Tushhan (also Tushan, or Tušhan) is a Kurdish village known as (Kurdish: Behramki‎) or (Kurdish: Tepe-i Barava‎)[1] by residents and It was an ancient city that Assyrian have ruled for some time in Mesopotamia. It was a provincial capital in the upper Tigris river valley, on the south bank and inhabited since the Mitanni period, and mainly during the Neo-Assyrian period during the Iron Age.

It is now believed to be located at the site of the modern Ziyaret Tepe (Kurdish: Tepa Barava‎), Diyarbakır Province, Turkey.

Ziyaret Tepe
Ziyaret Tepe is located in Turkey
Ziyaret Tepe
Ziyaret Tepe
Location in Turkey
Coordinates: 37°47′37″N 40°47′035″E / 37.79361°N 40.79306°E


The site of Ziyaret Tepe was occupied as early as the Early Bronze Age. Most of the urban development uncovered to date is from the Late Bronze and Iron Ages. In late Assyrian times it was known as Tushhan, until circa 612 BC to 605 BC, when that empire fell. The site is expected to be inundated by the Ilısu Dam around 2014.


Work at the location began with 3 years of surface survey and remote sensing in 1997 [2][3][4] From 2000 until 2014 the site was being excavated by a team directed by Timothy Matney of the University of Akron.[5][6][7][8][9][10]

An important assemblage of cuneiform clay tablets was found there, translated by Simo Parpola of Helsinki University.[11]

Controversial Neo-Assyrian tablet

A cuneiform tablet was discovered in 2009 at Ziyaret Tepe that contained a list of around 60 names. It was a list of women deported from an unknown location around 800 BC, during the Neo Assyrian Empire period. According to John MacGinnis of the University of Cambridge McDonald Institute for Archaeological Research, these women may have come from around the Zagros Mountains. He said that the most likely possibility was that these names belonged to Shubrians, a people speaking a dialect of Hurrian.[12][13] This contention received little support.


Ziyaret Tepe is quite close to the town of Üçtepe,located near Bismil, where in 1861 John George Taylor found the famous Kurkh Monoliths, Assyrian monuments that contain a description of the Battle of Qarqar — of interest to biblical and Ancient Near East studies.[14] In fact, Üçtepe was believed to have been the location of Tushan by some scholars in the past. Today the monoliths are located at the British Museum.

See also


  1. ^ BİSMİL'İ TANIYALIM bismilhaber - Jan 07, 2016
  2. ^ Timothy Matney, The First Season of Excavation at Ziyaret Tepe in the Diyarbakir Province, Anatolica, vol. 24, pp. 7-30, 1998
  3. ^ Timothy Matney and Lewis Somers, The Second Season of Excavation at Ziyaret Tepe in the Diyarbakir Province, Anatolica, vol. 25, pp. 203-219, 1999
  4. ^ Timothy Matney and A. Bauer, The Third Season of Archaeological Survey at Ziyaret Tepe in Diyarbakir Province, Anatolica, vol. 26, pp. 119-128, 2000
  5. ^ Timothy Matney et al.,Archaeological Excavations at Ziyaret Tepe: 2000 and 2001, Anatolica, vol. 28, pp. 47-89, 2002
  6. ^ Timothy Matney et al.,Archaeological Investigations at Ziyaret Tepe: 2002, Anatolica, vol. 29, pp. 175-221, 2003
  7. ^ Timothy Matney and L. Rainville, Archaeological Investigations at Ziyaret Tepe: 2003 and 2004, Anatolica, vol. 31, pp. 19-68, 2005
  8. ^ Timothy, Matney et al., Report on Excavations at Ziyaret Tepe, 2006 Season, Anatolica, vol. 33, pp. 23-73, 2007
  9. ^ Timothy, Matney et al., Excavations at Ziyaret Tepe 2007-2008, Anatolica, vol. 35, pp. 37-84, 2009
  10. ^ Timothy Matney el al, Ziyaret Tepe Exploring the Anatolian frontier of the Assyrian Empire, Cornucopia Books, September 2017 ISBN 978-09565948-9-1
  11. ^ S. Parpola, Cuneiform Texts From Ziyaret Tepe (Ancient Tushan) 2002-2003, State Archives of Assyria Bulletin, vol. 16, 2006
  12. ^ Archaeologists discover lost language - University of Cambridge
  13. ^ John MacGinnis, Evidence for a Peripheral Language in a Neo-Assyrian Tablet from the Governor’s Palace in Tušhan, Journal of Near Eastern Studies, vol. 71, no. 1, pp. 13-20, (April 2012)
  14. ^ Nadav Naʼaman, Ancient Israel and Its Neighbors: Interaction and Counteraction : Collected Essays, Eisenbrauns, 2005. p. 2 ISBN 1575061082


  • Timothy Matney and Ann Donkin, Mapping the Past: An Archaeogeophysical Case Study from Southeastern Turkey, Near Eastern Archaeology, vol. 69, pp. 12–26, 2006

External links

Coordinates: 37°47′36″N 40°47′35″E / 37.793470°N 40.793047°E


Ariassus or Ariassos (Ancient Greek: Άριασσός) was a town in Pisidia, Asia Minor built on a steep hillside about 50 kilometres inland from Attaleia (modern Antalya).


Bit-Zamani, an ancient Aramean state in northern Mesopotamia, located within the mountainous region of Tur Abdin. In Bit-Zamani was the city of Amida (Amedu, modern Diyarbakır). It was one of the four Aramean states that bordered Assyria. The others were Bit-Halupe, Bit Bahiani and Laqe. By the ninth century BC all of them lost to Assyria.


Caloe was a town in the Roman province of Asia. It is mentioned as Kaloe or Keloue in 3rd-century inscriptions, as Kalose in Hierocles's Synecdemos (660), and as Kalloe, Kaloe, and Kolone in Parthey's Notitiæ episcopatuum, in which it figures from the 6th to the 12fth or 13th century.


Cestrus was a city in the Roman province of Isauria, in Asia Minor. Its placing within Isauria is given by Hierocles, Georgius Cyprius, and Parthey's (Notitiae episcopatuum). While recognizing what the ancient sources said, Lequien supposed that the town, whose site has not been identified, took its name from the River Cestros and was thus in Pamphylia. Following Lequien's hypothesis, the 19th-century annual publication Gerarchia cattolica identified the town with "Ak-Sou", which Sophrone Pétridès called an odd mistake, since this is the name of the River Cestros, not of a city.


Cotenna was a city in the Roman province of Pamphylia I in Asia Minor. It corresponds to modern Gödene, near Konya, Turkey.


Docimium, Docimia or Docimeium (Greek: Δοκίμια and Δοκίμειον) was an ancient city of Phrygia, Asia Minor where there were famous marble quarries.


Drizipara (or Druzipara, Drousipara. Drusipara) now Karıştıran (Büyükkarıştıran) in Lüleburgaz district was a city and a residential episcopal see in the Roman province of Europa in the civil diocese of Thrace. It is now a titular see of the Catholic Church.


Hisarlik (Turkish: Hisarlık, "Place of Fortresses"), often spelled Hissarlik, is the modern name for an ancient city in modern day located in what is now Turkey (historically Anatolia) near to the modern city of Çanakkale. The unoccupied archaeological site lies approximately 6.5 km from the Aegean Sea and about the same distance from the Dardanelles. The archaeological site of Hisarlik is known in archaeological circles as a tell. A tell is an artificial hill, built up over centuries and millennia of occupation from its original site on a bedrock knob.

It is believed by many scholars to be the site of ancient Troy, also known as Ilion.

List of ancient settlements in Turkey

Below is the list of ancient settlements in Turkey. There are innumerable ruins of ancient settlements spread all over the country. While some ruins date back to Neolithic times, most of them were settlements of Hittites, Phrygians, Lydians, Ionians, Urartians, and so on.

List of biblical places

This is an incomplete list of places, lands, and countries mentioned in the Bible. Some places may be listed twice, under two different names. Only places having their own Wikipedia articles are included: see also the list of minor biblical places for locations which do not have their own Wikipedia article.


Lyrbe (spelled Lyrba in the 1910 Catholic Encyclopedia; Ancient Greek: Λύρβη) was a city and episcopal see in the Roman province of Pamphylia Prima and is now a titular see.

Michael Roaf

Michael Roaf is a British archaeologist specialising in ancient Iranian studies and Assyriology.

Roaf studied the archaeology of Western Asia at University College of London, and wrote his doctoral thesis, Sculptures and Sculptors at Persepolis (published 1983) at the University of Oxford. From 1981 to 1985 he was the director of the British School of Archaeology in Iraq. He also taught at the University of California, Berkeley, and is currently Professor of Near Eastern Archaeology at the University of Munich.

Roaf has conducted fieldwork in Iran, Iraq, Turkey, and Bahrain. In Iran he dug at Tepe Nush-i Jan under the direction of David Stronach, with whom he wrote Nush-i Jan I. The Major Buildings of the Median Settlement. With the Munich University team, he has recently worked on the archaeological expeditions at Gircano and Ziyaret Tepe, ancient Tushhan, Turkey.


Phellus (Ancient Greek: Φέλλος, Turkish: Phellos) is an town of ancient Lycia, now situated on the mountainous outskirts of the small town of Kaş in the Antalya Province of Turkey. The city was first referenced as early as 7 BC by Greek geographer and philosopher Strabo in Book XII of his Geographica (which detailed settlements in the Anatolia region), alongside the port town of Antiphellus; which served as the settlement's main trade front.

Its exact location, particularly in regard to Antiphellus, was misinterpreted for many years. Strabo incorrectly designates both settlements as inland towns, closer to each other than is actually evident today. Additionally, upon its rediscovery in 1840 by Sir Charles Fellows, the settlement was located near the village of Saaret, west-northwest of Antiphellus. Verifying research into its location in ancient text proved difficult for Fellows, with illegible Greek inscriptions providing the sole written source at the site. However, Thomas Abel Brimage Spratt details in his 1847 work Travels in Lycia that validation is provided in the words of Pliny the Elder, who places Phellus north of Habessus (Antiphellus' pre-Hellenic name).


Rhodiapolis (Ancient Greek: Ῥοδιάπολις), also known as Rhodia (Ῥοδία) and Rhodiopolis (Ῥοδιόπολις), was a city in ancient Lycia. Today it is located on a hill northwest of the modern town Kumluca in Antalya Province, Turkey.

Stratonicea (Lydia)

Stratonicea – (Greek: Στρατoνικεια, or Στρατονίκεια) also transliterated as Stratoniceia and Stratonikeia, earlier Indi, and later for a time Hadrianapolis – was an ancient city in the valley of the Caicus river, between Germe and Acrasus, in Lydia, Anatolia; its site is currently near the village of Siledik, in the district of Kırkağaç, Manisa Province, in the Aegean Region of Turkey.


Tushan may refer to:

Tushan, Chongqing (涂山), a town in Chongqing, China

Tushan, Jiangsu (土山), a town in Pizhou, Jiangsu, China

Tushan, Shandong (土山), a town in Laizhou, Shandong, China

Tushan Township (涂山乡), a township in Jiange County, Sichuan, China

Tushan, Iran, a village in Anjirabad Rural District, Central District, Gorgan County, Golestan Province, Iran

Tushhan, a historical Kurdish village in Mesopotamia


Tyana (Ancient Greek: Τύανα; Hittite Tuwanuwa) was an ancient city in the Anatolian region of Cappadocia, in modern Kemerhisar, Niğde Province, Central Anatolia, Turkey. It was the capital of a Luwian-speaking Neo-Hittite kingdom in the 1st millennium BC.


Ziyaret is a Turkish, Persian and Urdu word of Arabic origin [زيارة], meaning "visit." It may refer to the following places in Turkey:

Ziyaret, Amasya, a town in the district of Amasya, Amasya Province

Ziyaret, Kahta, a village in the district of Kahta, Adıyaman Province

Ziyaret, Kozluk, a village in the district of Kozluk, Batman Province

Ziyaretköy, Kurucaşile, a village in the district of Kurucaşile, Bartın Province

Ziyaret, Şavşat, a village in the district of Şavşat, Artvin Province

Ziyaret Tepe, the modern location of Tushhan, a Median empire

Üçayaklı ruins

The Üçayaklı ruins are in Mersin Province, Turkey.

Black Sea
Central Anatolia
Eastern Anatolia


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