Tus (Persian: طوس or توس Ṫus or Tus), also spelled as Tous, Toos or Tūs, is an ancient city in Razavi Khorasan Province in Iran near Mashhad. To the ancient Greeks, it was known as Susia (Ancient Greek: Σούσια). It was also known as Tusa.
طوس • توس
Ferdowsi's tomb in Tus
Location of the site
|Location||Razavi Khorasan Province, Iran|
It was captured by Alexander the Great in 330 BCE.
Tus was taken by the Umayyad caliph Abd al-Malik and remained under Umayyad control until 747, when a subordinate of Abu Muslim Khorasani defeated the Umayyad governor during the Abbasid Revolution. In 809, the Abbasid Caliph Harun al-Rashid fell ill and died in Tus, on his way to solve the unrest in Khorasan. His grave is located in the region.
In 1220, Tus was sacked by the Mongol general, Subutai, and a year later Tolui would kill most of its populace, and destroying the tomb of Caliph Harun al-Rashid in the process. Decades later, Tus would be rebuilt under the governorship of Kuerguez.
The most famous person who has emerged from that area is the poet Ferdowsi, author of the Persian epic Shahnameh, whose mausoleum, built in 1934 in time for the millennium of his birth, dominates the town. Other notable residents of Tus include the theologian, jurist, philosopher and mystic al-Ghazali; early polymath Jābir ibn Hayyān; the poet Asadi Tusi; the powerful Seljuk vizier Nizam al-Mulk; the medieval polymath Nasir al-Din al-Tusi; the prominent Usooli mujtahid (Twelver-Shi'a law interpreter) Shaykh Tusi; and the noted Sufi mystic and historian Abu Nasr as-Sarraj.