Tusk

Tusks are elongated, continuously growing front teeth, usually but not always in pairs, that protrude well beyond the mouth of certain mammal species. They are most commonly canine teeth, as with warthogs, pigs, and walruses, or, in the case of elephants, elongated incisors. In most tusked species both the males and the females have tusks although the males' are larger. Tusks are generally curved, though the narwhal's sole tusk is straight and has a helical structure. Continuous growth is enabled by formative tissues in the apical openings of the roots of the teeth.[1][2] In earlier times elephant tusks weighing over 90 kg (200 lb) were not uncommon, though it is rare today to see any over 45 kg (100 lb).[3]

Function

Tusks have a variety of uses depending on the animal. Social displays of dominance, particularly among males, are common, as is their use in defense against attackers. Elephants use their tusks as digging and boring tools. Walruses use their tusks to grip on ice and to haul out on ice.[4] The presence of a tusk in only the male narwhals suggests that for these whales the tusk is a secondary sex characteristic.[5]

Use by humans

Tusks are used by humans to produce ivory, which is used in artifacts and jewellery, and formerly in other items such as piano keys. Consequently, many tusk-bearing species have been hunted commercially and several are endangered. The ivory trade has been severely restricted by the United Nations Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES).

Gallery

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Tusks of a domestic boar

See also

References

  1. ^ "Tusk". The Oxford English Dictionary. 2010.
  2. ^ Konjević, Dean; Kierdorf, Uwe; Manojlović, Luka; Severin, Krešimir; Janicki, Zdravko; Slavica, Alen; Reindl, Branimir; Pivac, Igor (4 April 2006). "The spectrum of tusk pathology in wild boar (Sus scrofa L.) from Croatia" (PDF). Veterinarski Arhiv. 76 (suppl.) (S91–S100). Retrieved 9 January 2011.
  3. ^ "Still Life" by Bryan Christy. National Geographic Magazine, August, 2015, pp. 97, 104.
  4. ^ Fay, F.H. (1985). "Odobenus rosmarus". Mammalian Species. 238 (238): 1–7. doi:10.2307/3503810. JSTOR 3503810.
  5. ^ "Monodon monoceros". Fisheries and Aquaculture Department: Species Fact Sheets. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. Retrieved 20 November 2007.
2005 Polish presidential election

The 2005 Presidential elections were held in Poland on October 9 and October 23, 2005. The outgoing President of Poland, Aleksander Kwaśniewski, had served two five-year terms and was unable to stand for a third term. Lech Kaczyński defeated Donald Tusk to become President of Poland.

Civic Platform

Civic Platform (Polish: Platforma Obywatelska, PO) is a liberal-conservative political party in Poland. Civic Platform came to power following the 2007 general election as the major coalition partner in Poland's government, with party leader Donald Tusk as Prime Minister of Poland. Tusk was re-elected as Prime Minister in the 2011 general election but stepped down three years later to assume the post of President of the European Council. Prime Minister Ewa Kopacz led the party in the 2015 general election but was defeated by the Law and Justice party. On 16 November 2015 Civic Platform government stepped down after exactly 8 years in power. In 2010 Civic Platform candidate Bronisław Komorowski was elected as President of Poland, but failed in running for re-election in 2015. PO is the second largest party in the Sejm, with 138 seats, and the Senate, with 33 seats. Civic Platform is a member of the European People's Party (EPP).

The party was formed in 2001 as a split from Solidarity Electoral Action (AWS), under the leadership of Andrzej Olechowski and Maciej Płażyński, with Donald Tusk of the Freedom Union (UW). In the 2001 general election, PO emerged as the largest opposition party, behind the ruling centre-left party Democratic Left Alliance (SLD). PO remained the second-largest party at the 2005 general election, but this time behind the national-conservative party Law and Justice (PiS). In 2007, Civic Platform overtook PiS, now established as the dominant parties, and formed a coalition government with the Polish People's Party. Following the Smolensk disaster of April 2010, Bronisław Komorowski became the first President from PO in the 2010 presidential election.

Since its creation, the party has shown stronger electoral performances in Warsaw, the west, and the north of Poland.

Dark Riders (comics)

The Dark Riders, also known as the Riders of the Storm, are a team of fictional supervillains appearing in American comic books published by Marvel Comics. Created by Chris Claremont, Jim Lee, and Whilce Portacio in X-Factor Volume 1 #65 (April 1991). The group is composed of mutants and Inhumans who are devoted to the philosophy of the survival of the fittest and serves the immortal mutant, Apocalypse.

Donald Tusk

Donald Franciszek Tusk (; Polish: [ˈdɔnalt franˈt͡ɕiʂɛk ˈtusk] (listen); born 22 April 1957) is a Polish politician who has been the President of the European Council since 2014. He served as Prime Minister of Poland from 2007 to 2014 and was a co-founder and chairman of the Civic Platform (Platforma Obywatelska) political party.Tusk has been involved in Polish politics since the early 1990s, having founded several political parties and held elected office almost continuously since 1991. Tusk was one of the co-founders of the free-market-oriented Liberal Democratic Congress party. He entered the Sejm (lower chamber of Poland's parliament) in 1991, but lost his seat in the 1993 election which went badly for the Congress.

In 1994, the Congress merged with the Democratic Union to form the Freedom Union. In 1997, Tusk was elected to the Senate, and became its deputy speaker. In 2001, he co-founded another centre-right party, Civic Platform (PO), and he was again elected to the Sejm, and became its deputy speaker.He was elected Prime Minister in 2007 and with his party's victory in the 2011 Polish parliamentary election, he became the first Prime Minister to be re-elected since the fall of Communism in Poland. In 2014, he became President of the European Council, and was re-elected to this position in 2017. He resigned as Polish Prime Minister to take the role, having been the longest-serving Prime Minister of the Third Polish Republic.

I Know I'm Not Wrong

"I Know I'm Not Wrong" is a song by Fleetwood Mac from the 1979 double LP Tusk. It was recorded as the final song of side three of the LP on September 19, 1979, written by Lindsey Buckingham, whose sparser songwriting arrangements and the influence of punk rock and new wave were the leading creative force on it and other Tusk tracks. This was both the first and last song worked on for the Tusk album, and took almost a year to complete.

Kahriz, Hamadan

Kahriz (Persian: كهريز‎, also Romanized as Kahrīz; also known as Kahrīz-e Tūsak and Kahrīz Tūsk) is a village in Jowzan Rural District, in the Central District of Malayer County, Hamadan Province, Iran. At the 2006 census, its population was 188, in 51 families.

Mortise and tenon

A mortise (or mortice) and tenon joint connects two pieces of wood or of other material. Woodworkers around the world have used it for thousands of years to join pieces of wood, mainly when the adjoining pieces connect at right angles.

In its most basic form, a mortise and tenon joint is both simple and strong. There are many variations of this type of joint, but the basic mortise and tenon comprises two components:

the mortise hole, and

the tenon tongue.The tenon, formed on the end of a member generally referred to as a rail, fits into a square or rectangular hole cut into the other, corresponding member. The tenon is cut to fit the mortise hole exactly. It usually has shoulders that seat when the joint fully enters the mortise hole. The joint may be glued, pinned, or wedged to lock it in place.

This joint is also used with other materials. For example, it is traditionally used by both stonemasons and blacksmiths.

Narwhal

The narwhal (Monodon monoceros), or narwhale, is a medium-sized toothed whale that possesses a large "tusk" from a protruding canine tooth. It lives year-round in the Arctic waters around Greenland, Canada, and Russia. It is one of two living species of whale in the Monodontidae family, along with the beluga whale. The narwhal males are distinguished by a long, straight, helical tusk, which is an elongated upper left canine. The narwhal was one of many species described by Carl Linnaeus in his publication Systema Naturae in 1758.

Like the beluga, narwhals are medium-sized whales. For both sexes, excluding the male's tusk, the total body size can range from 3.95 to 5.5 m (13 to 18 ft); the males are slightly larger than the females. The average weight of an adult narwhal is 800 to 1,600 kg (1,760 to 3,530 lb). At around 11 to 13 years old, the males become sexually mature; females become sexually mature at about 5 to 8 years old. Narwhals do not have a dorsal fin, and their neck vertebrae are jointed like those of most other mammals, not fused as in dolphins and most whales.

Found primarily in Canadian Arctic and Greenlandic and Russian waters, the narwhal is a uniquely specialized Arctic predator. In winter, it feeds on benthic prey, mostly flatfish, under dense pack ice. During the summer, narwhals eat mostly Arctic cod and Greenland halibut, with other fish such as polar cod making up the remainder of their diet. Each year, they migrate from bays into the ocean as summer comes. In the winter, the male narwhals occasionally dive up to 1,500 m (4,920 ft) in depth, with dives lasting up to 25 minutes. Narwhals, like most toothed whales, communicate with "clicks", "whistles", and "knocks".

Narwhals can live up to 50 years. They are often killed by suffocation after being trapped due to the formation of sea ice. Other causes of death, specifically among young whales, are starvation and predation by orcas. As previous estimates of the world narwhal population were below 50,000, narwhals are categorized by the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) as Nearly Threatened. More recent estimates list higher populations (upwards of 170,000), thus lowering the status to Least Concern. Narwhals have been harvested for hundreds of years by Inuit people in northern Canada and Greenland for meat and ivory, and a regulated subsistence hunt continues.

The Black Tusk

The Black Tusk is a stratovolcano and a pinnacle of volcanic rock in Garibaldi Provincial Park of British Columbia, Canada. At 2,319 m (7,608 ft) above sea level, the upper spire is visible from a great distance in all directions. It is particularly noticeable from the Sea-to-Sky Highway just south of Whistler, British Columbia. Distinctive and immediately identifiable, The Black Tusk is among the best known mountains in the Garibaldi Ranges of the Coast Mountains. The volcano is part of the Garibaldi Volcanic Belt which is a segment of the Canadian Cascade Arc, but it is not within the geographic boundary of the Cascade Range.

The Coalition (company)

The Coalition (formerly Zipline Studios, Microsoft Game Studios Vancouver and Black Tusk Studios) is a Canadian video game developer based in Vancouver, British Columbia, and a subsidiary of Xbox Game Studios. The Coalition is best known for developing games in the Gears of War series after the franchise's acquisition by Xbox Game Studios from Epic Games.

The Red Tusk

The Red Tusk is a mountain in the Tantalus Range of the Pacific Ranges in southwestern British Columbia, Canada, located 5 km (3.1 mi) southeast of Mount Tantalus and 11 km (6.8 mi) west of Cheekye.

The Red Tusk gets its name from the reddish metamorphic rock that forms the mountain. It has a similar appearance to the smaller, but more famous Black Tusk in the Garibaldi Ranges further east.

Tusk-e Olya

Tusk-e Olya (Persian: توسك عليا‎, also Romanized as Tūsk-e ‘Olyā; also known as Tūsk and Tūsk-e Bālā) is a village in Jowzan Rural District, in the Central District of Malayer County, Hamadan Province, Iran. At the 2006 census, its population was 628, in 149 families.

Tusk-e Sofla

Tusk-e Sofla (Persian: توسك سفلي‎, also Romanized as Tūsk-e Soflá; also known as Tūsk and Tūsk-e Pā’īn) is a village in Jowzan Rural District, in the Central District of Malayer County, Hamadan Province, Iran. At the 2006 census, its population was 698, in 163 families.

Tusk (2014 film)

Tusk is a 2014 American comedy horror film written and directed by Kevin Smith, based on a story from his SModcast podcast. The film stars Michael Parks, Justin Long, Haley Joel Osment, and Genesis Rodriguez. The film is the first in Smith's planned True North trilogy, followed by Yoga Hosers (2016).Tusk had its world premiere at the Toronto International Film Festival, before it was released on September 19, 2014, by A24. The film was Smith's first major wide release since Cop Out (2010), and performed poorly at the box office after receiving mixed reviews.

Tusk (album)

Tusk is the 12th studio album by British-American rock band Fleetwood Mac, released as a double album on October 12, 1979. It is considered more experimental than their previous albums, partly a consequence of Lindsey Buckingham's sparser songwriting arrangements and the influence of post-punk. The production costs were estimated to be over $1 million (equivalent to $3.45 million in 2018), making it the most expensive rock album recorded to that date.The band embarked on a 9-month tour to promote Tusk. They travelled extensively across the world, including the U.S., Australia, New Zealand, Japan, France, Belgium, Germany, the Netherlands, and the UK. In Germany, they shared the bill with Bob Marley. On this world tour, the band recorded music for the Fleetwood Mac Live album, which was released in 1980.Compared to 1977's Rumours, which sold 10 million copies by February 1978, Tusk was regarded as a commercial failure by the label, selling four million copies. It has since been recognized for its influence on various artists and genres. In 2013, NME ranked Tusk at number 445 in their list of The 500 Greatest Albums of All Time. The album was also included in the book 1001 Albums You Must Hear Before You Die.

Tusk (mascot)

Tusk is the name of the official live mascot for the University of Arkansas Razorbacks. The current live mascot is Tusk IV. All Tusks so far have been male (female swine do not have tusks) and from the same lineage.

Tusk travels to every home football game at Fayetteville or Little Rock, certain away football games such as the annual Southwest Classic game against Texas A&M in Dallas and some bowl games, occasional home basketball and baseball games, as well as other select events (such as pep rallies). Tusk is put into a spacious cardinal red holding pen which travels through the crowds, with the cheerleaders on the upper level, making him a crowd favorite. During the actual game, Tusk is moved into Donald W. Reynolds Razorback Stadium where he can be seen by the entire crowd. Tusk has been trained to give kisses to people who are brave enough to do so.Tusk occupies a 9,000-square-foot (840 m2) indoor facility and a 7,000-square-foot (650 m2) fenced outdoor area just outside Dardanelle, Arkansas. He uses the indoor facility to escape the heat and sun, and the outdoor facility provides him the opportunity to slop in several mud holes. One of the first things that Tusk does each day is to go straight to his mud hole for a mud bath. Since Razorbacks are extremely muscular and have very little body fat, the mud keeps him cooler throughout the day and protects him from the sun and insects. Before any official functions he must attend, Tusk is given a shampoo and wash to make sure he looks his best for the public. In 2008, Razorback Athletics created the Tusk Fund to help provide financial assistance for the maintenance and upkeep of the live mascot program.

Tusk is one of several live mascots in the SEC, including UGA, the Georgia Bulldogs mascot, Reveille, the Texas A&M Aggies border collie mascot, Smokey, the bluetick coonhound of the Tennessee Volunteers, Bully, the Mississippi State English Bulldog mascot, Mike the Tiger of LSU, War Eagle of Auburn, and Sir Big Spur, the official live gamecock of the South Carolina Gamecocks. There are only a few other live lineage mascots in the United States.

Tusk (song)

"Tusk" is a song by Fleetwood Mac from the 1979 double LP of the same name. The song peaked at number eight in the United States for three weeks, reached number six in the United Kingdom (where it was certified Silver for sales of over 250,000 copies), number five in Canada and number three in Australia. It was one of the first songs to be released using a digital mixdown from an original analog source.The single was released with two different picture sleeves in many territories: The first featured the black and white picture of producer/engineer Ken Caillat's dog Scooter snapping at a trouser leg, the same as that used for the album cover, whilst the second featured a plain cover with the same font as the album cover but without the dog picture. A limited promotional 12-inch version, featuring mono and stereo versions, was also released to US radio stations.

A slightly different mix of the track appeared on the retrospective four-disc compilation 25 Years – The Chain in 1992.

Tusk shell

The tusk shells or tooth shells, often referred to by the more-technical term scaphopods (From Ancient Greek, σκᾰ́φης (skáphē) "boat", and πούς (poús) "foot"), are members of a class of shelled marine mollusc with worldwide distribution, and are the only class of exclusively infaunal marine molluscs. Shells of species within this class range from about 0.5 to 15 cm in length. Members of the order Dentaliida tend to be significantly larger than those of the order Gadilida.

These molluscs live in soft substrates offshore (usually not intertidally). Because of this subtidal habitat and the small size of most species, many beachcombers are unfamiliar with them; their shells are not as common or as easily visible in the beach drift as the shells of sea snails and clams.

Molecular data suggest that the scaphopods are a sister group to the cephalopods, although higher-level molluscan phylogeny remains somewhat unresolved.

USS Tusk (SS-426)

USS Tusk (SS-426), a Balao-class submarine, was the only ship of the United States Navy to be named for the tusk, an alternate name for the cusk, a large edible saltwater fish related to the cod. Her keel was laid down on 23 August 1943 at Philadelphia by the Cramp Shipbuilding Company. She was launched on 8 July 1945 sponsored by Mrs. Carolyn Park Mills, and commissioned on 11 April 1946 with Commander Raymond A. Moore in command.

Tusk and Trumpetfish are erroneously listed with the Tench class in some sources, as their hull numbers are in the sequence assigned to that class.

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