Two-minute warning

In most levels of professional American football, the two-minute warning is given when two minutes of game time remain on the game clock in each half of a game, i.e. near the end of the second and fourth quarters.[1] The suspension of play is two minutes long, the same as the short two-minute intermissions between quarters within each half.[2] There is an additional two-minute warning in the rare event only two minutes remain in an overtime period. However, in the postseason, where games continue indefinitely if there is no score, there is no two-minute warning in the first overtime, but if the second overtime, or any subsequent even overtime, is still tied with two minutes remaining (which has never happened), there will be a two-minute warning. If the football is in play when the clock reaches 2:00, the two-minute warning is called immediately after the play concludes, when the ball is declared dead. The two-minute warning stops the game clock in all cases.


The origins are from the early years in the NFL when the official game time was kept by a member of the officiating crew, with the stadium clock being unofficial. Its purpose was a checkpoint to ensure that the teams knew how much time remained in the game. In the early 1960s the upstart American Football League made the stadium clock the official game time, a change followed later in the decade by the NFL. By then, television was an important factor in professional football, so the two-minute warning was retained as a commercial break and to serve as "tension building" time, and thus has become an important part of the game's flow.[3]


In addition to those practical purposes, gradually, some rules have evolved that are unique to the final two minutes of each half and overtime. There is no special event at the ends of the first and third quarters, aside from swapping end zones, so there is no two-minute warning then, only at the halves, except as implemented in Pro Bowls from 2014 to 2016, and since 2019.

10-second runoff

The following situations result in a 10-second game clock runoff if the team in possession of the ball is trailing or the game is tied and the team in possession of the ball has no timeouts remaining in that half/overtime. If up to 10 seconds remain in the half/overtime/game, the period/game will end by such runoff.

  • Excessive timeouts due to injuries (see below)
  • Instant replay overturns a call on the field and the correct ruling would not stop the game clock
  • One of the following six fouls is committed by the offense. Following the runoff, the game clock will resume again once the ball is set. The runoff can also occur if a team declines to use a timeout if it has timeouts remaining.
    • False start
    • Intentional grounding
    • Illegal forward pass beyond the line of scrimmage
    • Throwing a backwards pass out of bounds
    • Spiking or throwing the ball away after a down (unless after a touchdown)
    • Any other intentional act that causes the clock to stop


If a player is injured and his team has timeouts remaining in that half/overtime, the timeout is automatically charged to that team to allow the injured player to be removed from the field. If a team is out of timeouts, they are allowed an otherwise-excessive "fourth timeout". However, to minimize the feigning of injuries to save game clock time, any subsequent injuries after the fourth timeout result in a five-yard penalty. In addition to an excessive timeout, there is a 10-second runoff (if it was an offensive player that was injured) or the play clock is reset to 40 seconds (if it was a defensive player).

Exceptions to the above include if the other team called a timeout immediately after the previous play to save time on the clock; the injury was caused by a foul by an opponent; or the previous play resulted in a change of possession, a successful field goal, or was a conversion attempt.

Other rules

  • Within the two-minute warning period (of either half/overtime), instant replay reviews can only take place if the replay assistant, who sits in the press box and monitors the network broadcast of the game, determines that a play needs review. Coaches may not use a coach's challenge.
  • Within the two-minute warning period (of either half/overtime), if a player fumbles the ball, any player on his team can recover the ball, but only the player who fumbled can advance it beyond the spot of the fumble. If any other player from the same team recovers the fumble downfield, the ball is spotted back at the point where it was initially fumbled. This rule also applies to the offense on fourth down at any point in the game, but applies to all downs after the two-minute warning. This rule was added for the 1979 season as a response to the September 1978 "Holy Roller" play.


The period of time between the two-minute warning and the end of the half is known as the two-minute drill. During this time, clock management becomes a more important aspect of the game, since by proper manipulation of the game clock, a team can, if trailing, prolong the game long enough to secure a score, or if in the lead, hasten the half's end before the opponent can score.

If the leading team has the ball on first down with less than two minutes to go in the game and the opposing team has no timeouts remaining, the quarterback can often safely end the game by taking a knee thrice consecutively without risking injuries or turnovers. This is because at the end of each play, the offensive team can take up to 40 seconds to start running the next play.

Other football leagues

The CFL has a three-minute warning.[3] Indoor American football leagues historically used a one-minute warning once a minute remained in the half/overtime; the Arena Football League has since revised their rule down to the half-minute warning once 30.0 seconds remain in regulation/overtime. No comparable rule exists at the high school football or college football levels; at the high school level, the officials are instructed to inform each sideline when three minutes remain in a half, but the rule does not stop the game clock.


  1. ^ James Alder. "About Football Glossary - Two-minute Warning". Retrieved 14 January 2012.
  2. ^ "Rule 4 Game Timing, Section 1 Article 2:Intermissions, Section 3 Article 2:Scrimmage down" (PDF). Official NFL Playing Rules. National Football League. Retrieved 14 January 2018.
  3. ^ a b Ethan Trex (26 November 2009). "Why Does the NFL Have a Two-Minute Warning?". mental floss. Retrieved 27 August 2012.
1985 NFL season

The 1985 NFL season was the 66th regular season of the National Football League. The season ended with Super Bowl XX when the Chicago Bears defeated the New England Patriots 46–10 at the Louisiana Superdome. The Bears became the second team in NFL history (after the previous season's San Francisco 49ers) to win 15 games in the regular season and 18 including the playoffs.

Asher Brauner

Asher Brauner (born October 15, 1946, Chicago, Illinois) is an American actor.

Brauner appeared in the 1975 action film, Switchblade Sisters, directed by Jack Hill, and his other film credits include roles in Two-Minute Warning (1976), The Boss' Son (1978), Where the Boys Are '84 (1984), Escape from El Diablo (1984), Treasure of the Moon Goddess (1987), Merchants of War (1989) and American Eagle (1989). He also appeared opposite Wings Hauser in the 1990 films Coldfire and Living to Die.

Brauner has numerous television acting credits including General Hospital, Ironside, Kojak and Harry O, and TV movies such as Alexander: The Other Side of Dawn (1977) and Young Joe, the Forgotten Kennedy (1977).

Blasphemous Rumours / Somebody

"Blasphemous Rumours"/"Somebody" is Depeche Mode's twelfth UK single and first double A-side single, released on 29 October 1984.

Both A-side songs are from the album Some Great Reward. "Somebody" is the first single with Martin Gore as lead vocals, one of only three (The other ones being "A Question of Lust" and "Home".)

The music videos for both songs were directed by Clive Richardson.

Construction Time Again

Construction Time Again is the third studio album by English electronic music band Depeche Mode. It was released on 22 August 1983 by Mute Records. It was the band's first album with Alan Wilder as a member, who wrote the songs "Two Minute Warning" and "The Landscape Is Changing". The album's title comes from the second line of the first verse of the track "Pipeline". It was recorded at John Foxx's Garden Studios in London, and was supported by the Construction Time Again Tour.

Eve Newman

Evelyn Lucille Newman (née Lightfoot, July 24, 1915 - October 10, 2003) was an American film and music editor. She was twice nominated for the Academy Award for Best Film Editing in 1968 for Wild in the Streets, and in 1976 for Two-Minute Warning.


A fumble in American and Canadian football occurs when a player who has possession and control of the ball loses it before being downed (tackled), scoring, or going out of bounds. By rule, it is any act other than passing, kicking, punting, or successful handing that results in loss of player possession. A fumble may be forced by a defensive player who either grabs or punches the ball or butts the ball with his helmet (a move called "tackling the ball"). A fumbled ball may be recovered and advanced by either team (except, in American football, after the two-minute warning in either half or 4th down, when the fumbling player is the only offensive player allowed to advance the ball, otherwise the ball is ruled dead at the spot of recovery if the ball bounces backwards or spotted at the point of the fumble if the ball travels forward). It is one of three events that can cause a turnover (the other two being an interception or on downs, though the latter does not count toward the team's total turnovers), where possession of the ball can change during play.

Under American rules a fumble may be confused with a muff. A muff occurs where a player drops a ball that he does not have possession of, such as while attempting to catch a lateral pass or improperly fielding a kicking play such as a punt (you cannot "fumble" a loose ball). Ball security is the ability of a player to maintain control over the football during play and thus avoid a fumble. Thus, losing possession of the ball via a fumble includes not only dropping the ball before being downed; but, also having a ball taken away, or “stripped” from the runner’s possession before being downed.

Game On (Canadian game show)

Game On is a Canadian sports trivia television game show that was a variation on Jeopardy!. It ran from 1998 to 2000 on Global and was shown on GameTV. The show was hosted by Tim Steeves in season 1 and David Merry in Season 2, with Jennifer Hill as the female co-host. Three male contestants compete in this game. The set was designed to resemble a sports enthusiast's wood-paneled basement recreation room decorated with posters, trophies and other sports memorabilia. The host stood behind a 1970s-style wet bar while the three contestants sat in leather lounge chairs. To answer a question, a contestant pressed a button on a device that resembled a TV remote control.

The series was created by Michael Geddes of Lone Eagle Entertainment in Toronto, Ontario, who producers of two other Canadian game shows, You Bet Your Ass and Inside the Box. The show was taped at the Toronto Production Centre in Toronto.

Glorious (Andreas Johnson song)

"Glorious" is a song released by Swedish singer Andreas Johnson in 1999. It is from Johnson's Liebling album on the WEA record label.

The song was a mixed success chart-wise, as it remained in low positions in the Netherlands, Switzerland, New Zealand and Germany. However, the song peaked within the top ten of the charts in Italy and the United Kingdom.

The song was also used as the main theme for Sky Sports' Premier League shows – Ford Super Sunday and Ford Football Special from August 2000 to May 2001

The song was later used on television advertisements for Vauxhall, Volvo, and in 2004, for Nutella, thus allowing the song to re-enter the French Singles Chart at a peak of number 16, although the song was only number 50 in its first release, four years earlier. An uncredited instrumental segment of the song was used in the movie The Proposal, after the ceremony.

The first three melody lines that are sung are identical to the first three sung melody lines of "Two Minute Warning", a song by Depeche Mode (composed by Alan Wilder) in 1983.

Holy Roller (American football)

In American football, "the Holy Roller" (also known as The Immaculate Deception by San Diego Chargers fans) was a controversial game-winning play by the Oakland Raiders against the San Diego Chargers on September 10, 1978, at San Diego Stadium (now SDCCU Stadium) in San Diego, California. It was officially ruled as a forward fumble that was recovered by Raiders tight end Dave Casper in the end zone for a touchdown, ultimately giving Oakland the 21–20 win. However, there have been differing interpretations of how this play should have actually been ruled, and it has remained a controversial play for fans of both teams involved. The NFL amended its rules after the 1978 season in order to prevent a recurrence of the play.

Had the Chargers won this game, and had all other games that season remained with the same outcome, they would have made the playoffs taking the fifth seed over the Houston Oilers, by virtue of a tiebreaker. Both the Chargers and Oilers would have finished with a 10-6 record, but the Chargers' final game of the season was a victory over the Oilers, so the Chargers would have won the tiebreaker on a head-to-head matchup and clinched the fifth seed in the postseason. The final Houston-San Diego game therefore would have had direct playoff consequence, with the winner advancing to the playoffs and the loser being eliminated.

John Ramsey (announcer)

John Jules Ramsey (July 26, 1927 – January 25, 1990) was a public address announcer best known as the original PA voice for the California Angels, Los Angeles Dodgers, Los Angeles Kings, Los Angeles Lakers and Los Angeles Raiders. He was also the PA voice for the Los Angeles Rams and USC Trojans football and basketball teams. He also announced four Super Bowls in Southern California and one in Palo Alto, California, as well as serving as the basketball PA voice during the 1984 Summer Olympics. His voice was also heard through seven World Series, the 1959, 1967 and 1980 Major League Baseball All-Star Games, ten NBA Finals, the 1963 and 1972 NBA All-Star Games.

Ramsey, a native of Berlin, New Hampshire, served in the United States Navy during World War II. When the war ended Ramsey moved to Los Angeles, attending El Camino College and then the University of Southern California, from where he graduated in 1954 and later obtained a master's degree in Business. Upon the Dodgers' move to Los Angeles in 1958, Ramsey was hired by the team to be their PA announcer. Two years later, the Lakers moved from Minneapolis and Ramsey became their PA announcer. From their inception in 1961 until the mid-1980s, Ramsey was also the PA announcer for the Angels during their tenancies at Wrigley Field and Dodger Stadium and after their move to Anaheim in 1966. And when the Los Angeles Kings began play in 1967, Ramsey became their original PA voice. Over the years Ramsey would also assume PA announcing duties for the Rams and the USC Trojans, with whom he remained until 1989. He also was the PA voice for the Raiders during their first year in Los Angeles. At one time Ramsey would often announce five sporting events over a three-day weekend, a feat rivaled only by Bruce Binkowski, who was a PA voice for San Diego sporting events.

Although noted for an articulate, deliberate and unruffled announcing style, sometimes he would mess up, as evidenced when a 1960s Dodgers game was delayed: "Ladies and gentlemen, while our ballgame is being temporarily held up because of rainy weather here at Dodger Stadium, our well-known organist, who is located in the centerfield bleachers, is going to entertain you by diddling on his organ." (This announcement was recreated in Kermit Schaefer's 1974 documentary, Pardon My Blooper.)

In addition to Dodger Stadium, Ramsey could be heard at the Los Angeles Memorial Coliseum and Sports Arena, Anaheim Stadium and the Forum. Ramsey left the Lakers and Kings in 1978. His successors included Dennis Packer, who became the PA voice of the Kings in 1979, the Raiders from 1983 until they returned to Oakland in 1995, the Angels during much of the 1980s, the Trojans' PA voice since 1990 and the San Diego Chargers replacing Binkowski; Lawrence Tanter, took over the Lakers and whose career as the Lakers' PA voice has eclipsed that of Ramsey; and Nick Nickson, who took over the Dodgers' and the Kings' PA announcing duties before switching to play-by-play announcing for the Kings in 1993. Former Angels, Clippers and Kings PA announcer David Courtney's career is owed to Ramsey; Courtney began his professional career as a PR assistant for the Kings in 1971 and occasionally filled in for Ramsey at the Forum before becoming a full-time PA announcer himself.

Ramsey could also be heard in various movies, including Two-Minute Warning.

In later years, Ramsey suffered from diabetes. He died on January 25, 1990 at Long Beach Veterans' Hospital of a heart attack at age 62.

John Ramsey's grandson, John Lamb, born seven months after Ramsey's death, made his Major League Baseball debut as the starting pitcher for the Cincinnati Reds at Dodger Stadium on August 14, 2015.

Larry Peerce

Lawrence "Larry" Peerce (born April 19, 1930) is an American film and TV director whose work includes the theatrical feature Goodbye, Columbus, the early rock and roll concert film The Big T.N.T. Show, One Potato, Two Potato (1964), The Other Side of the Mountain (1975), and Oscar nominee Two-Minute Warning (1976).

Marilyn Hassett

Marilyn Hassett (born December 17, 1947, Los Angeles, California) is an American screen and television actress.

Pamela Bellwood

Pamela Bellwood (born Pamela Anne King on June 26, 1951) is an American actress best known for her role as Claudia Blaisdel Carrington on the 1980s prime time soap opera, Dynasty.

Quarterback kneel

In American football, a quarterback kneel, also called taking a knee, genuflect offense, or victory formation occurs when the quarterback immediately kneels to the ground, ending the play on contact, after receiving the snap. It is primarily used to run the clock down, either at the end of the first half or the game itself, in order to preserve a lead or a win. Although it generally results in a loss of a yard and uses up a down, it minimizes the risk of a fumble, which would give the other team a chance at recovering the ball.

Especially when the outcome of the game has been well decided, defenses will often give little resistance to the play as a matter of sportsmanship as well as to reduce the risk of injuries, penalties and possible supplemental discipline (the latter considerations being increasingly important as referees and leagues more strictly enforce penalties against perceived unnecessary roughness on quarterbacks and against headshots in general) on what is a relatively simple play. The quarterback is generally not touched and the act of intentionally taking the knee results in the play being over in all variations of the sport.

The formation offers maximum protection against a fumble; should the center-quarterback exchange result in a fumble, a running back is lined up on either side of the quarterback, both to recover any fumble and protect the vulnerable kneeling player from being injured by defensive players who get through the line. Also, a player is lined up directly behind the quarterback, often much farther than a typical tailback would line up. This player's responsibility is to tackle any defensive player who may recover a fumble and attempt to advance it. Because of this essentially "defensive" responsibility, the tailback in this formation may actually be a free safety or other defensive player who is adept at making tackles in the open field.

Even though the play itself takes very little time, the rules of American football dictate that it does not stop the game clock (as with any play where the ball carrier is tackled in bounds). With the 40-second play clock in the NFL and NCAA, along with the two-minute warning in the NFL, a team can run off over two minutes with three straight kneel-downs if the defensive team has no more timeouts. The winning team can storm the field if up to 40 seconds remains in the game (35 in Alliance of American Football), to let coaches shake hands with each other. (In the AAF, as many as three straight "victory formations" from 105 seconds left in regulation can be done.)

The play is often known as a "victory formation", as it is most often run by a winning team late in the game in order to preserve a victory. In the case of a close game, the winning team would be trying to avoid a turnover which might be the result of a more complex play. In the case of a more lopsided contest where the winning team's overall point differential has no prospect of affecting their playoff qualification prospects, the play can be run as a matter of sportsmanship (since the winning team foregoes the opportunity to run up the score) and to avoid further injuries and/or penalties. In terms of statistics, a kneel by the quarterback is typically recorded as a rushing attempt for −1 or −2 yards.

Other sports also use the term "victory formation" for a play designed only to run down the clock with little chance of injury, such as a Jammer in roller derby skating behind or only lightly challenging the pack while the final seconds of the bout tick down.

Running out the clock

In sports, running out the clock (also known as running down the clock, stonewalling, killing the clock, chewing the clock, stalling, or eating clock) is the practice of a winning team allowing the clock to expire through a series of pre-selected plays, either to preserve a lead or hasten the end of a one-sided contest. Generally, it is the opposite strategy of running up the score. Most leagues take steps to prevent teams from doing this, with the most common measure being a time limit for completing a play, such as a play clock or shot clock.

The Angels (Australian band)

The Angels are an Australian rock band which formed in Taperoo, a small beach side suburb in Adelaide in 1974 as The Keystone Angels by John Brewster on rhythm guitar and vocals, his brother Rick Brewster on lead guitar and vocals, and Bernard "Doc" Neeson on lead vocals and guitar. They were later joined by Graham "Buzz" Bidstrup on drums and vocals, and Chris Bailey on bass guitar and vocals. In 1981 Bidstrup was replaced on drums by Brent Eccles. Their studio albums on the Kent Music Report Albums Chart top 10 are No Exit (July 1979), Dark Room (June 1980), Night Attack (November 1981), Two Minute Warning (November 1984), Howling (October 1986) and Beyond Salvation (February 1990). Their top 20 singles are "No Secrets" (1980), "Into the Heat" (1981), "We Gotta Get out of This Place" (1987), "Am I Ever Gonna See Your Face Again" (live, 1988), "Let the Night Roll On" and "Dogs Are Talking" (both 1990).

In the international market, to avoid legal problems with similarly named acts, their records have been released under the names, Angel City and later The Angels from Angel City. The Angels have been cited by Guns N' Roses, and Seattle grunge bands Pearl Jam and Nirvana, as having influenced their music. Neeson left the group in 1999 due to spinal injuries sustained in a car accident and they disbanded in the following year. Subsequently, competing versions of the group performed using the Angels name, until April 2008 when the original 1970s line-up reformed for a series of tours until 2011, when Neeson left again. Alternative versions continued with new members.

The Angels were inducted into the ARIA Hall of Fame in October 1998 with the line-up of Bailey, John and Rick Brewster, Eccles and Neeson. Australian musicologist, Ian McFarlane, declared that "The Angels had a profound effect on the Australian live music scene of the late 1970s/early 1980s. [They] helped redefine the Australian pub rock tradition... [their] brand of no-frills, hard-driving boogie rock attracted pub goers in unprecedented numbers. In turn, The Angels' shows raised the standard expected of live music. After 20 years on the road, the band showed little sign of easing up on the hard rock fever." Chris Bailey died on 4 April 2013, aged 62, after being diagnosed with throat cancer. Doc Neeson died on 4 June 2014, aged 67, of a brain tumour.

The World We Live In and Live in Hamburg

The World We Live In and Live in Hamburg is the first video release by Depeche Mode, featuring almost an entire concert from their 1984 Some Great Reward Tour, at the Alsterdorfer Sporthalle in Hamburg, Germany on 14 December 1984. It was directed by Clive Richardson. The name is a play on a lyric of the song "Somebody" (She will listen to me, when I want to speak about the world we live in and life in general...).

The number of songs on the video depends on the region. Some have eleven, some have seventeen. The seventeen-song version was re-released in 1999, though still on VHS, in Europe only and in Japan on other formats. It has yet to be released on DVD. The United States only has the 11-song version.

Two songs that were performed during the Hamburg concert, "Puppets" and "Ice Machine" (both written by ex member Vince Clarke) have yet to appear on any format. It is unclear why these were omitted from the original release.

Two Minute Warning (album)

Two Minute Warning is the seventh album by Australian band The Angels, released in 1984. This album ws released domestically under their own name. It was released in the US under their name Angel City. The album peaked at number 2 on the ARIA Charts and it peaked at number 31 on Recorded Music NZ.

Levels of play
Play clock

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