Tuva (/ˈtuːvə/; Russian: Тува́) or Tyva (Tuvan: Тыва), officially the Tyva Republic (Russian: Респу́блика Тыва́, tr. Respublika Tyva, IPA: [rʲɪˈspublʲɪkə tɨˈva]; Tuvan: Тыва Республика, Tyva Respublika [tʰɯˈʋa resˈpʰuplika]), is a federal subject of Russia (a republic, also defined in the Constitution of the Russian Federation as a state).
The Tuvan republic lies at the geographical center of Asia, in southern Siberia. The republic borders the Altai Republic, the Republic of Khakassia, Krasnoyarsk Krai, Irkutsk Oblast, and the Republic of Buryatia in Russia and Mongolia to the south. Its capital is the city of Kyzyl. It has a population of 307,930 (2010 census).
From 1921 to 1944, Tuva constituted a sovereign, independent nation under the name of Tannu Tuva, officially, the Tuvan People's Republic, or the People's Republic of Tannu Tuva. The independence of Tannu Tuva, however, was recognized only by its neighbors: the Soviet Union and Mongolia.
A majority of the population are ethnic Tuvans who speak Tuvan as their native tongue, while Russian is spoken natively by the Russian minority; both are official and widely understood in the republic. Tuva is governed by the Great Khural, which elects a chairman for a four-year term.
|• Tuvan||Тыва Республика|
|Anthem: Men – Tyva Men|
|Economic region||East Siberian|
|Established||March 31, 1992|
|• Body||Great Khural|
|• Chairman of the Government||Sholban Kara-ool|
|• Total||170,500 km2 (65,800 sq mi)|
| • Estimate |
|• Density||1.8/km2 (4.7/sq mi)|
|ISO 3166 code||RU-TY|
|Official languages||Russian; Tuvan|
|Tuvan Transliteration name|
|Tuvan Transliteration||Tyva Respublika|
The territory of Tuva has been controlled by the Xiongnu Empire (209 BC–93 AD) and Mongolian Xianbei state (93–234), Rouran Khaganate (330–555), Mongol Empire (1206–1368), Northern Yuan (1368–1691), Khotgoid Khanate and Zunghar Khanate (1634–1758). Medieval Mongol tribes, including Oirats and Tumeds, inhabited areas which are now part of the Tuvan republic.
From 1758–1911 it was part of Mongolia which was under Manchu rule itself. During the 1911 revolution in China, Tsarist Russia formed a separatist movement among the Tuvans. Tsar Nicholas II ordered Russian troops into Tuva in 1912, as Russian settlers were allegedly being attacked. Tuva became nominally independent as the Urjanchai Republic before being brought under Russian protectorate as Uryankhay Kray under Tsar Nicholas II, on 17 April 1914.
A Tuvan capital was established, called Belotsarsk (Белоца́рск; literally, "(Town) of the White Tsar"). Meanwhile, in 1911 Mongolia became independent, though under Russian protection. Following the Russian Revolution of 1917 that ended the imperial autocracy, most of Tuva was occupied from 5 July 1918 to 15 July 1919 by Aleksandr Kolchak's "White" Russian troops. Pyotr Ivanovich Turchaninov was named the governor of the territory. In the autumn of 1918, the southwestern part was occupied by Chinese troops and the southern part by Mongol troops led by Khatanbaatar Magsarjav.
From July 1919 to February 1920 the communist Red Army controlled Tuva but from 19 February 1920 to June 1921 it was occupied by China (governor was Yan Shichao [traditional, Wade–Giles transliteration: Yan Shi-ch'ao]). On August 14, 1921, the Bolsheviks established the Tuvan People's Republic, popularly called Tannu-Tuva. In 1926, the capital (Belotsarsk; Khem-Beldyr since 1918) was renamed Kyzyl, meaning "red". Tuva was de jure an independent state between the World Wars. The state's first ruler, Prime Minister Donduk, sought to strengthen ties with Mongolia and establish Buddhism as the state religion. This unsettled the Kremlin, which orchestrated a coup carried out in 1929 by five young Tuvan graduates of Moscow's Communist University of the Toilers of the East.
In 1930, the pro-Soviet regime discarded the state's Mongol script in favor of a Latin alphabet designed for Tuva by Russian linguists. In 1943 Cyrillic script replaced Latin. Under the leadership of Party Secretary Salchak Toka, ethnic Russians were granted full citizenship rights and Buddhist and Mongol influences on the Tuvan state and society were systematically reduced.
Tuva became a part of the Soviet Union in 1944, with the approval of Tuva's Little Khural (parliament). The exact circumstances surrounding Tannu-Tuva's incorporation into the USSR in 1944 remain obscure. Salchak Toka, the leader of the Tuvan People's Revolutionary Party, was given the title of First Secretary of the Tuvan Communist Party and became the de facto ruler of Tuva until his death in 1973. Tuva became the Tuvan Autonomous Oblast and, later, Tuva Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic, on October 10, 1961.
In February 1990, the Tuvan Democratic Movement was founded by Kaadyr-ool Bicheldei, a philologist at Kyzyl State Pedagogical Institute. The party aimed to provide jobs and housing (both were in short supply), and also to improve the status of Tuvan language and culture. Later in the year, there was a wave of attacks against Tuva's sizeable Russian community, including sniper attacks on trucks and attacks on outlying settlements with 168 murdered. Russian troops eventually were called in. Many Russians moved out of the republic during this period. To this day, Tuva remains remote and difficult to access.
Tuva was a signatory to the March 31, 1992 treaty that created the Russian Federation. A new constitution for the republic was drawn up on October 22, 1993. This created a 32-member parliament (Supreme Khural) and a Grand Khural, which deals with local legislation. This constitution was passed by 53.9% (or 62.2%, according to another source) of Tuvans in a referendum on December 12, 1993. At the same time, the official name was changed from Tuva (Тува) to Tyva (Тыва).
The republic is situated in the far south of Siberia. Its capital city of Kyzyl is located near the geographic "center of Asia". The eastern part of the republic is forested and elevated, and the west is a drier lowland.
There are over 8,000 rivers in the republic. The area includes the upper course of the Yenisei River, the fifth longest river in the world. Most of the republic's rivers are Yenisei tributaries. There are also numerous mineral springs in the area.
Major rivers include:
There are numerous lakes in Tuva, many of which are glacial and salt lakes, including Todzha Lake, a.k.a. Azas Lake (100 km²) – the largest in the republic, and Uvs Lake (shared with Mongolia and a World Heritage Site).
The area of the republic is a mountain basin, about 600 m high, encircled by the Sayan and Tannu-Ola ranges. Mountains and hills cover over 80% of the territory. Mongun-Tayga ("Silver Mountain", 3,970 m) is the highest point in the republic and is named after its glacier.
Major natural mineral resources of Tuva include coal, iron ore, gold, and cobalt. Fauna include sable, lynx, wolverine, weasel, maral, Siberian ibex, musk deer, bears, snow leopards, ground squirrels, flying foxes, and eagles.
The Tuva Republic is administratively divided into seventeen districts and two cities under republic jurisdiction (urban okrugs) (Kyzyl and Ak-Dovurak). The districts are further subdivided into sumons (rural settlements), towns under district jurisdiction (urban settlements), and urban-type settlements.
According to the 2010 Census, Tuvans make up 82.0% of the republic's population. Other groups include Russians (16.3%), and a host of smaller groups, each accounting for less than 0.5% of the total population.
|1959 census||1970 census||1979 census||1989 census||2002 census||2010 census1|
|18,689 people were registered from administrative databases, and could not declare an ethnicity. It is estimated that the proportion of ethnicities in this group is the same as that of the declared group.|
As can be seen above, during the period 1959–2010 there has been more than a doubling of ethnic Tuvans. The Russian population growth slowed by the 1980s and decreased by 50% since 1989. The official languages are Tuvan (Turkic) and Russian (Slavic).
Outside Kyzyl, settlements have few if any Russian inhabitants and, in general, Tuvans use their original language as their first language. However, there is a small population of Old Believers in the Republic scattered in some of the most isolated areas. Before Soviet rule, there were a number of large ethnic Russian Old Believer villages, but as the atheist ideology crept in, the believers moved deeper and deeper into the Taiga in order to avoid contact with outsiders. Major Old Believer villages are Erzhei, Uzhep, Unzhei, Zhivei and Bolee Malkiye (all in the Kaa-Khemsky District). Smaller ultra-Orthodox settlements are found further upstream.
Ethnic Russians make up 38.68% of the population (as of 2002 Census) in Kaa-Khemsky District, one of the most remote regions in Tuva. The population is mostly Old Believers. Russians account for 34.12% of the population in Piy-Khemsky and 19.80% in Todzhinsky. In Kyzyl, they account for 37.02%.
Two religions are widespread among the people of Tuva: Tibetan Buddhism and shamanism. Tibetan Buddhism's present-day spiritual leader is Tenzin Gyatso, the fourteenth Dalai Lama. In September 1992, the fourteenth Dalai Lama visited Tuva for three days. On September 20, he blessed and consecrated the new yellow-blue-white flag of Tuva, which had been officially adopted three days previously.
During the 16th and 17th centuries, Tibetan Buddhism gained popularity in Tuva. An increasing number of new and restored temples are coming into use, as well as novices being trained as monks and lamas. Religious practice declined under the restrictive policies of the Soviet period but is now flourishing.
Shamanism is being revived as well, also in organized Tengrian forms.
According to a 2012 survey, 61.8% of the population of Tuva adheres to Buddhism, 8% to Tengrism or Tuvan shamanism, 1.5% to the Russian Orthodox Church, the Old Believers or other forms of Christianity, 1% to Protestantism. In addition, 7.7% follows other religion or did not give an answer to the survey, 8% of the population declares to be "spiritual but not religious" and 12% to be atheist.
The head of the government in Tuva is the Chairman of the Government, who is elected for a four-year term. The first Chairman of the Government was Sherig-ool Oorzhak. As of 2007, the Chairman of the Government was Sholban Kara-ool. Tuva's legislature, the Great Khural, has 162 seats; each deputy is elected to serve a four-year term. The present flag of Tuva – yellow for prosperity, blue for courage and strength, white for purity – was adopted on 17 September 1992.
The Republic's Constitution was adopted on 23 October 1993. On 3 April 2007, Russian president Vladimir Putin nominated Sholban Kara-ool, 40, a former champion wrestler, as the Chairman of the Government of Tuva. Sholban Kara-ool's candidacy was approved by the Khural on April 9, 2007.
Tuva has a developing mining industry (coal, cobalt, gold, and more). Food processing, timber, and metalworking industries are also well-developed. Most of the industrial production is concentrated in the capital Kyzyl and in Ak-Dovurak. According to the HDI, the Republic of Tuva is the least developed region in Russia.
Tuva is a region with a unique history, culture, and nature. All native zones of the Earth except savanna (even rainforest, see Southern Siberian rainforest) are featured in Tuva. There are more than 100 mineral springs in Tuva. The biggest of which are the warm mineral springs Ush-Beldir and Tarys, the temperature of the water is 52-85 °C.
Cold mineral springs and salt lakes are popular among tourists and the general population for their medicinal qualities. The geographical location of Tuva between the east-Siberian taiga and central-Asian landscape engenders a wealth of flora and fauna.
Tuva does not have a railway, although famous postage stamps in the 1930s, designed in Moscow during the time of Tuvan independence, mistakenly depict locomotives as demonstrating Soviet-inspired progress there. 
Traditionally the Tuvan people are a Central Asian Yurt-dwelling nomadic culture, with distinctive traditions in music, cuisine, and folk art. Tuvan music features Tuvan throat singing (khoomei), in which the singer sings a fundamental tone and an overtone simultaneously. This type of singing can be heard during performances by the Tuva National Orchestra.
The singer Sainkho Namtchylak has an international following. Namtchylak is also very involved with Tuvan culture. Every year inviting Western musicians to perform in Kyzyl and to learn about Tuva, its culture, and its music.
The Tuvan craft tradition includes carving soft stone (agalmatolite). A frequent motif is hand-held-sized animals such as horses. 
Important archaelogical excavation in Tuva include Arzhaan-1 , dating to the ninth Century BC.  and Arzhaan-2, where Scythian animal art in great variety, and over 9,000 decorative gold pieces were unearthed.  A collection of gold jewelry from this site is on display at the National Museum Aldan-Maadyr in Kyzyl.
Festivals celebrating Tuvan traditions include the ecological film festival "The Living Path of Dersu", the Interregional Festival of National Cultures "Heart of Asia". It has become a tradition to hold the international festival of live music "Ustuu-Khuree", the International Symposium "Khoomei - the Phenomenon of the Culture of the Peoples of Central Asia", the Regional Competition-Festival of Performers on National Instruments "Dingildai", the International Felt Festival "Patterns of Life on Felt" Pop songs "Melodies of the Sayan Mountains".
Khuresh, the Tuvan form of wrestling, is a very popular sport. The competitors wear colorful costumes with long-sleeved robes, with the objective of throwing their opponent to the ground. Competitions are held at the annual Naadym festival at Tos-Bulak. 
The Tuvan language is Turkic, although with many loan-words from Mongolian. It is currently written with a modified Cyrillic alphabet, previously used Turkic runes, later Mongolian, then Latin alphabets. Then, Tuva was administered as part of Outer Mongolia, and the language difference was a determining factor in Tuva seeking full independence from Outer Mongolia, following the collapse of the Qing dynasty of China in 1911.
Tuva is one of the few places in the world where the original form of shamanism is preserved as part of the traditional culture of Tuva. Shamanism presupposes the existence of good and evil spirits inhabiting mountains, forests and water, the heavens and the underworld. The mediator between man and the spirits is the shaman. It is believed that with the help of spirits the shaman is able to cure patients and to predict the future.
In Tuva, shamanism peacefully coexists with Buddhism. Buddhism is associated with many folk rituals, calendar holidays, and folk medicines in Tuva. Centers of Buddhism in Tuva are Khuree – temples, temple complexes. The temple complex Tsechenling in Kyzyl – the residence of Kamba-Lama, head of Buddhism in Tuva. Treasures of the old Slavonic culture in the Asian Tuva saved along with the values of other peoples – children's folklore ensemble "Oktay" from the city of Kyzyl in the course several ethnographic expeditions In the old believers ' settlements were able to collect and record of conservatives extensive collection of samples of ancient singing art.
The most important facilities of higher education include the Tuvan State University and the Tuvan Institute of Humanities, both in the capital, Kyzyl.
Feynman's efforts to reach Tuva are chronicled in the book Tuva or Bust! and the video The Quest For Tannu Tuva: Richard Feynman – The Last Journey of a Genius (1988) which can be viewed online on YouTube. Project Tuva was named in honor of his efforts.
The administrative-territorial structure of the Tuva Republic in 2008–2011 was regulated by the Law #627 VKh-2, adopted on March 19, 2008. According to the law, the units of the administrative division mirror the municipal divisions of the republic and include the municipal districts, urban okrugs, urban settlements, and rural settlements.
The law also allows the use of alternative terminology to refer to the units of the administrative divisions. The term "municipal district" is used on par with the ethnic term "kozhuun", while the term "rural settlement" is used on par with the ethnic term "sumon".
"Kozhuun" (Russian and Tuvan: кожуун) is the Tuvan term of a historical feudal administrative division known as a banner. Tuva historically had nine kozhuuns named Tozhu, Salchak, Oyunnar, Khemchik, Khaasuut, Shalyk, Nibazy, Daa-van and Choodu, and Beezi. Each kozhuun was divided into sumu which was then subdivided into arban. In modern Tuva, the term "arban" is still used to refer to a type of rural locality, which has a population of fewer than 500 inhabitants and no independent budget.Flag of Tuva
The flag of Tuva, a republic in the Russian Federation, is a light blue field with a white-fimbriated pall of the same color bordering a yellow triangle on the hoist.
White symbolizes silver and virtue; additionally, it is common in Tuva for hostesses to greet guests with silver streamers in their arms. The yellow triangle symbolizes gold and Buddhism. Blue symbolizes the morals of nomadic herdsmen (who are commonly respected in the region), as well the Tuvan sky. The blue pall symbolizes the confluence of the Bii-Khem (Bolshoy Yenisei) and Kaa-Khem (Maly Yenisei) rivers at the Tuvan capital of Qızıl, where they form the Yenisei River, known to locals as the Ulug-Khem River.
The flag was created on September 18, 1992, by Oyun-ool Sat, I. C. Salchak and O. I. Lazarev. The proportions are 2:3.Great Khural of Tuva
The Great Khural of the Republic of Tyva (Tuvan: Тыва Республиканың Дээди Хуралы (парламентизи), romanized: Tyva Respublikanyng Deedi Khuraly, pronounced [tʰɯˈʋa resˈpʰuplikanɯŋ teːti xuˈralɯ pʰaɾˈlamẽtʰizi]; Russian: Верховный Хурал (парламент) Республики Тыва, tr. Verkhovny Khural (parlament) Respubliki Tyva) is the legislative (representative) authority of the Republic of Tyva, replaced the former Supreme Council in 1994.Kyzyl Airport
Kyzyl Airport (Russian: Аэропорт Кызыл) (IATA: KYZ, ICAO: UNKY) serves Kyzyl, the capital of the Tyva Republic (Tuva) in the Russian Federation. The airport is located 6 km southwest of the city center.Men – Tyva Men
Men – tıva men (Tuvan: Мен – тыва мен, pronounced [mẽ̞n ǀ tʰɯˈʋä mẽ̞n]) is the anthem of the Republic of Tuva, a federal subject of Russia. It was composed by Olonbayar Gantomir with words by Bayantsagaan Oohiy. It was adopted officially by the Great Khural on 11 August 2011, replacing the previous anthem Tooruktug Dolgay Tangdym.Postage stamps and postal history of Tannu Tuva
The People's Republic of Tannu Tuva issued postage stamps between 1926 and 1936. They were popular with stamp collectors in the Western world in the mid-twentieth century because of the obscurity and exoticism of Tannu Tuva and the stamps' quirky, colorful designs. The validity of many stamps purportedly issued by Tannu Tuva has been questioned by philatelists.Tooruktug Dolgay Tangdym
Tooruktug Dolgay Tangdym (Tuvan: Тооруктуг долгай таңдым, lit. 'The Forest is Full of Pine Nuts') is an old Tuvan folk song that became the national anthem of the Tuvan Autonomous Republic and later official regional anthem of the Republic of Tuva, Russia. On 11 August 2011, it was replaced by a new anthem titled Men – Tyva Men.
The song expresses the Tuvan belief that a person who takes care of his environment, his livestock, and the plentiful taiga will want for nothing. It refers to Tangdy, or the Tannu-Ola mountains, a mountain range in southern Tuva that is revered by the Tuvan people. The name of the mountain range is incorporated into "Tannu-Tuva," the popular name for the Tuvan People's Republic.Tuva Airlines
Tuva Airlines (Russian: ОАО «Тувинские Авиалинии», romanized: OAO «Tuvinskije Avialinii») is an airline based in Kyzyl, in the Russian federal republic of Tuva.Tuva Moflag
Tuva Moflag (born 17 March 1979) is a Norwegian politician.
She served as mayor of Ski from 2015 and was elected representative to the Storting for the period 2017–2021 for the Labour Party.Tuva Novotny
Tuva Moa Matilda Karolina Novotny Hedström (born 21 December 1979), known as Tuva Novotny, is a Swedish actress, director, and singer.She was born in Stockholm, and was raised in Åmot, Brunskog, outside Arvika. She is the daughter of Czech film director David Jan Novotný and Swedish artist Barbro Hedström.Tuva in World War II
The Tuvan People’s Republic entered World War II on the side of the Allied Powers, shortly after the invasion of the Soviet Union.
The Tuva volunteer forces took part in the battles on the eastern front as part of the formations of the Workers and Peasants Red Army. On October 14, 1944, the Tuva People's Republic became part of the Soviet Union, becoming the Tuva Autonomous Region. From that moment on, the Tuvans participated in hostilities until the end of the Second World War as citizens of the Soviet Union.Tuva silver vole
The Tuva silver vole (Alticola tuvinicus) is a species of rodent in the family Cricetidae.
It is found in Mongolia and Russian Federation.Tuvan Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic
The Tuvan Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic (Russian: Тувинская Автономная Советская Социалистическая Республика; Tuvan: Тыва Автономнуг Совет Социалистиг Республика), or the Tuvan ASSR (Russian: Тувинская АССР; Tuvan: Тыва АССР), was an autonomous republic of the Russian SFSR. It was created on 10 October 1961 from the Tuvan Autonomous Oblast. On 31 March 1992, its successor, the Tuva Republic, became a constituent member of the Russian Federation.Tuvan People's Republic
The Tuvan People's Republic (or People's Republic of Tannu Tuva; Tuvan: Тыва Арат Республик, romanized: Tıwa Arat Respublik; Uniform Turkic Alphabet: Tьʙа Arat Respuʙlik, IPA: [tʰɯˈʋa aˈɾatʰ resˈpʰuplik]; 1921–1944) was a partially recognized puppet state in the territory of the former Tuvan protectorate of Imperial Russia also known as Uryankhaisky Krai (Russian: Урянхайский край).The Soviet Union and Mongolia were the only countries to formally recognize its existence. It was annexed by the Soviet Union in 1944, at the request of Tuva's parliament.Tuvan language
Tuvan (Tuvan: тыва дыл, tıwa dıl; [tʰɯˈʋa tɯl]), also known as Tuvinian, Tyvan or Tuvin, is a Turkic language spoken in the Republic of Tuva in south-central Siberia in Russia. The language has borrowed a great number of roots from the Mongolian language, Tibetan and the Russian language. There are small diaspora groups of Tuvan people that speak distinct dialects of Tuvan in the People's Republic of China and in Mongolia.Tuvan throat singing
Tuvan throat singing, Khoomei, Hooliin Chor (in Mongolian, ‘throat harmony’), or Mongolian throat singing is one particular variant of overtone singing practiced by people in Mongolia, Inner Mongolia, Tuva and Siberia. In 2009, it was inscribed on the Representative List of the Intangible Cultural Heritage of Humanity of UNESCO, under the name Mongolian art of singing, Khoomei.In Mongolian throat singing, the performer produces a fundamental pitch and—simultaneously—one or more pitches over that. The history of Mongolian throat singing reaches far back. Many male herders can throat sing, but women are beginning to practice the technique as well. The popularity of throat singing among Mongolians seems to have arisen as a result of geographic location and culture. The open landscape of Mongolia allows for the sounds to carry a great distance. Ethnomusicologists studying throat singing in these areas mark khoomei as an integral part in the ancient pastoral animism that is still practiced today. Often, singers travel far into the countryside looking for the right river, or go up to the steppes of the mountainside to create the proper environment for throat-singing.The animistic world view of this region identifies the spirituality of objects in nature, not just in their shape or location, but in their sound as well. Thus, human mimicry of nature's sounds is seen as the root of throat singing. An example of this is the Mongolian story of the waterfall above the Buyant Göl (Deer River in Tuvan), where mysterious harmonic sounds are said to have attracted deer to bask in the waters, and where it is said harmonic sounds were first revealed to people. Indeed, the cultures in this part of Asia have developed many instruments and techniques to mimic the sounds of animals, wind, and water. While the cultures of this region share throat singing, their styles vary in breadth of development.
Ordinarily, melodies are created by isolating the 6th, 7th, 8th, 9th, 10th and 12th partial in accordance with the harmonic series. Thus, if the fundamental frequency were C3, the overtones would be G5, B♭5, C6, D6, E6, G6. However, it is possible to reach as low as the 2nd and as high as the 24th. The fundamental pitch is typically around a G below middle C, and this affects the range of partials the singer can reach, with higher partials more easily reached on lower notes, and vice versa.
The people of Tuva have a wide range of throat singing vocalizations, and were the pioneers of six pitch harmonics. There are several different classification schemes for Tuvan throat singing. In one, the three basic styles are khoomei, kargyraa and sygyt, while the sub-styles include borbangnadyr, chylandyk, dumchuktaar, ezengileer and kanzyp. In another, there are five basic styles: khoomei, sygyt, kargyraa, borbangnadyr and ezengileer. The substyles include chylandyk, despeng borbang, opei khoomei, buga khoomei, kanzyp, khovu kargyraazy, kozhagar kargyraazy, dag kargyraazy, Oidupaa kargyraazy, uyangylaar, damyraktaar, kishteer, serlennedyr and byrlannadyr. These schemes all use Tuvan terminology.Tuvans
The Tuvans or Tuvinians (Tuvan: Тывалар, Tıvalar; Mongolian: Тува, Tuva) are a Turkic ethnic group native to Tuva. They speak Tuvan, a Siberian Turkic language. They are also regarded in Mongolia as one of the Uriankhai peoples.Tuvans have historically been cattle-herding nomads, tending to herds of goats, sheep, camels, reindeer, cattle and yaks for the past thousands of years. They have traditionally lived in yurts covered by felt or chums covered with birch bark or hide that they relocate seasonally as they move to newer pastures. Traditionally, the Tuvans were divided into nine regions called khoshuun, namely the Tozhu, Salchak, Oyunnar, Khemchik, Khaasuut, Shalyk, Nibazy, Daavan and Choodu, and Beezi. The first four were ruled by Uriankhai Mongol princes, while the rest were administered by Borjigin Mongol princes.Uvs Lake Basin
Uvs Lake Basin (also Uvs Nuur Basin or Ubs Nuur Basin; Mongolian: Увс нуурын хотгор, romanized: Uws nuuriin hotgor) is an endorheic basin located on the territorial border of Mongolia and Tuva, a republic of the Russian Federation. The basin is part of the Central Asian Internal Drainage Basin and is named after Uvs Lake (Uvs Nuur, Ubsu Nur), a large saline lake situated in the western part of its drainage basin. Uvs Lake is a shallow lake with an area of 3,350 km2 (1,290 sq mi). Its entire basin, which includes several smaller lakes, is 70,000 km2 (27,000 sq mi).Uvs Lake Basin may also refer to Ubsunur Hollow (Russian: Убсунурская котловина, Ubsunorskaya Kotlovina), which is the western part of the drainage basin, or to over 10,000 km2 (3,900 sq mi) of protected areas covering the lake and its surroundings. The hollow forms the northern part of the Great Lakes Depression, which has a surface of over 100,000 km2 (39,000 sq mi). The hollow, and most of the drainage basin, are situated in the Khövsgöl, Zavkhan and Uvs Provinces of north-western Mongolia, and the Mongun-Tayginsky, Ovyursky, Tes-Khemsky and Erzinsky Districts of southern Tuva.
The basin is part of a combination of raised lands and hollows located throughout the Tannu-Ola and Altai mountainous regions. Here, the world's most northern desert meets the Northern Hemisphere's most southern tundra zone. An area of 10,560 km2 (4,080 sq mi), around three quarters of which lies in Mongolia, was designated Biosphere Reserve in 1997, and a partly overlapping zone of around the same size was designated UNESCO World Heritage in 2003. The Mongolian part of the lake and its immediate surroundings were further adopted as Ramsar wetland in 2004.Vehicle registration plates of Russia
Vehicle registration plates are the mandatory number plates used to display the registration mark of a vehicle, and have existed in Russia for many decades. Most motor vehicles which are used on public roads are required by law to display them. Having them covered by snow or mud constitutes an administrative offense, that leads to a fine. So does covering them with a piece of paper, or any other tool that makes any of the digits and letters illegible.
Territorial disputes in East, South, and Southeast Asia