Two-point conversion

In American and Canadian football, a two-point conversion or two-point convert is a play a team attempts instead of kicking a one-point conversion immediately after it scores a touchdown. In a two-point conversion attempt, the team that just scored must run a play from scrimmage close to the opponent's goal line (5-yard line in amateur Canadian, 3-yard line in professional Canadian, 3-yard line in amateur American, 2-yard line in professional American; in professional American football, there is a small dash to denote the line of scrimmage for a two-point conversion; it was the previous line of scrimmage for a point after kick until 2014) and advance the ball across the goal line in the same manner as if they were scoring a touchdown. If the team succeeds, it earns two additional points on top of the six points for the touchdown, for a total of eight points. If the team fails, no additional points are scored. In either case, if any time remains in the half, the team proceeds to a kickoff.

Various sources estimate the success rate of a two-point conversion to be between 40% and 55%, significantly lower than that of the extra point, though if the higher value is to be believed, a higher expected value is achieved through the two-point conversion than the extra point.[1][2]

Kaipo-Noa Kaheaku-Enhada gets 2 pt conversion at 2007 Poinsettia Bowl 071220-N-9909C-003
Navy quarterback Kaipo-Noa Kaheaku-Enhada puts the ball over the goal line for a two-point conversion at the 2007 Poinsettia Bowl

Adoption of rule

The two-point conversion rule has been used in college football since 1958,[3][4][5] and more recently in Canadian amateur football and the Canadian Football League (1975).[6] In overtime situations in college football, the two-point conversion is the mandatory method of scoring after a touchdown beginning with the third overtime, and in the CFL it is mandatory at any point in overtime.

The American Football League (AFL) used the two-point conversion during its ten-season existence from 1960 to 1969. After the NFL merged with the AFL, the rule did not immediately carry over to the merged league, though they experimented in 1968 with a compromise rule (see below). The NFL adopted the two-point conversion rule in 1994, 25 years after the merger.[7][8] Tom Tupa scored the first two-point conversion in NFL history, running in a faked extra point attempt for the Cleveland Browns in a game against the Cincinnati Bengals in the first week of the 1994 season. He scored a total of three such conversions that season, earning him the nickname "Two-Point Tupa". That same season, the first successful two-point conversion in Super Bowl history came during Super Bowl XXIX when San Diego Charger Mark Seay caught a pass thrown by Stan Humphries.

The NFL's developmental league, NFL Europe (and its former entity, the World League of American Football), adopted the two-point conversion rule for its entire existence from 1991 through 2007.

Six-man football reverses the extra point and the two-point conversion: because there is no offensive line in that game variant, making kick protection more difficult, plays from scrimmage are worth one point but successful kicks are worth two. It is also reversed in many high school football and youth football leagues, since there are not often skilled kickers at that level. A variant of this, especially at the youth level, is to allow one point for a running conversion, two points for a passing conversion, and two points for a successful kick.

The Arena Football League has recognized the two-point conversion for its entire existence (in both its original 1987–2008 incarnation and its ongoing revival), allowing for either a play from scrimmage or a drop kick to be worth two points. (The additional extra point for a drop kick is unique to arena football.)

In 1968, leading up to the AFL–NFL merger, the leagues developed a radical "compromise" rule that would reconcile the fact that the NFL did not recognize the two-point conversion but the AFL did: the relatively easy extra point kick would be eliminated and only a play from scrimmage would score one point called a "Pressure Point". The rule would be used for the interleague matchups for that preseason, and would not be tried again. Both the World Football League and the XFL revived this concept, making it a point not to institute a two-point conversion rule so as to eliminate the easy kick. What would constitute a two-point conversion in other leagues only counted one point in the AFL–NFL games, WFL, or XFL. The WFL called it the "Action Point", used after touchdowns which the WFL counted as seven points. However, the XFL later added a rule in the playoffs that allowed the scoring team to score two (or even three) points by successfully executing a play from a point farther from the opponent's end zone (two points if the team could score from the five-yard line and three points if they could score from the ten-yard line).

During the summer of 2014, the conversion by place kick was under review by the NFL. This new format would award seven points for a touchdown without an extra point attempt, eight points with a successful conversion by running or passing, and six points with an unsuccessful attempt. This new format was proposed because of the almost certain probability of making a conversion by place kick (1,260 out of 1,265 for the 2013 season).[9] This proposal was never considered at the league owners' meeting in spring 2014; instead, the league used the first two weeks of its preseason for an experiment that moved extra point attempts back to the 20-yard line with the condition that if a team opted to attempt a two-point conversion instead, the line of scrimmage on the try would remain at the 2-yard line. The league adopted a slightly modified version of this rule starting with the 2015 season, with the line of scrimmage for extra-point kick attempts at the 15-yard line instead of the 20; that same year, the CFL also moved back its line of scrimmage for converts to the 25-yard line (while moving the scrimmage line for a two-point convert ahead two yards to the 3-yard line), thus making the length for an extra-point attempt the same length in both the NFL and CFL (taking into account the NFL positioning their goalposts on the end line, and the CFL's on the goal line).

Defensive two-point conversion

In American college, professional, and Canadian football (as well as, for a significant period of time, the Arena Football League, where missed extra points are rebounded back into the field of play), a conversion attempt where the defense gains possession of the ball can be returned by the defense to the other end zone to give the defensive team two points. The team that scored the touchdown then kicks off as normal. This is rare because of the infrequent use of the two-point conversion and the rarity of blocked conversion kicks, combined with the difficulty of returning the ball the full length of the field. It has proven the winning margin in some games. Only once has a player scored two defensive two-point conversions in a game: Tony Holmes of the Texas Longhorns in a 1998 Big 12 Conference game against the Iowa State Cyclones on October 3.

On May 19, 2015, the NFL owners adopted a proposal to permit a defensive two-point conversion for the 2015 season. On May 20, 2016, the owners adopted a proposal called the 2 point fair play rule. This prevents a defense from getting a turnover during a 2 point conversion and then purposefully committing a "free" penalty to increase a chance at a 2 point return. If the defense is able to gain a takeaway and then commits a penalty, the opposing coach will have the option to accept the penalty and skip the kickoff. It has not yet been used in the NFL, but a similar rule has been used on two occasions in the CFL.[10][11]

Stephone Anthony of the New Orleans Saints became the first NFL player to score a defensive two-point conversion; he returned a blocked extra point kick from Graham Gano of the Carolina Panthers on December 6, 2015.[12]

On December 4, 2016, Eric Berry of the Kansas City Chiefs became the first NFL player to return an interception for a defensive two-point conversion; it was thrown by quarterback Matt Ryan of the Atlanta Falcons.[13]

The NCAA has allowed defensive two-point conversions in college football since the 1988 season.

High schools that follow the rules of the National Federation of State High School Associations (all U.S. high schools except those in Texas and Massachusetts, which use NCAA rules instead) do not allow defensive runbacks of recovered conversion attempts, and any recovery of the ball by the defense during the try is immediately blown dead and ruled merely as "no good."

Conversion safety

Rules in high school, college and professional football dictate that when a safety occurs during a two-point conversion or point-after kick (officially known in the rulebooks as a try), it is worth one point. It can be scored by the offense in college and professional football (following an NFL rule change in 2015) if the defense obtains possession of a live ball in the field of play, propels the ball (by carrying it or fumbling it) into its own end zone, and then is downed there with the defense in possession of the ball. This event has only occurred twice in NCAA Division I history. Before 2015, the only scenario in which a one-point safety could have been scored in the NFL would have involved the defense kicking or batting a loose ball out the back of the end zone without taking possession of it.[14]

A conversion safety can be earned by the defense if the offense retreated with the ball all the way back into its own end zone; most plausibly this would involve a fumble at some point during the play. Two potential scenarios include an errant snap or a fumble that is bobbled repeatedly until the offensive team recovers the ball in, or bats the ball through, its own end zone (similar situations have been documented in regular play from scrimmage[15] and are more likely in arena football with its much shorter, narrower and bounded field of play), or, in the college and professional game, a defender attempting a defensive two-point conversion, fumbling the ball and having the offensive team recover in their own end zone. Although such a conversion safety has never been scored by the defense, this rule provides the only way in American football that a team could finish the game with a score of one point. (Canadian football allows another one-point play called the single or rouge).[16]

The high school football rulebook acknowledges the conversion safety, awarding one point for it, but also immediately ends a play if the opposing team gains possession of the ball, a rule similar to the one the NFL used before 2015. Thus, any situation that requires the defense to gain possession of the ball could not result in a conversion safety in games where that rulebook is used.

Choice of one- or two-point attempt

The coaches' choice of whether to attempt a one- or two-conversion depends on the game's current score, the amount of time remaining, and their assessment of their team's chance of success.[17]

Analysis of historical data finds that the two-point conversion is successful about half the time, whereas one-point kicks are almost always successful. Therefore the expected value of both options is roughly similar, with the critical factor being whether the chance of a successful two-point conversion is more or less than half that of a successful kick.[17][18] However, the mathematics regarding maximizing a team's chances of winning are more complicated. For example, late in a game, a team that is one point up after a touchdown would gain little benefit from a one-point attempt, because regardless of success, the team would still lose if the opposition later scored a field goal. In such a situation, the two-point conversion would be the better option. If successful, an opposition field goal would then only tie the game.[17]

A more complicated scenario is when a team is trailing by eight points. The team could choose to go for two, because, if successful, the team could then kick an extra point following the next score to secure a win. On the other hand, if the two-point conversion fails, the team still has a chance to succeed on the next two-point conversion to get to fourteen. Mathematically, therefore, the minimum probability of converting a two-point try either on the first attempt (securing a win) or the second (securing a tie in regulation time) must be higher than the maximum probability of missing both (securing a loss). This occurs when the probability of missing both is 0.618 × 0.618, or 38.2%.[19] As long as the probability of converting any individual two-point attempt is higher than 38.2% percent, it is optimal to adopt this strategy.[20][21] Notably, Texas Longhorns coach Darrell Royal successfully used this strategy to defeat Arkansas in 1969's Game of the Century.

An analysis can be done for all situations, resulting in a table that can be consulted when a decision is needed.[17] A chart made by UCLA offensive coordinator Dick Vermeil in the early 1970s is one of the most well-known.[22][23]

In practice, two-point conversion attempts are rare, being done only after less than 1-in-10 touchdowns in the NFL.[18] This proportion rose after the one-point kick was moved back to the 15-yard line, increasing the difficulty of scoring the single extra point.[18]

Arena and other indoor football

In indoor versions of the sport, a two-point conversion is scored after a touchdown by running a play from scrimmage from the two-yard line in which the ball carrier succeeds in crossing the goal line while in possession of the ball, or the receiver makes a valid reception in the end zone or crosses the goal line in possession of the ball after having caught it in the field of play. In Arena football only, a successful drop kicked conversion also counts as a two-point conversion.

References

  1. ^ 412sportsanalytics "Two-Point Conversion: My two-data-cents,", 2016.
  2. ^ K. Pelechrinis "Decision Making in American Football: Evidence from 7 Years of NFL Data, in Machine Learning and Data Mining for Sports Analytics", 2016.
  3. ^ "WSC coach Sutherland favors new rule on point-after scores". Spokane Daily Chronicle. (Washington). January 13, 1958. p. 17.
  4. ^ Fullerton, Hugh, Jr. (December 18, 1958). "Two-point conversion rule gets approval in AP poll". Ludington Daily News. (Michigan). Associated Press. p. 10.
  5. ^ "The Two-Point Conversion". Time. 1958-10-06. Archived from the original on 2009-02-06.
  6. ^ "CFL History 1970s". Canadian Football League. Archived from the original on 2013-03-16. Retrieved 2016-08-02.
  7. ^ Goldberg, Dave (March 23, 1994). "Owners OK two-point conversion". Gadsden Times. (Alabama). Associated Press. p. D1.
  8. ^ WiseGeek.com [1] Definition.
  9. ^ "NFL Will examine eliminating the extra point". NBC Sports. Retrieved 31 January 2014.
  10. ^ Patra, Kevin (May 19, 2015). "NFL moves extra point to 15-yard line for 2015 season". National Football League. Retrieved December 7, 2015.
  11. ^ Wilner, Barry (May 19, 2015). "NFL to change extra-point kicks to longer distance". Yahoo! Sports. Associated Press. Retrieved December 7, 2015.
  12. ^ Dubin, Jared (6 December 2015). "Saints first-ever team to run back a blocked extra point for two points". CBS Sports. Retrieved 7 December 2015.
  13. ^ Teicher, Adam (December 4, 2016). "Eric Berry has pick 6, 'pick 2' in emotional homecoming victory". ESPN. Retrieved December 4, 2016.
  14. ^ Bialik, Carl (January 3, 2013). "In Praise of the One-Point Safety". The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved March 9, 2013.
  15. ^ "WATCH: Louisiana Tech loses 87 yards on one play in the most comical fashion". cbssports.com.
  16. ^ Victor Mather (September 10, 2015). "N.F.L. Team Scoring Just 1 Point? Now It's Possible". New York Times.
  17. ^ a b c d Morris, Benjamin (2017-02-03). "When To Go For 2, For Real". FiveThirtyEight. Retrieved 2018-09-12.
  18. ^ a b c Stuart, Chase (2016-11-15). "More NFL Teams Are Going For Two — Just As They Should Be". FiveThirtyEight. Retrieved 2018-09-12.
  19. ^ The probability of failure to convert is "1 minus the probability of converting the two-point try", (1 − 0.382), or 0.618.
  20. ^ "Down Late in the Game? Go for Two". wordpress.com. 18 April 2013.
  21. ^ "The Game Designer: Go For Two!". thegamedesigner.blogspot.com. 16 January 2011.
  22. ^ "Two Point Conversion Chart". theredzone.org.
  23. ^ "Four downs: Parcells deals with second-guessing - USATODAY.com". www.usatoday.com.
1961 Orange Bowl

The 1961 Orange Bowl to the featured the fifth-ranked Missouri Tigers and the fourth-ranked Navy Midshipmen.

Navy jumped to a 6–0 lead with a 98-yard fumble return for a touchdown. But Missouri answered when Norm Beal intercepted Navy's Hal Spooner, rumbling down the sideline for a 90-yard return, giving Missouri a 7–6 advantage. They then drove 80 yards for a second touchdown, and led 14–6 at half.

Missouri's defense shut down the Midshipmen's running game, including Heisman Trophy winner Joe Bellino, forcing Navy to pass. But Missouri continued to run the ball, grinding it out for 223 rushing yards. After a scoreless third quarter, Missouri drove down 64 yards and capitalized with a 1-yard run from quarterback Ronnie Taylor. Taylor, who went 1 for 6 passing, threw for only five total yards. Down 21–6, Bellino caught a 27-yard pass from Spooner, and then made the two-point conversion, cutting the lead to 21–14. Missouri held on for the win. President-elect John F. Kennedy attended the game

1961 Tangerine Bowl

The 1961 Tangerine Bowl was held on December 29, 1961 at the Tangerine Bowl stadium in Orlando, Florida. The Lamar Tech Cardinals defeated the Middle Tennessee Blue Raiders by a score of 21–14.

The scoring opened with a Lamar Tech touchdown on a 52-yard rush by quarterback Win Herbert, and that play proved to be the only scoring in the first quarter, which ended 7–0. The second quarter's only scoring came when Middle Tennessee fumbled the ball in their own end zone and Lamar Tech recovered to lead 14–0 at halftime. Middle Tennessee finally found the end zone in the third quarter, scoring on a 32-yard pass but failing the two-point conversion to make it 14–6 at the end of the third quarter. Lamar Tech later extended their lead to 21–6 after a 3-yard pass for a touchdown. The last score of the game came from Middle Tennessee, who scored a touchdown plus a two-point conversion to end the game 21–14.

At the end of the game, Lamar Tech had two more first downs, 73 more rushing yards, and 66 more total yards. However, Middle Tennessee out-passed Lamar by 6 yards. Lamar Tech halfback Ralph Stone was named the game's most valuable player.

1962 Georgia Tech Yellow Jackets football team

The 1962 Georgia Tech Yellow Jackets football team represented the Georgia Institute of Technology during the 1962 NCAA University Division football season. The Yellow Jackets were led by 18th-year head coach Bobby Dodd, and played their home games at the newly expanded Grant Field in Atlanta.

On November 17, 1962, Georgia Tech pulled off a huge upset over defending national champions Alabama, ending their 27-game undefeated streak. The Yellow Jackets stopped a go-ahead two point conversion from Alabama and then intercepted a pass from Joe Namath deep in Georgia Tech territory late in the fourth quarter to seal the deal. Georgia Tech finished the regular season fourth in the Southeastern Conference, with a 7–2–1 overall record and ranked 11th in the final Coaches' Poll. They were invited to the 1962 Bluebonnet Bowl, where they lost to Missouri.

1964 Michigan Wolverines football team

The 1964 Michigan Wolverines football team represented the University of Michigan in the 1964 Big Ten Conference football season. In its sixth year under head coach Bump Elliott, Michigan compiled a 9–1 record, won the Big Ten Conference championship for the first time since 1950, and defeated Oregon State in the 1965 Rose Bowl by a score of 34–7. The 1964 Wolverines defeated four teams ranked in the Top 10 in the AP Poll by a combined score of 82 to 17 and finished the regular season ranked No. 4 in both the AP and Coaches' polls. Although no post-bowl polls were taken in the 1964 season, Oregon State coach Tommy Prothro opined after watching game film from the Rose Bowl that the 1964 Wolverines were "the greatest football team he has ever seen."On offense, Michigan scored 235 points, an average of 23.5 points per game, and averaged 349 yards of total offense per game. The offense was led by quarterback Bob Timberlake who was selected as a first-team All-American. Timberlake was a triple threat who rushed for 631 yards, passed for 884 yards, and also handled field goals and extra points. The 1964 team had a strong running game with Mel Anthony and Carl Ward in the backfield. Totaling 2,473 rushing yards for the season, the Wolverines had four games (Air Force, Minnesota, Northwestern, and Oregon State) in which they rushed for over 300 yards.On defense, Michigan had three shutouts (a feat not accomplished by a Michigan team since 1948) and gave up only 83 points, an average of 8.3 points per game. Team leaders on defense included All-American defensive tackle Bill Yearby, All-Big Ten linebacker Tom Cecchini, and team captain and All-Big Ten player Jim Conley. The 1964 team also included at least 16 players who went on to play professional football, including offensive guard Tom Mack (13 years in the NFL, 11 Pro Bowl appearances), defensive back Rick Volk (12 years in the NFL, three Pro Bowl appearances), linebacker Frank Nunley (10 years in the NFL), linebacker Bill Laskey (10 years in the AFL/NFL), and defensive back John Rowser (10 years in the NFL).

The Wolverines narrowly missed an undefeated season, with their only loss coming against a Purdue team led by Bob Griese by a score of 21–20. Michigan had a chance to tie the game in the fourth quarter, but Timberlake carried the ball for an attempted two-point conversion and was stopped short of the goal line.

1966 Sugar Bowl

The 1966 Sugar Bowl featured the sixth-ranked Missouri Tigers of the Big Eight Conference and the unranked Florida Gators of the Southeastern Conference. The Tigers entered the game with a 7–2–1 record during the 1965 season, while the Gators entered at 7–3.

After a scoreless first quarter, Missouri went on a tear in the second quarter. Charlie Brown scored on a 16-yard touchdown run giving the Tigers a 7–0 lead. Johnny Roland threw an 11-yard touchdown pass to Earl Denny as the Tigers extended their lead to 14–0. Bill Bates kicked a 27-yard field goal as Missouri led 17–0 at halftime.

In the third quarter, Bates kicked a 34-yard field goal as Missouri led 20–0 at the end of three. Florida attempted to make a furious comeback in the fourth quarter. Steve Spurrier threw a 22-yard touchdown pass to halfback Jack Harper as Florida got within 20–6. Spurrier threw another 21-yard touchdown pass to end Charles Casey as Florida got within 20–12. Spurrier scored himself from two yards out, as the score became 20–18. Florida failed on three consecutive two-point conversion attempts, and had they just kicked the extra points, they may have ended with a win.

Despite playing on the losing team, Florida's Steve Spurrier was named Sugar Bowl MVP.

Missouri honored the 1966 Sugar Bowl champion Tigers in the 2015 season, bringing the team to midfield at halftime of their 24-10 win over South Carolina, then coached by Spurrier.

1967 Rose Bowl

The 1967 Rose Bowl was a college football bowl game played on January 2, 1967. It was the 53rd Rose Bowl Game, played annually in Pasadena, California. The game was played between the #7 Purdue Boilermakers of the Big Ten Conference and the unranked USC Trojans of the AAWU (Pac-8). Purdue won 14−13, after USC scored a touchdown in the 4th quarter and opted to go for a two-point conversion to win the game, rather than kicking an extra point to tie.

Purdue defensive back John Charles was named the most valuable player, and the attendance was 101,438.

1974 USC Trojans football team

The 1974 USC Trojans football team represented the University of Southern California (USC) in the 1974 NCAA Division I football season. In their 15th year under head coach John McKay, the Trojans compiled a 10–1–1 record (6–0–1 against conference opponents), finished in first place in the Pacific-8 Conference (Pac-8), and outscored their opponents by a combined total of 363 to 142. The team was ranked #1 in the final UPI Coaches Poll and #2 in the final AP Poll.

Quarterback Pat Haden led the team in passing, completing 70 of 149 passes for 988 yards with 13 touchdowns and 11 interceptions. Anthony Davis led the team in rushing with 301 carries for 1,421 yards and 13 touchdowns. J.K. McKay led the team in receiving with 34 catches for 550 yards and eight touchdowns. Vince Evans backed up Haden. Allen Carter backed up Davis. The fullbacks were Ricky Bell, Dave Farmer and Mosi Tatupu. The starting flanker, Shelton Diggs, caught the two point conversion that lifted USC over Ohio State in the January 1975 Rose Bowl.

1989 Alabama Crimson Tide football team

The 1989 Alabama Crimson Tide football team (variously "Alabama", "UA", "Bama" or "The Tide") represented the University of Alabama in the 1989 NCAA Division I-A football season. It was the Crimson Tide's 97th overall and 56th season as a member of the Southeastern Conference (SEC). The team was led by head coach Bill Curry, in his third year, and played their home games at both Bryant–Denny Stadium in Tuscaloosa and Legion Field in Birmingham, Alabama. They finished the season with a record of ten wins and two losses (10–2 overall, 6–1 in the SEC), as SEC Co-Champions and with a loss in the Sugar Bowl against national championship winner Miami.

Alabama won its first ten games en route to its best record since 1980 and first SEC championship since 1981 season, its 19th overall. Highlights of the season included a 62–27 victory over Ole Miss after falling behind 21–0, a 47–30 victory over Tennessee in a match of unbeatens, and a 17–16 victory over Penn State in which Alabama blocked an 18-yard field goal try with 13 seconds left in the game for the win. The 32-16 win at LSU featured a first for the Crimson Tide, as Alabama safety Lee Ozmint scored the first ever defensive two-point conversion in school history on a 100-yard interception return of an LSU two-point conversion attempt.However, in the season finale against Auburn—the first Iron Bowl ever played in Auburn, Alabama—the Tigers beat Alabama 30–20. As a result, Alabama, Auburn and Tennessee finished in a three-way tie for the conference championship. Alabama would however receive the conference's Sugar Bowl berth.In the Sugar Bowl Miami would defeat Alabama 33–25 and be named national champions.In the week after the Sugar Bowl loss, on January 7, 1990, Bill Curry resigned his position to take the head coaching job at Kentucky.

1998 Peach Bowl (December)

The 1998 Peach Bowl featured the Georgia Bulldogs and Virginia Cavaliers.After a scoreless first quarter, Virginia scored first on a 2-yard Anthony Southern touchdown run, making the score 7–0. Aaron Brooks threw a 43-yard touchdown pass to Terrence Wilkins making the score 14–0. Brooks threw a 24-yard touchdown pass to Thomas Jones as Virginia took a 21–0 lead. An 11-yard touchdown pass by Quincy Carter made the halftime score 21–7.In the third quarter, Carter threw a 14-yard touchdown pass to Champ Bailey, as Georgia cut the deficit to 21–14. Olandis Gary's 15-yard touchdown run tied the game at 21. Brooks threw a 67-yard touchdown pass to Terrence Wilkins, but Todd Braverman missed the extra point, giving Virginia a 27–21 lead at the end of three quarters. In the fourth quarter, Olandis Gary scored on a 2-yard run, giving Georgia a 28–27 lead. Quincy Carter later scored on a 1-yard touchdown run, giving the Bulldogs a 35–27 lead. In the fourth quarter, Brooks scored on a 30-yard scoring run, bringing the score to 35–33, but failed on the two-point conversion. After Virginia recovered the ensuing onside kick, Braverman's last second field goal attempt barely sailed wide right, giving Georgia the victory.

2002 GMAC Bowl

The 2002 GMAC Bowl was an American college football bowl game. It was part of the 2002 NCAA Division I-A football season and was the fifth edition of the bowl game. It was played in December 2002 and featured the Louisville Cardinals, and the Marshall Thundering Herd.

Marshall started the scoring with a 9-yard touchdown pass from Byron Leftwich to wide receiver Denero Marriott for a 7–0 lead.In the second quarter, Marshall's Curtis Head kicked a 23-yard field goal to give Marshall a 10–0 lead. Leftwich later tossed an 8-yard touchdown pass to wide receiver Demetrius Doss for a 17–0 lead. Louisville got on the board with a 2-yard TJ Patterson touchdown run, making the score 17–7.

In the third quarter, Leftwich again connected with Doss for a 12-yard touchdown pass and a 24–7 lead. He later found Marriott for a 26-yard touchdown pass in the fourth quarter. Franklin Wallace added a 15-yard touchdown run to give Marshall a 38–7 lead. With 13 seconds left in the game, quarterback Dave Ragone found Tiger Jones in the end zone for a Louisville touchdown. The two-point conversion to Jones made the final score 38–15.

2002 Hawaii Bowl

The 2002 ConAgra Foods Hawaii Bowl was the inaugural Hawaii Bowl game and matched the Tulane Green Wave with the hometown Hawaii Warriors. Hawaii came into the game 10–3 and Tulane came into the game 7–5. The game was sponsored by ConAgra Foods, a packaged foods company.

Hawaii opened the scoring with a 1-yard Thero Mitchell touchdown, to lead the game 7–0. In the second quarter, Josh Galeai scored on a 2-yard touchdown run giving the Warriors a 14–0 lead. Seth Marler kicked field goals from 22 and 37 yards before the end of the first half to cut the lead to 14–6. In the third quarter, Lynaris Elpheage scored on a 60-yard punt return to cut the lead to 14–12. Tulane went for two but failed, and the score remained 14-12 Hawaii.

Later, Tulane quarterback J. P. Losman scored on a 1-yard quarterback sneak. He ran in the two-point conversion, giving Tulane a 20–14 lead. Mewelde Moore later scored on a 25-yard touchdown run for Tulane. Tulane went for two again, but were denied, leaving the score 26–14 Tulane. Shawn Withy-Allen, subbing for an injured Timmy Chang, threw a 57-yard touchdown pass to wide receiver Justin Colbert in the third quarter to cut the lead to 26–21.

Losman scored on a 3-yard rushing touchdown. He then threw a pass to Damarcus Davis for the two-point conversion and a 34–21 lead. Wide receiver Colbert caught a 31-yard touchdown pass from Withy-Allen to cut the lead to 34–28. On Hawaii's next drive, Withy-Allen was sacked in the end zone for a safety, making the final margin 36–28.

2003 Sugar Bowl

The 2003 Sugar Bowl a 2002–2003 BCS game was played on January 1, 2003. This 69th edition to the Sugar Bowl featured the Florida State Seminoles, and the Georgia Bulldogs. Florida State came into the game 9–4 and ranked 14th in the BCS, whereas Georgia came into the game 12–1 and ranked 3rd in the BCS

Kicker Billy Bennett kicked a 23-yard field goal with 10 minutes left in the opening quarter to account for the quarter's only points. In the second quarter, FSU quarterback Fabian Walker threw a 5-yard slant pass to Anquan Boldin as FSU took a 7–3 lead. Florida State was driving again in the second quarter before cornerback Bruce Thornton stepped in front of a Walker pass and raced 73 yards to the opposite end zone, to give Georgia a 10–7 lead. Quarterback D.J. Shockley threw a 37-yard touchdown pass to Terrence Edwards before halftime to give the Bulldogs a 17–7 half time lead.

Billy Bennett accounted for two more Georgia field goals in the third quarter, as Georgia posted a 23–7 lead. On the final play of the third quarter, wide receiver Anquan Boldin (who had replaced quarterback Fabian Walker) threw a 40-yard touchdown pass to Craphonso Thorpe. The ensuing two-point conversion failed, and the lead was 23–13. Billy Bennett kicked another field goal in the fourth quarter, as Georgia held off Florida State. Georgia's running back Musa Smith won the MVP award.

Seminoles defensive tackle Darnell Dockett was suspended from the game after pleading guilty to a misdemeanor theft charge.

2006 Sun Bowl

The 2006 Brut Sun Bowl featured the Oregon State Beavers of the Pac-10 and the Missouri Tigers of the Big 12 Conference.

Running back Tony Temple started the scoring for Missouri as he took a handoff and ran 7 yards for a touchdown, to give Missouri an early 7-0 lead. Quarterback Matt Moore threw a 13-yard touchdown pass to wide receiver Sammie Stroughter to tie the game at 7. Matt Moore later ran for a 1-yard touchdown to increase the lead to 14-7.

Missouri placekicker Jeff Wolfert kicked a 30-yard field goal to cut the lead to 14-10. Quarterback Chase Daniel threw a 74-yard touchdown pass to wide receiver Danario Alexander, to give the lead to Missouri, 17-14.

In the third quarter, Matt Moore found all Pac-10 tight end Joe Newton for an 11-yard touchdown pass and a 21-17 Oregon State lead. Tight end Chase Coffman took a handoff, but then threw to a streaking Tommy Saunders for a 29-yard touchdown to give Missouri a 24-21 lead. Tony Temple later broke free on a 65-yard touchdown run to stretch the lead to 31-21.

Oregon State kicker Alexis Serna drilled a 29-yard field goal to cut the lead to 31-24. With 12:08 left in the game, Chase Daniel found Chase Coffman in the end zone for an 18-yard touchdown, stretching the lead to 38-24. With 6:02 left in the game, Matt Moore threw a 7-yard touchdown pass to running back Yvenson Bernard, to trim the lead to 38-31. Moore later fired a 14-yard touchdown pass to Joe Newton with only 23 seconds left to make it 38-37. Yvenson Bernard plowed ahead on the two-point conversion attempt, and Oregon State won 39-38.

Rihanna performed at halftime.

2012 Outback Bowl

The 2012 Outback Bowl, the 26th edition of the game, was a post-season American college football bowl game, held on January 2, 2012, at the Raymond James Stadium in Tampa, Florida, as part of the 2011–12 NCAA Bowl season.

The game, which was telecast at 1:00 p.m. ET to a national audience on ABC, featured the Georgia Bulldogs from the Southeastern Conference versus the Michigan State Spartans from the Big Ten Conference. The Michigan State Spartans won 33–30 in the third overtime period.

Conversion (gridiron football)

The conversion, try (American football, also known as a point(s) after touchdown, PAT, or extra point), or convert (Canadian football) occurs immediately after a touchdown during which the scoring team is allowed to attempt to score one extra point by kicking the ball through the uprights in the manner of a field goal, or two points by bringing the ball into the end zone in the manner of a touchdown.

Attempts at a try or convert are scrimmage plays, with the ball initially placed at any point between the hash marks, at the option of the team making the attempt. The yard line that attempts are made from depends on the league and the type of try or convert being attempted.

If the try or convert is scored by kicking the ball through the uprights, the team gets an additional one point for their touchdown, bringing their total for that score from six points to seven. If two points are needed or desired, a two-point conversion may be attempted by running or passing from scrimmage. A successful touchdown conversion from scrimmage brings the score's total to eight.

Whether a team goes for one or two points, most rules regarding scrimmage downs, including scoring touchdowns and field goals, apply as if it were a normal American fourth-down or Canadian third-down play. Exceptions, including cases where the defense forces a turnover during a conversion attempt, vary between leagues and levels of play. One thing that sets the try apart from other plays in the NFL is that, apart from the actual points, ordinary statistics are not recorded on the try as they would be on a regular scrimmage play. For example, on December 4, 2016, Eric Berry of the Kansas City Chiefs made an interception on a try and physically returned it 99 yards for a defensive two-point conversion. However, because it occurred on a try, Berry did not get statistical credit for the 99 yards of return yardage; nor would a player ever be credited with passing, rushing, or receiving yardage on a try.

Fake procedure

A fake procedure is a trick play in American football. Going by a variety of names, this trick involves the quarterback getting up and walking away from his position behind the center before the snap, apparently in order to hear the call from the coach or to call a timeout.

However, as one player is allowed to be in motion before the snap, play is not technically stopped. If the defense relaxes, believing the quarterback is about to walk to the sidelines, the ball can be snapped to one of the other players and played against a defense that is unprepared. If the defense is not fooled, the quarterback can simply complete the fake task, and return to the center to call the snap.

The Indianapolis Colts, New Orleans Saints, Pittsburgh Steelers, and St. Louis Rams have used variations of this play in the NFL, and it was also used in the movie The Longest Yard (2005) for a winning two-point conversion. Under some state high school rules, if the quarterback or coaches on the sideline say anything that may lead the defense to believe that a snap is not imminent, then the play is not legal under the Unfair Act section of Rule 9.

George Catavolos

George Catavolos (born May 8, 1945 in Chicago, Illinois), is an American football coach. He was a three-year letterman at Purdue and was the Boilermakers' co-captain during the team's 1967 Rose Bowl Championship season; his last-second interception of an attempted two-point conversion locked up the victory for the Boilermakers. He began coaching at Purdue in 1967 and spent 17 years in college coaching. He has coached in the National Football League for 28 seasons with the Indianapolis Colts for 11 years, the Carolina Panthers, the Washington Redskins, and the Buffalo Bills.

Safety (gridiron football score)

In gridiron football, the safety (American football) or safety touch (Canadian football) is a scoring play that results in two points being awarded to the scoring team. Safeties can be scored in a number of ways, such as when a ball carrier is tackled in his own end zone or when a foul is committed by the offense in their own end zone. After a safety is scored in American football, the ball is kicked off to the team that scored the safety from the 20-yard line; in Canadian football, the scoring team also has the options of taking control of the ball at their own 35-yard line or kicking off the ball, also at their own 35-yard line. The ability of the scoring team to receive the ball through a kickoff differs from the touchdown and field goal, which require the scoring team to kick the ball off to the scored upon team. Despite being of relatively low point value, safeties can have a significant impact on the result of games, and Brian Burke of Advanced NFL Stats estimated that safeties have a greater abstract value than field goals, despite being worth a point less, due to the field position and reclaimed possession gained off the safety kick.Safeties are the least common method of scoring in American football but are not rare occurrences – since 1932, a safety has occurred once every 14.31 games in the National Football League (NFL), or about once a week under current scheduling rules. A much rarer occurrence is the one-point safety, which can be scored by the offense on an extra point or two-point conversion attempt; those have occurred at least twice in NCAA Division I football since 1996, most recently at the 2013 Fiesta Bowl. No conversion safeties have occurred since at least 1940 in the NFL. A conversion safety by the defense is also possible, though highly unlikely; although this has never occurred, it is the only possible way a team could finish with a single point in an American football game.

Touchdown

A touchdown is a scoring play in both American and Canadian football. Whether running, passing, returning a kickoff or punt, or recovering a turnover, a team scores a touchdown by advancing the ball into the opponent's end zone.

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