Tusculo (in Italian)
The theatre of Tusculum
Shown within Italy
|Location||Frascati, Province of Rome, Lazio, Italy|
|Periods||Ancient Roman to High Medieval|
Tusculum was one of the largest Roman cities in the Alban Hills and today is amongst the largest ruins of a Roman city in the region. The Tusculum is located on Tuscolo hill on the northern edge of the outer crater rim of the Alban volcano. The volcano itself is located in the Alban Hills 6 kilometres (4 miles) south of the present-day town of Frascati.
Tuscolo Hills' summit is 670 metres (2,200 feet) above sea level and affords a view of the Roman Campagna, with Rome lying 25 kilometres (16 miles) to the north-west. Rome was reached by the Via Latina (from which a branch road ascended to Tusculum, while the main road passed through the valley to the south of it), or by the Via Labicana to the north.
Tusculum was most famous in Roman times for the many great and luxurious patrician country villas sited close to the city, yet a comfortable distance from Rome (notably the villas of Cicero, Lucullus etc.).
But still closer to Rome than the mountainous country where these cities lie, there is another ridge, which leaves a valley (the valley near Algidum) between them and is high as far as Mount Albanus. It is on this chain that Tusculum is situated, a city with no mean equipment of buildings; and it is adorned by the plantings and villas encircling it, and particularly by those that extend below the city in the general direction of the city of Rome; for here Tusculum is a fertile and well-watered hill, which in many places rises gently into crests and admits of magnificently devised royal palaces. .
According to legend, the city was founded either by Telegonus, the son of Odysseus and Circe, or by the Latin king Latinus Silvius, a descendant of Aeneas, who according to Titus Livius was the founder of most of the towns and cities in Latium. The geographer Filippo Cluverio discounts these legends, asserting that the city was founded by Latins about three hundred years before the Trojan War. Funerary urns datable to the 8th–7th centuries B.C. demonstrate a human presence in the late phases of Latin culture in this area.
Tusculum is first mentioned in history as an independent city-state with a king, a constitution and gods of its own. When Lucius Tarquinius Superbus, the last King of Rome, was expelled from the city in 509 B.C., he sought military help from his son-in-law Octavius Mamilius, one of the leading men of Tusculum. After the war between Clusium and Rome failed to win back the throne for Tarquinius, he sought refuge with Mamilius in Tusculum. The Mamilii claimed to be descended from Telegonus, the founder of the city. Mamilius commanded the army of the Latins against the Romans at the Battle of Lake Regillus, where he was killed in 498 B.C. This is the point at which Rome gained predominance among the Latin cities.
According to some accounts Tusculum subsequently became an ally of Rome, incurring the frequent hostilities of the other Latin cities. In 460 B.C. the Sabines occupied the Capitol. Of the Latin cities, only Tusculum quickly sent troops, commanded by the dictator Lucius Mamilius, to help the Romans. Together with the forces of the consul Publius Valerius Poplicola they were able to quash the revolt. Poplicola was thankful to the Tusculans for their help, and conferred on Lucius Mamilius the honour of Roman citizenship.
In 459 B.C. the Aequi attacked Tusculum and captured its citadel. Because of the assistance given Rome the previous year, the Romans came to their defense, and helped regain the citadel, with soldiers under the command of Lucius Quinctius Cincinnatus, who defeated the Aequi at the battle of Mount Algidus.
In 381 BC, after an expression of complete submission to Rome, the people of Tusculum received a franchise from Rome. Tusculum became the first "municipium cum suffragio", or self-governing city. The Tusculum citizens were therefore recorded in the "Tribus Papiria".
Other accounts, however, speak of Tusculum as often allied with Rome's enemies, the last being the Samnites in 323 BC.
Several of the chief Roman families were of Tusculan origin, e.g. the gentes Mamilia, Fulvia, Fonteia, Juventia, Oppia, Coruncania, Quinctia, Rabiria, Javonelia, Cordia, Manlia, Furia and Porcia; to the latter belonged Marcus Porcius Cato the Elder, who was born at Tusculum in 234 BC.
In 54 BC, in his Orationes Pro Cn. Plancio, Marcus Tullius Cicero said: "You are from the most ancient municipium of Tusculum, from which so many consular families are originating, among which even the gens Iuventia—all other municipia (together) do not have so many (consular families) coming from them".
The town council kept the name of senate, but the title of dictator gave place to that of aedile. Notwithstanding this, and the fact that a special college of Roman equites was formed to take charge of the cults of the gods at Tusculum, and especially of the Dioscuri, the citizens resident there were neither numerous nor men of distinction.
The villas of the neighbourhood had indeed acquired greater importance than the town itself, which was not easily accessible. By the end of the Republic, and still more during the imperial period, the territory of Tusculum was a favorite place of residence for wealthy Romans. Seneca wrote: "Nobody who wants to acquire a home in Tusculum or Tibur for health reasons or as a summer residence, will calculate how much yearly payments are".
In 45 BC Cicero wrote a series of books in his Roman villa in Tusculum, the Tusculanae Quaestiones. In his times there were eighteen owners of villas there. An example is the so-called villa of Lucullus, which later belonged to Flavia gens, which was built in terraces on the slope of Tusculum facing Rome: the vast terrace now houses virtually all the historical centre of Frascati.
Much of the territory (including Cicero's villa), but not the town itself, which lies far too high, was supplied with water by the Aqua Crabra.
The last archeological evidence of Roman Tusculum is a bronze tablet of 406 AD commemorating Anicius Probus Consul and his sister Anicia.
They were a clan system whose first mentioned member is Theophylact I (died 924). His daughter Marozia married Alberic I, Marquis of Spoleto and Camerino, and was for a while the arbiter of political and religious affairs in Rome—a position which the Counts held for a long period of time. They were pro-Byzantine and against the German Emperors. From their clan came several Popes in the period between 914 and 1049.
Gregory I of Tusculum rebuilt the fortress on the Tuscolo hill, and gave as a gift the "Criptaferrata" to Saint Nilus the Younger, where the latter built a famous abbey. Gregory also headed the rebellion of the Roman people of 1001 against the German Emperor Otto III.
After 1049 the Counts of Tusculum Papacy declined as the particular "formula" of the papacy-family became outdated. Subsequent events from 1062 confirmed the change of the Counts' politics, which became pro-Emperor in opposition to the Commune of Rome. Tusculum had in this time several notable guests: Henry III, Holy Roman Emperor, and his wife Empress Agnes in 1046, the Pope Eugene III from 1149, Louis VII of France and his wife Eleanor of Aquitaine in 1149, Frederick Barbarossa and the English Pope Adrian IV in 1155.
In 1167 the Roman communal army attacked Tusculum (Battle of Monte Porzio), but it was defeated by the Emperor-allied army, headed by Christian I, Archbishop of Mainz; in the summer of the same year, however, a plague decimated the imperial army and Frederick Barbarossa was forced to get back to Germany.
From 1167 the residents of Tusculum moved to the neighbours (Locus) or little villages as Monte Porzio Catone, Grottaferrata and mostly to Frascati: only a little group of defence troops remained in the old city.
When in 1183 the Roman army again attacked Tusculum, Barbarossa sent a new contingent of troops to its defence. The Commune of Rome was however able to destroy the town on 17 April 1191 with the consent of Pope Celestine III and the consent of Henry VI, Holy Roman Emperor, son of Frederick Barbarossa.
After destruction the land of Tusculum city became woodland and pasture lands. The buildings destroyed in Tusculum became a big open quarry of materials for the inhabitants of the neighbouring towns of the Alban Hills.
In 1806 the first campaign of archaeological excavation on the top of the Tuscolo hill was begun by Lucien Bonaparte. In 1825 the archaeologist Luigi Biondi excavated to find out Tusculum, engaged by Queen Maria Cristina of Bourbon, wife of Charles Felix of Sardinia. In 1839 and 1840 the architect and archaeologist Luigi Canina, called by the same royal family, excavated the Theatre area of Tusculum. The ancient works of art excavated were sent to Savoy Castle of Agliè in Piedmont.
In 1890 Thomas Ashby arrived to Rome as Director of the British School in Rome. He was an expert of ancient monuments topography and studied the Tusculum monuments, reporting the results in The Roman Campagna in Classical Times published in London in 1927.
In 1955 and 1956 the archaeologist Maurizio Borda excavated a necropolis with cinerary urns.
From 1994 to 1999 was held the last excavation campaigns of archaeologist Xavier Dupré and his staff undertaken by Escuela Espanola de Historia y Arqueologia en Roma.
On the hill of Tuscolo are remains of a small theatre excavated in 1839.
In the High Middle Ages, there were three churches in Tusculum: St. Saviour and Holy Trinity "in civitate", and St. Thomas on the acropolis. The Greek monastery of St. Agata lay at the foot of the Tuscolo hill, at the 15th mile of the Via Latina road, the old "Statio Roboraria" : it was founded in 370 AD by the basilian monk John of Cappadocia, a disciple of St. Basil of Caesarea, called St. Basil the Great. He brought here a relic of the master, handed it over to him by monk Gregory Nazianzus. Saint Nilus the Younger died in this Greek monastery on 27 December 1005.
The Portrait of "Madonna del Tuscolo", placed nowadays in a little aedicule on the Tuscolo hill, is a reproduction in ceramic of an earlier original icon from Tusculum, spoil of war, which now is in the Abbey of St. Mary in Grottaferrata.
In the extra-urban area located south of the city, between it and the Via Latina, there is archeological evidence of burials in the place of a medieval church already in ruin after 1191 and dating to the 13th century, found by the last archeological excavation (1999).
The cross of Tusculum there was already in 1840, as reported by Cardinal Nicholas Wiseman, rector of the English College. In October, 1864 the students of the English College rebuilt the plinth of foundation of the old cross. Now on the top of the Tuscolo hill is an altar and an iron cross 19 metres (62,33 ft) high. The height of cross underlines the fact that it was built 19 centuries after the death of Jesus Christ.
Boerne ( BURN-ee) is a city in and the county seat of Kendall County, Texas, United States, within the Texas Hill Country. Boerne was named in honor of German author and publicist, Ludwig Börne. The population of Boerne was 10,471 at the 2010 census. The city is noted for the landmark U.S. Supreme Court case City of Boerne v. Flores. Founded in 1849 as Tusculum, the name was changed to Boerne when the town was platted in 1852.
Boerne is part of the San Antonio–New Braunfels Metropolitan Statistical Area.
Boerne is the home of the Guadalupe Valley Poetry Celebration, a regional poetry festival that benefits the Boerne Public Library.Caushaud Lyons
Caushaud Lyons (born January 3, 1993) is an American football defensive end for the Denver Broncos of the National Football League (NFL). He played college football at Tusculum.Columbia-Tusculum, Cincinnati
Columbia-Tusculum is the oldest neighborhood in Cincinnati, Ohio and is located on the East Side of the city. The population was 1,304 at the 2010 census.Columbia was founded in 1788 on the Little Miami River and predates Losantiville (which became Cincinnati) by a month. The first Protestant church (Baptist) in the Northwest Territory was erected in Columbia. The Cincinnati area's first school opened here in 1790. Many of the early settlers are buried in the former Columbia Baptist Cemetery, founded in 1790. The cemetery is now known as the Pioneer Memorial Cemetery.
The neighborhood is noted for its Victorian era homes decorated in the painted ladies multi-color style. Designated historic structures in the neighborhood include the Bates Building, Kellogg House, LuNeack House, Norwell Residence, Spencer Township Hall, and the Stephen Decker Rowhouse.
It is also home to popular restaurants and attractions such as BrewRiver GastroPub in the East End, a turn of the century home converted farm-to-table restaurant with double-deck patios and Ohio River Views, Green Dog Cafe, Buz, Allyn's Cafe and The Precinct, an upscale restaurant occupying the restored Police Station No. 6.Counts of Tusculum
The counts of Tusculum were the most powerful secular noblemen in Latium, near Rome, in the present-day Italy between the 10th and 12th centuries. Several popes and an antipope during the 11th century came from their ranks. They created and perfected the political formula of noble-papacy, wherein the Pope was arranged to be elected only from the ranks of the Roman nobles. The Pornocracy, the period of influence by powerful female members of the family, also influenced papal history.
The counts of Tusculum remained arbiters of Roman politics and religion for more than a century. In addition to the papal influence, they held lay power through consulships and senatorial membership. Traditionally they were pro-Byzantine and anti-German in their political affiliation.
After 1049, the Tusculan Papacy came to an end with the appointment of Pope Leo IX. In fact, the Tusculan papacy was largely responsible for the reaction known as the Gregorian reform. Subsequent events (from 1062 onwards) confirmed a shift in regional politics as the counts came to side with the Holy Roman Emperors against the Rome of the reformers. In 1059 the papal-decree of Pope Nicholas II established new rules for the Papal election, therefore putting an end to the noble-papacy formula.David B. Hawk
David B. Hawk (born June 21, 1968) is a Tennessee politician. He was elected to the 103rd and 104th General Assembly as the member of the Tennessee House of Representatives representing the 5th district, which is composed of Unicoi County and part of Greene County. He is a member of the Commerce Committee, the Conservation and Environment Committee, the Parks and Tourism Subcommittee, and the Small Business Subcommittee. David Hawk attended Tusculum College and graduated from East Tennessee State University with honors and a degree in Marketing, and worked as a haberdasher.Dieter Brock
Ralph Dieter Brock (born February 12, 1951) is a former Canadian Football League and National Football League player and now works as a coach. He is best remembered as the quarterback for the CFL Winnipeg Blue Bombers where he led the league in passing for four years.Greeneville Astros
The Greeneville Astros were a Minor League Baseball team of the Rookie League Appalachian League. They were located in Tusculum, Tennessee, and played their home games at Pioneer Park on the campus of Tusculum College. They were an affiliate of the Houston Astros from 2004 to 2017 when the Astros decided to eliminate their Greeneville team and reduce their farm system from nine teams to eight. The Greeneville Astros were replaced by the Cincinnati Reds affiliated Greeneville Reds who assumed the Greeneville Astros spot in the Appalachian League; the Greeneville Reds are not a continuation of the Greeneville Astros and are instead a separate franchise.
The Astros led the Appalachian League in average attendance at Pioneer Park from 2004 to 2014.In 2007, the first former Greeneville Astros made it to the major leagues. Four players from the 2004 Greenville team were called up to Houston late in the 2007 season: Juan Gutiérrez, Felipe Paulino, Troy Patton, and J. R. Towles.Greeneville Reds
The Greeneville Reds are a Minor League Baseball team of the Rookie-level Appalachian League. They are located in Tusculum, Tennessee, a city adjacent to Greeneville, and play their home games at Pioneer Park on the campus of Tusculum University. They are an affiliate of the Cincinnati Reds. The Greeneville Reds replaced the Greeneville Astros (2004–2017) as the city's entry in the league; the Greeneville Reds are not a continuation of the Greeneville Astros and are instead a separate franchise. Paul Kleinhans-Schulz was the first GM of the Greeneville Reds and will always be known for bringing baseball back to Greeneville. 
The Reds played their inaugural game against the Bristol Pirates on June 19, 2018, at Pioneer Park.Pioneer Field (Tusculum)
Pioneer Field is a 3,500-seat college football stadium located in Tusculum, Tennessee. The stadium is the home of the Pioneers football team of Tusculum College. The Pioneers compete in the National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) Division II South Atlantic Conference (SAC).Pope Benedict VIII
Pope Benedict VIII (Latin: Benedictus VIII; ca. 980 – 9 April 1024) reigned from 18 May 1012 to his death in 1024. He was born Theophylactus to the noble family of the counts of Tusculum (son of Gregory, Count of Tusculum, and brother of future Pope John XIX), descended from Theophylact, Count of Tusculum, like his predecessor Pope Benedict VII (973–974). Horace Mann considered him "...one of the few popes of the Middle Ages who was at once powerful at home and great abroad."Ricardo Colclough
Ricardo Sanchez Colclough ( kohk-LEE; born September 26, 1983) is a former Canadian football cornerback and linebacker in the Canadian Football League. He was drafted by the Pittsburgh Steelers in the second round of the 2004 NFL Draft. He played college football at Tusculum.
Colclough has also been a member of the Cleveland Browns, Carolina Panthers, and Kansas City Chiefs. He earned a Super Bowl ring with the Steelers in Super Bowl XL against the Seattle Seahawks.Roman Catholic Suburbicarian Diocese of Frascati
The Diocese of Frascati (Lat.: Tusculana) is a suburbicarian see of the Holy Roman Church and a diocese of the Catholic Church in Italy, based at Frascati, near Rome. The bishop of Frascati is a Cardinal Bishop; from the Latin name of the area, the bishop has also been called Bishop of Tusculum. Tusculum was destroyed in 1191. The bishopric moved from Tusculum to Frascati, a nearby town which is first mentioned in the pontificate of Pope Leo IV. Until 1962, the Cardinal-Bishop was concurrently the diocesan bishop of the see in addition to any curial duties he possessed. Pope John XXIII removed the Cardinal Bishops from any actual responsibility in their suburbicarian dioceses, and made the title purely honorific.South Atlantic Conference
The South Atlantic Conference (SAC) is a collegiate athletic conference which operates in the southeastern United States. It participates in the National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA)'s Division II level. The SAC was founded in 1975 as a football-only conference and became an all-sports conference beginning with the 1989–90 season.
The league currently sponsors 10 sports for men (football, cross country, soccer, basketball, wrestling, baseball, lacrosse, outdoor track & field, tennis, golf) and 10 sports for women (volleyball, cross country, field hockey, soccer, basketball, lacrosse, outdoor track & field, softball, tennis, and golf).Theophylact I, Count of Tusculum
Theophylact I (before 864 – 924/925) was a medieval Count of Tusculum who was the effective ruler of Rome from around 905 through to his death in 924. His descendants would control the Papacy for the next 100 years.Tusculum, Tennessee
Tusculum is a city in Greene County, Tennessee, United States. The population was 2,663 at the 2010 census and 2,670 in 2016. It is the home of Tusculum University, the oldest university in Tennessee and the 28th oldest in the United States. Tusculum is a suburb of nearby Greeneville. The population of both Greeneville and Tusculum combined is approximately 17,725 at the 2010 census.Tusculum (Princeton, New Jersey)
Tusculum is a country estate in Princeton, New Jersey, built in 1773 for John Witherspoon, president of Princeton University and signer of the Declaration of Independence. It is named after the Roman town of Tusculum, which was home to the country villa of Marcus Tullius Cicero. The property was often visited by George Washington and his wife, Martha, during Witherspoon's tenure as president of Princeton University. In 2013 the home was sold for $5.5 million.Tusculum Pioneers football
The Tusculum Pioneers football team represents Tusculum College in college football. The team has played since 1902.Tusculum University
Tusculum University is a coeducational private university affiliated with the Presbyterian Church (USA), with its main campus in the city of Tusculum, Tennessee, United States, a suburb of the town of Greeneville. It is Tennessee's oldest university and the 28th-oldest operating college in the United States.In addition to its main campus, the institution maintains a regional center for Graduate and Professional Studies in Knoxville, and additional satellite campuses across East Tennessee.WIKQ
WIKQ (103.1 FM) is a radio station broadcasting a country music format. It is licensed to Tusculum, Tennessee, United States, and serves the Tennessee/Virginia Tri-Cities area. The station is owned by Radio Greeneville, Inc..