Tutul-Xiu

Tutul-Xiu, also Tutul Xiues or Mani, was the name of a Mayan chiefdom of the central Yucatán Peninsula with capital in Maní, before the arrival of the Spanish conquistadors in the sixteenth century.[1]

Kuchkabal Tutul Xiu
1441–1547
Kuchkabals of Yucatan after 1461.
Kuchkabals of Yucatan after 1461.
CapitalManí
Common languagesOfficial language:
Yucatec
Religion
Maya religion
GovernmentMonarchy
Halach Uinik 
Historical erapost classic / Early Modern
• Established
1441
• Disestablished
1547
Preceded by
Succeeded by
League of Mayapan
New Spain

History

Before The League Of Mayapan

In the Seventh century the Tutul Xiues migrated to Yucatán. There their leader Ah Suytok Tutul Xiu, nicknamed Chac Uitzil Hun, founded Uxmal. The date that this happened is disputed by a codex from Tizimin, and another from Mani. In 869 Ah Mekat Tutul Xiu ruler of the Tutul xius moved to Uxmal from Nonohual. Nonohual's location is unknown, but was probably in Peten, it also might have been another name for Potonchán in Tabasco or Tula. The Tutul Xius were the main group of people forcing the Itzas out of Chichen Itza.

Mayapan Panorama1a
Mayapan was founded around the same time as Uxmal

The end of the League

In 1441 the league had a civil war betweenthe Cocom and Tutul Xiues. The rest of the league took advantage of the war, and rebelled. By 1461 The League of Mayapan had been completely disintegrated into seventeen Kuchkabals.

Independence

After the war between the Tutul xiues and the Cocom the two managed to have peaceful relations until 1535. In 1535 the Cocom went to the ruins of Chichen Itza to perform a ceremony. They were ambushed by the Tutul Xiues. After that there was heavy conflict between the two.

Organization

Normally each Kuchkabal had a capital where the ruler and supreme priest lived. The ruler was called a Halach Uinik . Each Kuchkabal was divided into several municipalities called "Batalib" which in turn were governed by officials called " Batab "who were usually relatives of the Halach Uinik. Each Batab, was the military leader of its population.

Maya ruins in Mexico 003
Uxmal was a major city before the league broke up. It remained important afterward, but was no longer the capital.

On the religious side, after Halach Uinik, was the Ah Kin May, and the regular priests Ah Kin (meaning coming from the Sun). Also there was a sacrificial priest called "Ah Nacom".

European contact

In the final conquest of Yucatán during the late 1540s Tutul Xiu was heavily beaten and formed an alliance with the Spaniards.

References

  1. ^ Roys, Ralph Loveland (1957). The political geography of the Yucatan Maya. Carnegie Institution of Washington. p. 61. Retrieved 5 July 2012.

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