Tyne and Wear (/ˌtaɪn ... ˈwɪər/) is a metropolitan county in the North East region of England around the mouths of the rivers Tyne and Wear. It came into existence in 1974 after the passage of the Local Government Act 1972. It consists of the five metropolitan boroughs of South Tyneside, North Tyneside, City of Newcastle upon Tyne, Gateshead and City of Sunderland. It is bounded on the east by the North Sea, and has borders with Northumberland to the north and County Durham to the south.
Prior to the 1974 reforms, the territory now covered by the county of Tyne and Wear straddled the border between the counties of Northumberland and Durham, the border being marked by the river Tyne; that territory also included five county boroughs.
Tyne and Wear County Council was abolished in 1986, and so its districts (the metropolitan boroughs) are now unitary authorities. However, the metropolitan county continues to exist in law and as a geographic frame of reference, and as a ceremonial county.
|Tyne and Wear|
|Sovereign state||United Kingdom|
|Region||North East England|
(Local Government Act 1972) Created from the five county boroughs within Northumberland (North of Tyne) and County Durham (South of Tyne)
|High Sheriff||Mrs Catherine Moran OBE  (2019–20)|
|Area||538 km2 (208 sq mi)|
|• Ranked||44th of 48|
|Population (mid-2017 est.)||1,129,500|
|• Ranked||16th of 48|
|Density||2,091/km2 (5,420/sq mi)|
91.49% White British
1.98% Other White
|Area||538 km2 (208 sq mi)|
Districts of Tyne and Wear
|Members of Parliament|
|Time zone||Greenwich Mean Time (UTC)|
|• Summer (DST)||British Summer Time (UTC+1)|
The Local Government Act 1888 constituted Newcastle upon Tyne, Gateshead and Sunderland as county boroughs (Newcastle had "county corporate" status as the "County and Town of Newcastle upon Tyne" since 1400). Tynemouth joined them in 1904. Between the county boroughs, various other settlements also formed part of the administrative counties of Durham and of Northumberland.
The need to reform local government on Tyneside was recognised by the government as early as 1935, when a Royal Commission to Investigate the Conditions of Local Government on Tyneside was appointed. The three commissioners were to
examine the system of local government in the areas of local government north and south of the river Tyne from the sea to the boundary of the Rural District of Castle Ward and Hexham in the County of Northumberland and to the Western boundary of the County of Durham, to consider what changes, if any, should be made in the existing arrangements with a view to securing greater economy and efficiency, and to make recommendations.
The report of the Royal Commission, published in 1937, recommended the establishment of a Regional Council for Northumberland and Tyneside (to be called the "Northumberland Regional Council") to administer services that needed to be exercised over a wide area, with a second tier of smaller units for other local-government purposes. The second-tier units would form by amalgamating the various existing boroughs and districts. The county boroughs in the area would lose their status. Within this area, a single municipality would be formed covering the four county boroughs of Newcastle, Gateshead, Tynemouth, South Shields and other urban districts and boroughs.
A minority report proposed amalgamation of Newcastle, Gateshead, Wallsend, Jarrow, Felling, Gosforth, Hebburn and Newburn into a single "county borough of Newcastle-on-Tyneside". The 1937 proposals never came into operation: local authorities could not agree on a scheme and the legislation of the time did not allow central government to compel one.
Tyneside (excluding Sunderland) was a Special Review Area under the Local Government Act 1958. The Local Government Commission for England came back with a recommendation to create a new county of Tyneside based on the review area, divided into four separate boroughs. This was not implemented. The Redcliffe-Maud Report proposed a Tyneside unitary authority, again excluding Sunderland, which would have set up a separate East Durham unitary authority.
The White Paper that led to the Local Government Act 1972 proposed as "area 2" a metropolitan county including Newcastle and Sunderland, extending as far south down the coast as Seaham and Easington, and bordering "area 4" (which would become Cleveland). The Bill as presented in November 1971 pruned back the southern edge of the area, and gave it the name "Tyneside". The name "Tyneside" proved controversial on Wearside, and a government amendment changed the name to "Tyne and Wear" at the request of Sunderland County Borough Council.
|Metropolitan county||Metropolitan borough||County boroughs||Non-county boroughs||Urban districts||Rural districts|
|Gateshead||Gateshead||-||Blaydon • Felling • Ryton • Whickham||Chester-le-Street|
|Newcastle upon Tyne||Newcastle upon Tyne||-||Gosforth • Newburn||Castle Ward|
|North Tyneside||Tynemouth||Wallsend • Whitley Bay||Longbenton • Seaton Valley||-|
|South Tyneside||South Shields||Jarrow||Boldon • Hebburn||-|
|Sunderland||Sunderland||-||Washington • Houghton-le-Spring • Hetton-le-Hole||Easington|
Although the metropolitan county council was abolished in 1986, several joint bodies exist to run certain services on a county-wide basis. Most notable is the Tyne and Wear Passenger Transport Authority, which co-ordinates transport policy. Through its passenger transport executive, known as Nexus, it owns and operates the Tyne and Wear Metro light rail system, and the Shields ferry service and the Tyne Tunnel, linking communities on either side of the River Tyne. Also through Nexus, the authority subsidises socially necessary transport services (including taxis) and operates a concessionary fares scheme for the elderly and disabled. The Passenger Transport Authority is a "precepting authority", raising funds by imposing a levy on the Council Tax of the five constituent authorities of Tyne and Wear. In April 2014 Nexus became an executive body of the new North East Combined Authority.
Other joint bodies include the Tyne and Wear Fire and Rescue Service and Tyne & Wear Archives & Museums, which was created from the merger of the Tyne and Wear Archives Service and Tyne and Wear Museums. These joint bodies are administered by representatives of all five of the constituent councils. In addition the Northumbria Police force, which covers the whole of Northumberland and Tyne and Wear, is one of several joint forces in England spanning two or more counties. The force was created in 1974, and so is not a by-product of the abolition of the county council.
Tyne and Wear either has or closely borders two official Met Office stations, neither located in one of the major urban centres. The locations for those are in marine Tynemouth where Tyne meets the North Sea east of Newcastle and inland Durham in County Durham around 20 kilometres (12 mi) south-west of Sunderland. There are some clear differences between the stations temperature and precipitation patterns even though both have a cool-summer and mild-winter oceanic climate.
Tyne and Wear contains green belt interspersed throughout the county, mainly on the fringes of the Tyneside/Wearside conurbation. There is also an inter-urban line of belt helping to keep the districts of South Tyneside, Gateshead, and Sunderland separated. It was first drawn up from the 1950s. All the county's districts contain some portion of belt.
Tyne and Wear is divided into 13 Parliamentary constituencies. Historically, the area has been a Labour stronghold; South Shields is the only Parliamentary constituency that has never returned a Conservative Member of Parliament (MP) to the House of Commons since the Reform Act of 1832.
|General Election 2010 : Tyne and Wear|
|Labour||Liberal Democrats||Conservative||BNP||UKIP||Others||Green||National Front||Trade Union & Socialist||Christian Party||Turnout|
|Overall Number of seats as of 2010|
|Labour||Liberal Democrats||Conservative||BNP||UKIP||Others||Green||National Front||Trade Union & Socialist||Christian Party|
At the level of local government, three of the region's five unitary authorities were controlled by Labour in 2005, the exceptions being Newcastle City Council and North Tyneside Council. Since an upset result in the local elections of 2004, the former has been controlled by the Liberal Democrats. No one party has overall control of North Tyneside Council: while the Conservatives hold the greatest number of seats, 28, they lack an overall majority, there are 32 other councillors. North Tyneside is the only authority in the area with a directly elected Mayor. Currently a Labour member.
Italics indicate the district centre. For a complete list of all villages, towns and cities see the list of places in Tyne and Wear.
|Metropolitan Borough of Gateshead||Gateshead
||Gateshead Metropolitan Borough Council|
|City of Newcastle upon Tyne||Newcastle upon Tyne
Newcastle upon Tyne - city centre
|Newcastle upon Tyne City Council|
|Metropolitan Borough of North Tyneside||Wallsend
||North Tyneside Metropolitan Borough Council|
|Metropolitan Borough of South Tyneside||South Shields
||South Tyneside Metropolitan Borough Council|
|City of Sunderland||Sunderland
|Sunderland City Council|
http://webarchive.nationalarchives.gov.uk/20160113082209/http://www.ons.gov.uk/ons/guide-method/geography/beginner-s-guide/glossary/ons-geography-glossary.pdf updated version of the document in the broken link, I assume
Durham/Northumberland 1 is an English Rugby Union league at the seventh tier of the domestic competition, the top level for local rugby union in North East England. The champions are automatically promoted to North 1 East, a division with a wider geographical area which also encompasses Yorkshire. The runners up participates in a playoff against the 2nd place team from the equivalent regional league, Yorkshire 1, for promotion to North 1 East. The bottom two clubs are relegated to Durham/Northumberland 2.
Each season two teams from Durham/Northumberland 1 are picked to take part in the RFU Intermediate Cup (a national competition for clubs at level 7) - one affiliated with the Durham County RFU, the other with the Northumberland RFU.Durham/Northumberland 2
Durham/Northumberland 2 is an English Rugby Union league at the eighth tier of the domestic competition for teams from North East England. The champions and runner-up and promoted to Durham/Northumberland 1 and the bottom two clubs are relegated to Durham/Northumberland 3. Each season two teams from Durham/Northumberland 2 are picked to take part in the RFU Senior Vase (a national competition for clubs at level 8) - one affiliated with the Durham County RFU, the other with the Northumberland RFU.Hadrian's Wall
Hadrian's Wall (Latin: Vallum Aelium), also called the Roman Wall, Picts' Wall, or Vallum Hadriani in Latin, was a defensive fortification in the Roman province of Britannia, begun in AD 122 in the reign of the emperor Hadrian. It ran from the banks of the River Tyne near the North Sea to the Solway Firth on the Irish Sea, and was the northern limit of the Roman Empire, immediately north of which were the lands of the northern Ancient Britons, including the Picts.
It had a stone base and a stone wall. There were milecastles with two turrets in between. There was a fort about every five Roman miles. From north to south, the wall comprised a ditch, wall, military way and vallum, another ditch with adjoining mounds. It is thought the milecastles were staffed with static garrisons, whereas the forts had fighting garrisons of infantry and cavalry. In addition to the wall's defensive military role, its gates may have been customs posts.A significant portion of the wall still stands and can be followed on foot along the adjoining Hadrian's Wall Path. The largest Roman archaeological feature anywhere, it runs a total of 73 miles (117.5 kilometres) in northern England. Regarded as a British cultural icon, Hadrian's Wall is one of Britain's major ancient tourist attractions. It was designated as a UNESCO World Heritage Site in 1987. In comparison, the Antonine Wall, thought by some to be based on Hadrian's wall (the Gillam hypothesis), was not declared a World Heritage site until 2008.It is a common misconception that Hadrian's Wall marks the boundary between England and Scotland. In fact Hadrian's Wall lies entirely within England and has never formed the Anglo-Scottish border. While it is less than 0.6 mi (1.0 km) south of the border with Scotland in the west at Bowness-on-Solway, in the east at Wallsend it is as much as 68 miles (109 km) away.High Sheriff of Tyne and Wear
Below is a complete list of High Sheriffs of Tyne and Wear since the creation of that county in 1974.Jarrow
Jarrow ( or ) is a town in north-east England, located on the River Tyne. Historically part of County Durham, in 1974 it became part of the metropolitan county of Tyne and Wear.
In the eighth century, the monastery of Saint Paul in Jarrow (now Monkwearmouth–Jarrow Abbey) was the home of Bede, who is regarded as the greatest Anglo-Saxon scholar and the father of English history. From the middle of the 19th century until 1935, Jarrow was a centre for shipbuilding, and was the starting point of the Jarrow March against unemployment in 1936. Jarrow had a population of 43,431 in 2011.Jordan Henderson
Jordan Brian Henderson (born 17 June 1990) is an English professional footballer who captains Premier League club Liverpool and plays for the England national team. He is usually deployed as a central midfielder for both club and country.
Henderson began his career at Sunderland in 2008, with a loan spell at Coventry City in 2009, before moving to Liverpool in 2011. He became captain of Liverpool in 2015 following the departure of Steven Gerrard. He captained the club to victory in the 2019 UEFA Champions League Final.
In 2010, Henderson won his first cap for England, having previously played for and captained the under-21 team. He has represented the country at UEFA Euro 2012 and 2016, and the 2014 and 2018 FIFA World Cups.List of Sites of Special Scientific Interest in Tyne and Wear
There are 37 Sites of Special Scientific Interest (SSSIs) in Tyne and Wear, England. In England, the body responsible for designating SSSIs is Natural England, which chooses sites because of their flora, fauna, geological or physiographical features. Natural England took over the role of designating and managing SSSIs from English Nature in October 2006 when it was formed from the amalgamation of English Nature, parts of the Countryside Agency and the Rural Development Service. Natural England, like its predecessor, uses the 1974–1996 county system with each area being called an Area of Search.Tyne and Wear is made up of five administrative local authorities consisting mainly of the two largest cities in the region: Newcastle-upon-Tyne and Sunderland, thus making it the sixth largest conurbation in the United Kingdom. Tyne and Wear shares its borders with Northumberland and County Durham, to the north and south respectively.List of places in Tyne and Wear
Map of villages in Tyne & Wear compiled from this list
See the list of places in England for places in other counties.This is a list of cities, towns and villages in the ceremonial county of Tyne and Wear, England.Lord Lieutenant of Tyne and Wear
This is a complete list of people who have served as Lord Lieutenant of Tyne and Wear, since the creation of the county on 1 April 1974:
James Steel (1 April 1974 to 1984)
Sir Ralph Carr-Ellison (1984 to 2000)
Sir Nigel Sherlock (2000 to 2015)
Susan Margaret Winfield (2015 to present)Newcastle railway station
Newcastle railway station (also known as Newcastle Central Station) is on the East Coast Main Line in the United Kingdom, serving the city of Newcastle upon Tyne, Tyne and Wear. It is 268.633 miles (432.323 km) down the line from London King's Cross and on the main line it is situated between Chester-le-Street to the south and Manors to the north. Its three-letter station code is NCL.
Opened in 1850, it is a Grade I listed building and is located in the city centre at the southern edge of Grainger Town and to the west of the Castle Keep. It is a nationally important transport hub, being both a terminus and through-station on the main line between London and Edinburgh, the Durham Coast Line to Middlesbrough and Nunthorpe also the Tyne Valley Line to Carlisle via Hexham. It is also served by the adjoining Central Station on the Tyne and Wear Metro. As of September 2017, the main line station is managed by London North Eastern Railway.All London North Eastern Railway services between London and Edinburgh stop at Newcastle. CrossCountry supplements services to Scotland, and operates trains southbound to the South West and South Coast of England via Birmingham and the wider Midlands region; trains reach as far as Penzance and Southampton Central. The station is also a terminus for TransPennine Express, which connects Newcastle to Liverpool Lime Street, via Leeds and Manchester Victoria, with some services also running to Manchester Airport.
Northern variously combines three routes out of Newcastle in order to provide both terminating and through services. To the west, trains connect the city to the MetroCentre shopping centre, Hexham and Carlisle with intermittent extensions to Whitehaven, and north to Morpeth on the main line, with extensions to Chathill. To the south east, the Durham Coast Line connects to Sunderland via Heworth and County Durham and Teesside. Important stops include Hartlepool, Stockton, Middlesbrough and Nunthorpe the line is shared with the Tyne and Wear Metro to Sunderland. Additionally, Northern and Abellio ScotRail jointly operate a limited service to Glasgow Central via Carlisle.
Together with the Tyne and Wear Metro and numerous local bus routes, the complex is one of the most important transport hubs in the North East. There are currently two Metro and 12 main line platforms seeing 13 million passengers annually, and in light of increasing patronage the main line station has undergone a major refurbishment to increase retail space and enhance the station environment including the controversial pedestrianisation of the portico.In Britain's 100 Best Railway Stations by Simon Jenkins, the station was one of only ten to be awarded five stars.Southwick, Sunderland
Southwick is a former village and now a suburb on the north banks of the River Wear in the city of Sunderland in the county of Tyne and Wear, historically in County Durham.
Southwick borders with Castletown and Hylton Red House to the west, Monkwearmouth to the east, greenbelt farmland to the north, and the Wear to the south although the Queen Alexandra Bridge links Southwick to Pallion and central Sunderland.
It is home to a police station that services the north of Sunderland. There is a primary school, but no secondary school. Sunderland A.F.C.'s Stadium of Light is visible to the east on the Monkwearmouth side.
Southwick is centered on its village green, a commercial area containing three listed buildings; a World War II war memorial, The Tramcar Inn a public house built in 1906, and a memorial lamp-post built in 1912. 
According to Indices of Deprivation published by the Department of the Environment, Transport and the Regions in 2000, Southwick is the most deprived of the 25 wards in Sunderland, the fifth most deprived in Tyne and Wear, and the fifty-fifth in England. .The Boldons
The Boldons are a group of three small villages in the north east of England - East Boldon, West Boldon and Boldon Colliery - north of Sunderland, east of Newcastle and south of South Shields and Jarrow. They have a population of 13,271.Lying within the historic boundaries of County Durham, the villages are first recorded in print in 1170. Their names evolved from the words "Bold" or "Botl", meaning a building, and "dun", meaning a hill.In 1866, work began sinking a pit that began producing coal in 1869, and was then known as Boldon New Winning. The village that developed nearby in the 1870s became known as Boldon Colliery. When the mine was deepened and extended in the 1910s, further housing to accommodate the workforce was built to the south of the pit in an area known as Boldon New Town.
Until 1974 the area was administered as an urban district of County Durham, but since then has been part of the borough of South Tyneside.
In 1976, the Boldon Colliery Band appeared in episode 13 of the television series When the Boat Comes In. The mine closed in 1982 but more jobs became available when an Asda supermarket opened in 1987. Recent developments include Boldon Business Park. Boldon Colliery also has its own multi-screen cinema operated by Cineworld. The main secondary school in the area is Boldon School, a specialist sports college.Tyne and Wear Fire and Rescue Service
Tyne and Wear Fire and Rescue Service, formerly Tyne and Wear Metropolitan Fire Brigade, is the fire and rescue service for the metropolitan county of Tyne and Wear. The service provides emergency fire cover to the five comprising metropolitan boroughs of Sunderland, Gateshead, Newcastle Upon Tyne, North Tyneside and South Tyneside, serving a population of 1.09 million people and a total geographical area of 538 square kilometres. Tyne and Wear Fire and Rescue Authority is responsible for the running of the service, as well as the publication of performance indicators in accordance with its legal obligations. In April 2017, Chris Lowther was appointed Chief Fire Officer. In November 2018, the service announced proposals to cut frontline operations in order to meet budget requirements imposed by the Government. The proposals are currently under public consultation and members of the public are welcome to complete the consultation survey and attend the remaining meetings, a full list of which can be found at the Tyne and Wear Fire Service website. The public consultation ends in January 2019.Tyne and Wear Metro
The Tyne and Wear Metro, referred to locally as simply the Metro, is a rapid transit and light rail system in North East England, serving Newcastle upon Tyne, Gateshead, South Tyneside, North Tyneside and Sunderland in Tyne and Wear. It has been described as the first modern light rail system in the United Kingdom.The initial network opened between 1980 and 1984, using converted former railway lines, linked with new tunnel infrastructure. Extensions to the original network were opened in 1991 and 2002. Over 36 million passenger journeys were made on the network in 2017/18, which spans 77.5 kilometres (48.2 mi) and has two lines with a total of 60 stations, nine of which are underground. It is the second-largest of the four metro systems in the United Kingdom, after the London Underground; the others being the Docklands Light Railway and the Glasgow Subway.
The system is owned and operated by the local transport authority Nexus. It was operated under contract by DB Regio Tyne & Wear Limited, a subsidiary of Arriva UK Trains, between 2010 and 2017. This contract ended on 1 April 2017, and Nexus took over direct operation of the system for a planned period of two years.Tyne and Wear Passenger Transport Executive
Tyne and Wear PTE (using Nexus as its trading name) is an executive body of the North East Joint Transport Committee and is best known for owning and operating the Tyne and Wear Metro.Tynemouth Castle and Priory
Tynemouth Castle is located on a rocky headland (known as Pen Bal Crag), overlooking Tynemouth Pier. The moated castle-towers, gatehouse and keep are combined with the ruins of the Benedictine priory where early kings of Northumbria were buried. The coat of arms of the town of Tynemouth still includes three crowns commemorating the tradition that the Priory had been the burial place for three kings.Wallsend
Wallsend , historically Wallsend on Tyne, is a town in the metropolitan borough of North Tyneside, North East of England, in the traditional county of Northumberland. Wallsend derives its name as the location of the end of Hadrian's Wall. It has a population of 42,842 and lies 3.5 miles (5.6 kilometres) east of Newcastle City Centre. The population of the Wallsend ward of the North Tyneside Borough was at the 2011 census 10,304.Washington, Tyne and Wear
Washington is a new town in the City of Sunderland local government district of Tyne and Wear, England, and part of historic County Durham. Washington is located geographically at an equal distance from the centres of Newcastle, Durham and Sunderland, hence it has close ties to all three cities.
Washington was designated a new town in 1964 and became part of the City of Sunderland in 1974. It expanded dramatically, by the creation of new villages and the absorption of areas of Chester-le-Street, to house overspill population from surrounding cities.
At the 2011 census, Washington had a population of 67,085, compared to 53,388 in 2001.Whitburn, Tyne and Wear
Whitburn is a village in South Tyneside, on the coast of North East England. It lies within the metropolitan borough of South Tyneside, close to the border with Sunderland, in the ceremonial county of Tyne and Wear. Historically part of County Durham, the village has a population of 5,235.
|Climate data for Tynemouth 33m asl, 1981–2010|
|Average high °C (°F)||7.2
|Average low °C (°F)||2.2
|Average precipitation mm (inches)||45.5
|Mean monthly sunshine hours||61.1||81.6||117.7||149.9||191.7||183.0||185.7||174.9||174.1||106.2||70.4||51.9||1,515|
|Source: Met Office|
|Climate data for Durham, elevation: 102 m (335 ft), 1981–2010 normals, extremes 1850–present|
|Record high °C (°F)||16.7
|Average high °C (°F)||6.6
|Daily mean °C (°F)||3.8
|Average low °C (°F)||0.9
|Record low °C (°F)||−17.2
|Average precipitation mm (inches)||52.3
|Average precipitation days (≥ 1.0 mm)||11.4||9.3||9.7||9.5||9.2||9.7||9.0||9.6||9.3||11.3||12.3||11.7||122.0|
|Mean monthly sunshine hours||58.6||80.3||115.5||150.3||181.7||164.8||172.3||167.3||134.5||102.8||66.4||51.2||1,445.4|
|Source #1: Met Office|
|Source #2: NEForum|
Ceremonial county of Tyne and Wear
North East England Portal
Places in Tyne and Wear
|Metropolitan Borough of Gateshead|
|City of Newcastle upon Tyne|
|Metropolitan Borough of North Tyneside|
|Metropolitan Borough of South Tyneside|
|City of Sunderland|
|Tyne and Wear|
|Teesside, North Yorkshire|
1974–1996 ← Ceremonial counties of England → current