


Tynwald Minister

Senior Salvation Army Officer

Ministers of the Free Churches

Chair of the Isle of Man District of the Methodist Church

Roman Catholic Dean

Beneficed clergy

Coroner of Glenfaba and Michael

Coroner of Ayre and Garff

Coroner of Middle

Coroner of Rushen

Chief Secretary

Chief Registrar

Chief Constable

Deputy Chief Constable

Mayor of Douglas

Chairmen of the Town and Village Commissioners

Captains of Parishes

Sword of State (Isle of Man)

The Manx Sword of State is a ceremonial sword that represents the Tynwald on the Isle of Man. It represents the duties of the Sovereign of the Isle of Man, and is used every month in Tynwald, and annually during the Tynwald Day ceremony. There have been three swords used for such functions over the years. One is used for the ceremonies; one is housed in a museum; the other was lost in the 18th century. The Sword of State is popularly said to date to the mid 13th century, however it is not unlike 15th-century ceremonial swords used in England, and recent analysis dates it to the 15th century as well.

Sword of state

A sword of state is a sword, used as part of the regalia, symbolizing the power of a monarch to use the might of the state against its enemies, and his duty to preserve thus right and peace.

It is known to be used in following monarchies:

Reichsschwert of the Holy Roman Empire, see Imperial Sword

Kingdom of Denmark, see Danish crown regalia

Joyeuse, used for the sacre of the king of France. Reputed to be the sword of Charlemagne.

Kingdom of Hungary

Kingdom of Bohemia (Czech Republic) – Sword of Saint Wenceslas

Kingdom of England, later Great Britain, yet later United Kingdom see Crown Jewels of the United Kingdom

Kingdom of the Netherlands, see Dutch Royal Regalia (made in 1840 for enthronements)

Kingdom of Norway, see Regalia of Norway

Kingdom of Scotland, see Honours of Scotland

Kingdom of Sweden, see Swedish Royal Regalia, where it is the oldest of the Vasa regalia

Kingdom of Poland – Szczerbiec, Grunwald Swords, Sigismundus Iustus

Kingdom of Mysore – Chikka Devaraja Wodeyar, ending with the Krishnaraja Wodeyar II

Kingdom of Thailand or Siam- the Sword of Victory, one of the five Regalia of Thailand.

The former Kingdom of the Isle of Man (now a British Crown dependency), bearing the triskelion symbol, annually used on Tynwald Day

Empire of Russia, see Regalia of the Russian tsars

The Kingdom of Georgia

Shangfang Baojian (simplified Chinese: 尚方宝剑; traditional Chinese: 尚方寶劍) of Chinese dynasties from Han dynasty to Ming dynasty

The Eodo of Taejo of Joseon Dynasty, Korea

The Sword of Osman, given to Sultans of the Ottoman Empire;

Kusanagi, kept by the Emperor of Japan;

In the former sultanate of the Maldives, being invested on the Monarch in a traditional gong ceremony

Also in the Malay world, notably in

the sultanate of Perak, where it gave the name to a 'national' order of knighthood

Sarawak (on Borneo)By analogy, it can even be used in republics, as in the Senate of the state of South Carolina in the United States of America.


Tynwald (Manx: Tinvaal), or more formally, the High Court of Tynwald (Manx: Ard-whaiyl Tinvaal) or Tynwald Court, is the legislature of the Isle of Man. It claims to be the oldest continuous parliamentary body in the world. It consists of two chambers, known as the branches of Tynwald: the directly elected House of Keys and the indirectly chosen Legislative Council. When the two chambers meet together once a month, they become Tynwald Court.

The chambers sit jointly, on Tynwald Day at St John's for largely ceremonial purposes, and usually once a month in the Legislative Buildings in Douglas. Otherwise, the two chambers sit separately, with the House of Keys originating most legislation, and the Legislative Council acting as a revising chamber.

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