Tyana

Tyana (Ancient Greek: Τύανα; Hittite Tuwanuwa) was an ancient city in the Anatolian region of Cappadocia, in modern Kemerhisar, Niğde Province, Central Anatolia, Turkey. It was the capital of a Luwian-speaking Neo-Hittite kingdom in the 1st millennium BC.

Tyana
Tuwanuwa - Tyana - Kemerhisar
The Roman aqueduct of Tyana
Tyana is located in Turkey
Tyana
Shown within Turkey
LocationKemerhisar, Niğde Province, Turkey
RegionCappadocia
Coordinates37°50′53″N 34°36′40″E / 37.84806°N 34.61111°ECoordinates: 37°50′53″N 34°36′40″E / 37.84806°N 34.61111°E
TypeSettlement
Site notes
ConditionIn ruins

History

Tyana is the city referred to in Hittite archives as Tuwanuwa. During the Hittite Empire period in mid 2nd millennium, Tuwanuwa was among the principal settlements of the region along with Hupisna, Landa, Sahasara, Huwassana and Kuniyawannni.[1] This south-central Anatolian region was referred to as the Lower Land in Hittite sources and its population was mainly Luwian speakers.[2] Following the collapse of the Hittite Empire, Tuwanuwa/Tuwana was a major city of the independent Neo-Hittite kingdoms. It is not certain whether or not it was initially subject to the Tabal kingdom to its north, but certainly by the late 8th century BC it was an independent kingdom under a ruler named Warpalawa (in Assyrian sources Urballa).[3] He figures in several hieroglyphic Luwian inscriptions found in the region, including a monumental rock carving in Ivriz.[4] Warpalawa is also mentioned in Assyrian texts, under the name Urballa, first in a list of tributees of Assyrian king Tiglath Pileser III and later in a letter of Sargon II.[5] Warpalawa was probably succeeded by his son Muwaharani whose name appears in another monument found in Niğde.[6]

Greek and Roman periods

In Greek legend, the city was first called Thoana because Thoas, a Thracian king, was its founder (Arrian, Periplus Ponti Euxini, vi); it was in Cappadocia, at the foot of the Taurus Mountains and near the Cilician Gates (Strabo, XII, 537; XIII, 587).

Xenophon mentions it in his book Anabasis, under the name of Dana, as a large and prosperous city. The surrounding plain was known after it as Tyanitis.

It is the reputed birthplace of the celebrated philosopher (and reputed saint, god, or magician) Apollonius of Tyana in the first century AD. Ovid (Metamorphoses VIII) places the tale of Baucis and Philemon in the vicinity.

According to Strabo the city was known also as "Eusebeia at the Taurus". Under Roman Emperor Caracalla, the city became Antoniana colonia Tyana. After having sided with Queen Zenobia of Palmyra, it was captured by Aurelian in 272, who would not allow his soldiers to sack it, allegedly because Apollonius appeared to him, pleading for its safety.

Late Roman and Byzantine periods

In 372, Emperor Valens split the province of Cappadocia in two, and Tyana became the capital and metropolis of Cappadocia Secunda. In Late Antiquity, the city was also known as Christoupolis (Greek: Χριστούπολις, "city of Christ").[7]

Following the Muslim conquests and the establishment of the frontier between the Byzantine Empire and the Caliphate along the Taurus Mountains, Tyana became important as a military base due to its strategic position on the road to Cilicia and Syria via the Cilician Gates, which lie some 30 km to the south.[7] Consequently, the city was frequently targeted by Muslim raids. The city was first sacked by the Umayyads after a long siege in 708,[7][8] and remained deserted for some time before being rebuilt. It was then occupied by the Abbasid caliph Harun al-Rashid in 806. Harun began converting the city into a military base and even erected a mosque there, but evacuated it after the Byzantine emperor Nikephoros I bought a peace.[9]

The city was again taken and razed by the Abbasids under Al-Abbas ibn al-Ma'mun in 831.[10] Abbas rebuilt the site three years later as an Abbasid military colony in preparation for Caliph al-Ma'mun's planned conquest of Byzantium, but after Ma'mun's sudden death in August 833 the campaign was abandoned by his successor al-Mu'tasim and the half-rebuilt city was razed again.[11]

The city fell into decline after 933, as the Arab threat receded.[7] The ruins of Tyana are at modern Kemerhisar, three miles south of Niğde;[7] there are remains of a Roman aqueduct and of cave cemeteries and sepulchral grottoes.

Ecclesiastical history

As noted, in 372 Emperor Valens created the province of Cappadocia Secunda, of which Tyana became the metropolis. This aroused a violent controversy between Anthimus, Bishop of Tyana, and St. Basil of Caesarea, each of whom wished to have as many suffragan sees as possible. About 640 Tyana had three, and it was the same in the tenth century (Heinrich Gelzer, "Ungedruckte ... Texte der Notitiae episcopatum", 538, 554).

Le Quien (Oriens christianus, I, 395-402) mentions 28 bishops of Tyana, among whom were:

  • Eutychius, at Nice in 325
  • Anthimus, the rival of St. Basil
  • Aetherius, at Constantinople in 381
  • Theodore, the friend of St. John Chrysostom
  • Eutherius, the partisan of Nestorius, deposed and exiled in 431
  • Cyriacus, a Severian Monophysite.

In May 1359, Tyana still had a metropolitan (Mikelosich and Müller, "Acta patriarchatus Constantinopolitani", I, 505); in 1360 the metropolitan of Caesarea secured the administration of it (op. cit., 537). Thenceforth the see was titular.

References

  1. ^ Bryce, Trevor R; 2003. in C. Melchert (ed.) The Luvians. Leiden: Brill Academic Publishers: 47
  2. ^ Singer, Itamar; 1981. Hittites and Hattians in Anatolia at the Beginning of the Second Millennium B.C. Journal of Near Eastern Studies 9: 119-134.
  3. ^ Bryce, Trevor R; 2003. in C. Melchert (ed.) The Luvians. Leiden: Brill Academic Publishers: 97-8
  4. ^ www.hittitemonuments.com/ivriz
  5. ^ Bryce, Trevor R; 2003. in C. Melchert (ed.) The Luvians. Leiden: Brill Academic Publishers: 98
  6. ^ www.hittitemonuments.com/nigde
  7. ^ a b c d e Kazhdan (1991), p. 2130
  8. ^ Treadgold (1988), p. 275–276
  9. ^ Treadgold (1988), p. 145
  10. ^ Treadgold (1997), p. 341
  11. ^ Treadgold (1988), pp. 279–281

Sources

  • Kazhdan, Alexander Petrovich (1991), Oxford Dictionary of Byzantium, New York, New York and Oxford, United Kingdom: Oxford University Press, ISBN 978-0-19-504652-6
  • Treadgold, Warren T. (1988), The Byzantine Revival, 780–842, Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press, ISBN 978-0-8047-1462-4
  • Treadgold, Warren T. (1997), A History of the Byzantine State and Society, Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press, ISBN 978-0-8047-2630-6
  •  This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domainHerbermann, Charles, ed. (1913). "article name needed". Catholic Encyclopedia. New York: Robert Appleton. [1]

External links

Anthimus of Tyana

Anthimus of Tyana was a Christian bishop of the Cappadocian city of Tyana. Tyana increased in prominence when Roman Emperor Valens divided Cappadocia into two provinces and Tyana became the capital of Cappadocian Secundus in 371. This led to the conflict with Basil of Caesarea (the previous capital of the combined Cappadocia), who had only become bishop there in 370, for which Anthimus of Tyana is best known.

Anthimus asserted that the change in his city's political status should be matched with a change in its religious status and declared himself in authority over several Cappadocian towns in his new province which had previously been under Basil's oversight. His success in enforcing these claims within his province was aided by the presence of Arians who did not wish to be under Basil's authority, though the evidence points against Anthimus himself being Arian. The conflict became physical at one point when Basil and his friend Gregory of Nazianzus set out with a mule train to collect supplies from the monastery of St. Orestes, which was under Basil's authority. Some of Anthimus' retainers blocked their path close to St. Orestes, near Sasima, and a scuffle broke out. In 372 as a part of the conflict Basil set up Gregory of Nazianzus as bishop of the small town of Sasima which Anthimus claimed authority over. It was little more than a junction of roads and previously had no bishop. Now it gained a bishop from each side, with Anthimus' choice staying. Likewise Basil made his younger brother Gregory bishop of Nyssa to aid in the conflict. He attempted to establish his authority at Doara by similar means. Basil and Anthimus later settled their differences; Eusebius of Samosata seems to have mediated the conflict and each bishop was accepted as having authority over his own region. At some point in the process Nazianzus was acknowledged to owe its allegiance to Tyana. Before complete peace came to prevail between Anthimus and Basil a new upset emerged with Basil over Anthimus' willingness to accept a candidate named Faustus for installation as a bishop in Armenia. Faustus had first come to Basil and been turned down until such time as Theodotus of Nicopolis and other Armenian bishops could be consulted, but upon turning to Anthimus he received his request.In any case by 375 Gregory considered Anthimus to be in complete agreement with him. Anthimus was described as elderly when this conflict began, and we hear little more of him after its end. The most significant impact of these events was a break in affection between Gregory of Nazianzus and Basil over the pressure Basil had placed on him to take his new role. That break lasted to Basil's death in 379.

Apollonius of Tyana

Apollonius of Tyana (Ancient Greek: Ἀπολλώνιος ὁ Τυανεύς; c. 15 – c. 100 AD), sometimes also called Apollonios of Tyana, was a Greek Neopythagorean philosopher from the town of Tyana in the Roman province of Cappadocia in Anatolia.

Battle of Emesa

The Battle of Emesa was fought in 272 between the Roman armies led by their emperor Aurelian and the Palmyrene forces led by their queen, Zenobia and general Zabdas.

Cybistra

Cybistra or Kybistra (Ancient Greek: τὰ Κύβιστρα) was a town of ancient Cappadocia or Cilicia. Its site is occupied by the modern town of Ereğli in Konya Province, Turkey.Strabo, after mentioning Tyana, says "that not far from it are Castabala and Cybistra, forts which are still nearer to the mountain," by which he means Taurus. Cybistra and Castabala were in that division of Cappadocia which was called Cilicia. Strabo makes it six days' journey from Mazaca to the Pylae Ciliciae, through Tyana, which is about half way; then he makes it 300 stadia, or about two days' journey, from Tyana to Cybistra, which leaves about a day's journey from Cybistra to the Pylae. William Martin Leake observed, "We learn also from the Table that Cybistra was on the road from Tyana to Mazaca, and sixty-four Roman miles from the former." Ptolemy places Cybistra in Cataonia, but he mentions Cyzistra as one of the towns of the Cilicia of Cappadocia, and Mazaca as another. It appears, then, that his Cyzistra corresponds to Strabo's Cybistra, which certainly is not in Cataonia.

When Cicero was proconsul of Cilicia (51/50 BCE), he led his troops southwards towards the Taurus through that part of Cappadocia which borders on Cilicia, and he encamped "on the verge of Cappadocia, not far from Taurus, at a town Cybistra, in order to defend Cilicia, and at the same time hold Cappadocia. Cicero stayed five days at Cybistra, and on hearing that the Parthians were a long way off that entrance into Cappadocia, and were hanging on the borders of Cilicia, he immediately marched into Cilicia through the Pylae of the Taurus, and came to Tarsus. This is quite consistent with Strabo. Whether Cyzistra is really a different place from Cybistra, as some geographers assume, may be doubted.

Dany Verissimo

Dany Verissimo (born 27 June 1982), is a French actress and model. She originally worked from 2001 to 2002 as a pornographic actress under the stage name Ally Mac Tyana before starting a mainstream career. She also uses the name Dany Verissimo-Petit.

Empusa

Empusa or Empousa (Ancient Greek: Ἔμπουσα; plural: Ἔμπουσαι Empousai) is a shape-shifting female being in Greek mythology, said to possess a single leg of copper, commanded by Hecate, whose precise nature is obscure. In Late Antiquity, the empousai has been described as a category of phantoms or spectres, equated with the "lamiai and mormolykeia, thought to seduce and feed on young men.

Faustinopolis

Faustinopolis (also Colonia Faustinopolis and Halala) (Greek: Φαυστινόπολις), was an ancient city in the south of Cappadocia, about 20 km south of Tyana. It was named after the empress Faustina, the wife of Marcus Aurelius, who died there in a village, which her husband, by establishing a colony in it, raised to the rank of a town under the name of Faustinopolis. Hierocles assigns the place to Cappadocia Secunda, and it is mentioned also in the Antonine and Jerusalem Itineraries. The town was close to the defiles of the Cilician Gates, and was likely situated at modern-day Toraman, Niğde Province, Turkey. Following the Muslim conquests and the subsequent Arab raids, the site was abandoned for the nearby fortress of Loulon.

Heraclea Cybistra

Heraclea Cybistra (Ancient Greek: Ἡράκλεια Κύβιστρα), or simply Heraclea or Herakleia (Ἡράκλεια), also transliterated as Heracleia, was a town of ancient Cappadocia or Cilicia; located near modern Ereğli in Konya Province, Turkey). It had some importance in Hellenistic times owing to its position near the point where the road to the Cilician Gates enters the hills. It lay in the way of armies and was more than once sacked by the Arab invaders of Asia Minor (by Harun al-Rashid in 806 and al-Ma'mun in 832). Three hours’ ride south is the famous "Hittite" rock relief of a lynx, representing a king (probably of neighbouring Tyana) adoring a god. This was the first "Hittite" monument discovered in modern times (early 18th century, by the Swede Otter, an emissary of Louis XIV).

Lamia

Lamia (; Greek: Λάμια), in ancient Greek mythology, was a woman who became a child-eating monster after her children were destroyed by Hera, who learned of her husband Zeus' trysts with her. Hera also afflicted Lamia with sleeplessness so she would anguish constantly, but Zeus gave her the ability to remove her own eyes.

"Lamia" was also used as a bogey word to frighten and discipline children.

In later traditions and storytelling, the lamiai became a type of phantom, synonymous with the empusai which seduced youths to satisfy their sexual appetite and fed on their flesh afterward. A fabulous biography of Apollonius of Tyana defeating a lamia seductress has inspired the poem Lamia by Keats.

The lamia has been ascribed serpent-like qualities, which some commentators believe can be firmly traced to mythology from antiquity, and they have found analogues in ancient texts that could be designated as lamiai (or lamiae) which are part-serpent beings. These include the half-woman, half-snake beasts of the "Libyan myth" told by Dio Chrysostom, and the monster sent to Argos by Apollo to avenge Psamathe (Crotopus).

Life of Apollonius of Tyana

Life of Apollonius of Tyana (Greek: Τὰ ἐς τὸν Τυανέα Ἀπολλώνιον) is a text in eight books written in Ancient Greece by Philostratus (c. 170 – c. 245 AD). It tells the story of Apollonius of Tyana (c. 15 – c. 100 AD), a Pythagorean philosopher and teacher.

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Mampsoukrenai

Mampsoukrenai or Mapsoukrenai was a settlement and station (mutatio) of ancient Cilicia, on the road between Tyana and Tarsus, inhabited during Roman Byzantine times.Its site is tentatively located near Kırıtlar in Asiatic Turkey.

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Niğde Archaeological Museum

Niğde Archaeological Museum (Turkish: 'Niğde Arkeoloji Müzesi') is located in the centre of the Turkish provincial capital, Niğde between Dışarı Cami Sokak and Öğretmenler Caddesi. It contains objects found at sites in the surrounding area, including the tell of Köşk Höyük and the Graeco-Roman city of Tyana, both in the nearby town of Kemerhisar.

Panhormus (Cilicia)

Panhormus, also known as Pylae or Pylai, was a settlement and station (mutatio) of ancient Cilicia, near the Cilician Gates (Greek: Kilikia Pylai) on the road between Tyana and Tarsus, inhabited during Roman Byzantine times.Its site is tentatively located near Han in Asiatic Turkey.

Siege of Tyana

The Siege of Tyana was carried out by the Umayyad Caliphate in 707–708 or 708–709 in retaliation for a heavy defeat of an Umayyad army under Maimun the Mardaite by the Byzantine Empire in c. 706. The Arab army invaded Byzantine territory and laid siege to the city in summer 707 or 708. The date is uncertain, as virtually each of the extant Greek, Arabic and Syriac parallel sources has in this respect a different date. Tyana initially withstood the siege with success, and the Arab army faced great hardship during the ensuing winter and was on the point of abandoning the siege in spring, when a relief army sent by Emperor Justinian II arrived. Quarrels among the Byzantine generals, as well as the inexperience of a large part of their army, contributed to a crushing Umayyad victory. Thereupon the inhabitants of the city were forced to surrender. Despite the agreement of terms, the city was plundered and largely destroyed, and according to Byzantine sources its people were made captive and deported, leaving the city deserted.

Siege of Tyana (272)

The Siege of Tyana occurred in 272 AD. The forces of the Roman Emperor Aurelian were seeking to conquer the Palmyrene Empire.

Sirkap

Sirkap (Urdu and Punjabi: سرکپ) is the name of an archaeological site on the bank opposite to the city of Taxila, Punjab, Pakistan.

The city of Sirkap was built by the Greco-Bactrian king Demetrius after he invaded ancient India around 180 BC. Demetrius founded in the northern and northwestern modern Pakistan an Indo-Greek kingdom that was to last until around 10 BC. Sirkap is also said to have been rebuilt by king Menander I.

The excavation of the old city was carried out under the supervision of Sir John Marshall by Hergrew from 1912–1930. In 1944 and 1945 further parts were excavated by Mortimer Wheeler and his colleagues.

Tatyana Ali

Tatyana Marisol Ali (born January 24, 1979) is an American actress and singer known for her role as Ashley Banks on the NBC sitcom The Fresh Prince of Bel-Air from 1990 to 1996. She has also starred as Tyana Jones on the TV One original sitcom Love That Girl! and had a recurring role as Roxanne on the CBS soap opera The Young and the Restless from 2007 to 2013. Ali co-starred in the 2017 TV film Wrapped Up in Christmas. In 2018, she co-starred in the Lifetime movie Jingle Belle and also starred in a movie on the Hallmark Channel titled Everlasting Christmas, which premiered on November 24, 2018.

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