Tutul-Xiu

Tutul-Xiu, also Tutul Xiues or Mani, was the name of a Mayan chiefdom of the central Yucatán Peninsula with capital in Maní, before the arrival of the Spanish conquistadors in the sixteenth century.[1]

Kuchkabal Tutul Xiu
1441–1547
Kuchkabals of Yucatan after 1461.
Kuchkabals of Yucatan after 1461.
CapitalManí
Common languagesOfficial language:
Yucatec
Religion
Maya religion
GovernmentMonarchy
Halach Uinik 
Historical erapost classic / Early Modern
• Established
1441
• Disestablished
1547
Preceded by
Succeeded by
League of Mayapan
New Spain

History

Before The League Of Mayapan

In the Seventh century the Tutul Xiues migrated to Yucatán. There their leader Ah Suytok Tutul Xiu, nicknamed Chac Uitzil Hun, founded Uxmal. The date that this happened is disputed by a codex from Tizimin, and another from Mani. In 869 Ah Mekat Tutul Xiu ruler of the Tutul xius moved to Uxmal from Nonohual. Nonohual's location is unknown, but was probably in Peten, it also might have been another name for Potonchán in Tabasco or Tula. The Tutul Xius were the main group of people forcing the Itzas out of Chichen Itza.

Mayapan Panorama1a
Mayapan was founded around the same time as Uxmal

The end of the League

In 1441 the league had a civil war betweenthe Cocom and Tutul Xiues. The rest of the league took advantage of the war, and rebelled. By 1461 The League of Mayapan had been completely disintegrated into seventeen Kuchkabals.

Independence

After the war between the Tutul xiues and the Cocom the two managed to have peaceful relations until 1535. In 1535 the Cocom went to the ruins of Chichen Itza to perform a ceremony. They were ambushed by the Tutul Xiues. After that there was heavy conflict between the two.

Organization

Normally each Kuchkabal had a capital where the ruler and supreme priest lived. The ruler was called a Halach Uinik . Each Kuchkabal was divided into several municipalities called "Batalib" which in turn were governed by officials called " Batab "who were usually relatives of the Halach Uinik. Each Batab, was the military leader of its population.

Maya ruins in Mexico 003
Uxmal was a major city before the league broke up. It remained important afterward, but was no longer the capital.

On the religious side, after Halach Uinik, was the Ah Kin May, and the regular priests Ah Kin (meaning coming from the Sun). Also there was a sacrificial priest called "Ah Nacom".

European contact

In the final conquest of Yucatán during the late 1540s Tutul Xiu was heavily beaten and formed an alliance with the Spaniards.

References

  1. ^ Roys, Ralph Loveland (1957). The political geography of the Yucatan Maya. Carnegie Institution of Washington. p. 61. Retrieved 5 July 2012.
10th century

The 10th century was the period from 901 to 1000 in accordance with the Julian calendar, and the last century of the 1st millennium.

In China the Song dynasty was established. The Muslim World experienced a cultural zenith, especially in al-Andalus under the Caliphate of Córdoba. Additionally, it was the zenith for the Byzantine and Bulgarian Empires.

Medievalist and historian of technology Lynn White said that "to the modern eye, it is very nearly the darkest of the Dark Ages", but concluded that ". . . if it was dark, it was the darkness of the womb." Similarly, Helen Waddell wrote that the 10th century was that which "in the textbooks disputes with the seventh the bad eminence, the nadir of the human intellect." In the 15th century, Lorenzo Valla described it as the Century of Lead and Iron and later Cardinal Baronius as the Leaden Century or Iron Century.

According to one estimate, the tenth century saw fewer deaths in war (as a percentage of the total population) than any other century since 3000 BC.

Ah Kin Chel

Ah Kin Chel was the name of a Maya chiefdom or Kuchkabal of the northern Yucatán Peninsula, before the arrival of the Spanish conquistadors in the sixteenth century.Ah Kin Chel was founded with the capital at Tecoh in 1441 when the League of Mayapan collapsed and was divided into seventeen nations.

Ah Mekat Tutul Xiu

Ah Mekat Tutul Xiu established an alliance between Uxmal, Chichen Itza and Mayapan in the span of thirteen years (987–1007 AD). He founded the League of Mayapan; a confederation between the Maya in Yucatán. Other than the three capitals, it included the manors of Izamal, Tulum, Ichpatún, the Cocom and others. This alliance existed from 987 to 1461. In 1194, the Itza for the second time abandoned Chichén Itzá to settle in the Petén. Later, Hunac Ceel would separate the Itza from the rest of the League.

Ah Suytok Tutul Xiu

Ah Suytok Tutul Xiu or Ah Zuytok Tutul Xiu was the spiritual leader of the Maya Tutul Xiu people. Founder of the city of Uxmal in the 7th century. He was from the Nonohual. Nonohual's location is unknown, but was probably in Peten, it also might have been another name for Potonchán in Tabasco or Tula. He was also known by his nickname coconut kaba or "Hun Uitzil Chac" Mayan language : Hun Uitzil Chac, 'the only mountain of Chac')

The Chilam Balam of Tizimín, describes Zuytok Ah Tutul Xiu as founded the city of Uxmal in the Katun 10 Ahau (669) However the Chilam Balam of Mani describes the same fact in the Katun 2 Ahau (620) Either way it is this character who is attributed the founding of the city.

Three centuries later the priestly house of Tutul-Xiu of Uxmal was part of the League of Mayapan

Ah Xiu Xupan

Ah Xiu Xupan

(Maya glyphs

) was the last known ruler of the Mayan chiefdom of Tutul-Xiu when it was part of the League of Mayapan.

In 1441, Ah Xiu Xupan, who was the great ruler of Uxmal at that time, was given the task of starting a war with the royal family of Cocom, which founded Tibolón. He managed to kill everyone except for one Cocom survivor. The war between Uxmal and Cocom plunged the league into chaos; there was segregation in the provinces and several uprisings broke out. By 1461, the league was completely disintegrated.

After the war, Yucatán was divided into sixteen kuchkabals.

Batab

Batab, which is Mayan for 'Local village chief, chieftain' (Plural: batabo'ob), was the name given to the chief of a town or village called batabil (plural batalibob).

Sometimes, various batalibo'ob situated in a limited area or jurisdiction in Mayan lands, called a Kuchkabal, could have a variable political or governmental organization concentrating the highest military, priestly, and social authority in one person who was called Halach uinik, whom everyone obeyed, and could work through a council of batabob that met regularly to make important decisions. In either case the batabob usually belonged to one family or lineage, and because of that, the batab's surname could be used in place of a title. Ah Canul, Tutul Xiu, Cupul are examples.

When there was an ahau, he chose the batab from among members of the aristocracy, usually from among those closely related to him.

In each batalib, the batab relied on other people to perform their duties: the Ah Kulel was a kind of attorney who executed the orders of batab, and tupiles, who were more numerous, were similar to police officers.

Can Pech

Can Pech (also Cun Pech, Kaan Pech, or Kaan Peech) was the name of a Maya chiefdom of the southwestern Yucatán Peninsula, before the arrival of the Spanish conquistadors in the sixteenth century. Can Pech was south of Ah Canul and north of Chakán Putum, on the coast of the Gulf of Mexico.

In 1517 the population of the capital city Campeche was approximately 36,000 (judging by the description of the city by Bernal Diaz del Castillo).

Chacsinkín Municipality

Chacsinkín Municipality (Yucatec Maya: "firewood reddened by time or plant of the red flowers") is one of the 106 municipalities in the Mexican state of Yucatán containing (158.40 km2) of land and is located roughly 120 kilometres (75 mi) southeast of the city of Mérida.

Chakán Putum

Chakán Putum was the name of a Mayan chiefdom of the southwestern Yucatán Peninsula, before the arrival of the Spanish conquistadors in the sixteenth century.

It was named after the capital city Chakan Putum. The city had approximately 8000 houses. It was a major port.

Cupul

Cupul or Kupul, (Maya: Kupul, 'toponímico; adjective') was the name of a Maya chiefdom at time of the Spanish conquest of Yucatán. Cupul was one of the most extensive and densely populated Maya provinces on the Yucatán Peninsula. It was formed in the mid-fifteenth century after the fall of Mayapan and reached its maximum power during the sixteenth century, at the time of their own Spanish conquest led by the adelantado Francisco de Montejo. According to the Encyclopedia Yucatán in time, the Mayan voice ku-pul, means that throws the bouncing, giving a connotation referring to the Mayan ballplayers that existed in the region.

Hocabá-Homún

Hocabá-Homún, Hokabá-Homún or Hocabá was the name of a Maya Kuchkabal of the northwestern Yucatán Peninsula, before the arrival of the Spanish conquistadors in the sixteenth century.

Kuchkabal

The Kuchkabal, Ah Kuch-Kab, or Ah Cuch-Cab (plural Kuchkabalob) were the forms of government used by the pre-Columbian nations of the Yucatan Peninsula. There were somewhere between 16 and 24 kuchkabalob in the 16th century. Kuchkabal could also refer to the ruling family.

League of Mayapan

The League of Mayapan (Yucatec Luub Mayapan Maya glyphs ) was a confederation of Maya states in the post classic period of Mesoamerica on the Yucatan peninsula.

The main members of the league were the Itza, the Tutul-Xiu, Mayapan, and Uxmal.

Mayapan means flag of the Maya.

Maní Municipality

Maní Municipality (In the Yucatec Maya Language: 'Place where everything happened', properly 'to travel or walk to some place’, that is, pasar caminando a alguna parte; desfilar; transitar) is one of the 106 municipalities in the Mexican state of Yucatán containing (85.59 km2) of land and is located roughly 90 km south of the city of Mérida.

Muna Municipality

Muna Municipality (In the Yucatec Maya Language: “soft water") is one of the 106 municipalities in the Mexican state of Yucatán containing (270.81 km2) of land and is located roughly 50 km south of the city of Mérida.

Napuc Chi

Napuc Chi (died ca. 1541), often known by his title Ah Kin Chi (where Ah Kin, or in modern orthography Aj K'in is a title meaning "priest" or "sacerdote") was a Yucatec Maya noble from Maní. Other names used in source texts for this individual include Chi Ah Kin and Kinchil Coba. He was general-in-chief of the army of Tutul-Xiu, king of Maní, and won a good military reputation during the war against the Spaniards, whom he defeated in several battles. When Tutul Xiu submitted to the Spanish conquerors, he sent envoys to all the caciques in Yucatan, to invite them to make peace also; and for this purpose Ah Kin Chi and other noblemen were directed to visit King Cocóm at Zotuta, and this chief received them with apparent regard, entertaining them with a splendid hunting party and banquet, at the end of which all the envoys were beheaded by order and in presence of Cocóm. Ah Kin Chi was the only one spared, in order to make him suffer what they considered the most ignominious punishment, that of cutting his eyes out and scalping him. In this condition he was taken to the Mani frontier and left there until some Indians took him before his king. He died a few months afterward. In 1599 the king of Spain gave a pension of $200 to Gaspar Antonio Chi, son of Ah Kin Chi and grandson of Tutul Xiu.

Opichén Municipality

Opichén Municipality (Yucatec Maya: "inside the cave or the well") is one of the 106 municipalities in the Mexican state of Yucatán containing (268.25 km2) of land and is located roughly 75 kilometres (47 mi) south of the city of Mérida.

Tekit Municipality

Tekit Municipality (In the Yucatec Maya Language: “place which sprawls") is one of the 106 municipalities in the Mexican state of Yucatán containing (219.71 km2) of land and is located roughly 65 km southeast of the city of Mérida.

Tixméhuac Municipality

Tixméhuac Municipality (Yucatec Maya: "Place of Xmeuac tribe") is one of the 106 municipalities in the Mexican state of Yucatán containing (251.65 km2) of land and is located roughly 110 kilometres (68 mi) southeast of the city of Mérida.

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