Turner Classic Movies

Turner Classic Movies (TCM) is an American movie-oriented pay-TV network operated by Warner Bros., a subsidiary of AT&T's WarnerMedia. Launched in 1994, TCM is headquartered at Turner's Techwood broadcasting campus in the Midtown business district of Atlanta, Georgia.

Historically, the channel's programming consisted mainly of classic theatrically released feature films from the Turner Entertainment film library – which comprises films from Warner Bros. (covering films released before 1950) and Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer (covering films released before May 1986).

However, TCM now has licensing deals with other Hollywood film studios as well as its WarnerMedia sister company, Warner Bros. (which now controls the Turner Entertainment library and its own later films), and occasionally shows more recent films.

The channel is available in the United States, Canada, the United Kingdom, Ireland, Malta, Latin America, France, Italy, Greece, Cyprus, Spain, the Nordic countries, the Middle East, Africa and Asia-Pacific.

Turner Classic Movies
Turner Classic Movies logo
LaunchedApril 14, 1994
Owned byWarner Bros.
Picture format1080i HDTV
(downscaled to 480i letterbox for SDTVs
SloganLet's Movie.
CountryUnited States
LanguageEnglish
(imported feature films are broadcast in their native languages, provided with English subtitling)
Broadcast areaNationwide
HeadquartersAtlanta, Georgia, United States
Sister channel(s)
Websitewww.tcm.com
Availability
Satellite
DirecTV
  • Channel 256 (HD/SD)
  • Channel 1256 (VOD)
Dish NetworkChannel 132 (HD/SD)
Shaw Direct (Canada)
  • Channel 178 / 531 (SD)
  • Channel 138 / 638 (HD)
Cable
Available on all U.S. cable systemsConsult your local cable provider or program listings source for channel availability
IPTV
AT&T U-verse
  • Channel 1790 (HD)
  • Channel 790 (SD)
Verizon FiOSChannel 230 (SD)
Bell Fibe TV (Canada)Channel 292
VMedia (Canada)Channel 327 (HD)
Streaming media
Watch TCM
Sling TVInternet Protocol television
PlayStation VueInternet Protocol television

History

Origins

In 1986, eight years before the launch of Turner Classic Movies, Ted Turner acquired the Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer film studio for $1.5 billion. Concerns over Turner Entertainment's corporate debt load resulted in Turner selling the studio that October back to Kirk Kerkorian, from whom Turner had purchased the studio less than a year before.[1]

As part of the deal, Turner Entertainment retained ownership of MGM's library of films released up to May 9, 1986. Turner Broadcasting System was split into two companies; Turner Broadcasting System and Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer and reincorporated as MGM/UA Communications Co.

The film library of Turner Entertainment would serve as the base form of programming for TCM upon the network's launch. Before the creation of Turner Classic Movies, films from Turner's library of movies aired on the Turner Broadcasting System's advertiser-supported cable network TNT – along with colorized versions of black-and-white classics such as The Maltese Falcon.

Launch and contributions

Robert Osborne and Charles Tabesh at the 68th Annual Peabody Awards for Turner Classic Movies
In May 2009, host Robert Osborne and Charles Tabesh, senior vice president for programming, accepted TCM's Institutional Peabody Award "for a continuing, powerful commitment to a central concept—the place of film in social and cultural experience".[2]

Turner Classic Movies debuted on April 14, 1994, at 6 p.m. Eastern Time, with Ted Turner launching the channel at a ceremony in New York City's Times Square district.[3][4] The date and time were chosen for their historical significance as "the exact centennial anniversary of the first public movie showing in New York City". The first movie broadcast on TCM was the 1939 film Gone with the Wind, the same film that served as the debut broadcast of its sister channel TNT six years earlier in October 1988.[5] At the time of its launch, TCM was available to approximately one million cable television subscribers.[6]

The network originally served as a competitor to AMC—which at the time was known as "American Movie Classics" and maintained a virtually identical format to TCM, as both networks largely focused on films released prior to 1970 and aired them in an uncut, uncolorized, and commercial-free format. AMC had broadened its film content to feature colorized and more recent films by 2002.

In 1996, Turner Broadcasting System merged with Time Warner which, besides placing Turner Classic Movies and Warner Bros. Entertainment under the same corporate umbrella, also gave TCM access to Warner Bros.' library of films released after 1950 (which itself includes other acquired entities such as the Lorimar, Saul Zaentz and National General Pictures libraries); incidentally, TCM had already been running select Warner Bros. film titles through a licensing agreement with the studio that was signed prior to the launch of the channel.[7]

In the early 2000s, AMC abandoned its commercial-free format, which then led to TCM being the only movie-oriented basic cable channel to devote its programming entirely to classic films without commercial interruption or content editing.

On March 4, 2019, Time Warner's new owner AT&T (who renamed the company WarnerMedia) announced a planned reorganization that would dissolve Turner Broadcasting. TCM, along with the Cartoon Network group and over-the-top video company Otter Media, will be moved directly under Warner Bros. (the remaining Turner networks will be divided into WarnerMedia Entertainment and WarnerMedia News & Sports divisions). Speaking about the move, then-Warner Bros. CEO Kevin Tsujihara explained that TCM was "a natural fit with Warner Bros." due the company's massive film library.[8][9]

TCM Young Composers Film Competition

In 2000, TCM started the annual Young Composers Film Competition, inviting aspiring composers to participate in a judged competition that offers the winner of each year's competition the opportunity to score a restored, feature-length silent film as a grand prize, mentored by a well-known composer, with the new work subsequently premiering on the network. As of 2006, films that have been rescored include the 1921 Rudolph Valentino film Camille, two Lon Chaney films: 1921's The Ace of Hearts and 1928's Laugh, Clown, Laugh, and Greta Garbo's 1926 film The Temptress.

TCM Classic Film Festival

In April 2010, Turner Classic Movies held the first TCM Classic Film Festival, an event—now held annually—at the Grauman's Chinese Theater and the Grauman's Egyptian Theater in Hollywood. Initially hosted by Robert Osborne, the four-day long annual festival celebrates Hollywood and its movies, and featured celebrity appearances, special events, and screenings of around 50 classic movies including several newly restored by The Film Foundation, an organization devoted to preserving Hollywood's classic film legacy.[10]

Programming

Turner Classic Movies essentially operates as a commercial-free service, with the only advertisements on the network being shown between features – which advertise TCM products, network promotions for upcoming special programs and the original trailers for films that are scheduled to be broadcast on TCM (particularly those that will air during the primetime hours), and featurettes about classic film actors and actresses. In addition to this, extended breaks between features are filled with theatrically released movie trailers and classic short subjects – from series such as The Passing Parade, Crime Does Not Pay, Pete Smith Specialties, and Robert Benchley – under the banner name TCM Extras (formerly One Reel Wonders). In 2007, some of the short films featured on TCM were made available for streaming on TCM's website. Partly to allow these interstitials, Turner Classic Movies schedules its feature films either at the top of the hour or at :15, :30 or :45 minutes past the hour, instead of in timeslots of varying five-minute increments.

TCM's film content has remained mostly uncut and uncolorized (with films natively filmed or post-produced in the format being those only ones presented in color), depending upon the original content of movies, particularly movies released after the 1968 implementation of the Motion Picture Association of America's ratings system and the concurrent disestablishment of the Motion Picture Production Code. Because of this, TCM is formatted similarly to a premium channel with certain films – particularly those made from the 1960s onward – sometimes featuring nudity, sexual content, violence and/or strong profanity; the network also features rating bumpers prior to the start of a program (most programs on TCM, especially films, are rated for content using the TV Parental Guidelines, in lieu of the MPAA's rating system).

The network's programming season runs from February until the following March of each year when a retrospective of Oscar-winning and Oscar-nominated movies is shown, called 31 Days of Oscar. As a result of its devoted format to classic feature films, viewers who are interested in tracing the career development of actresses such as Barbara Stanwyck or Greta Garbo or actors like Cary Grant or Humphrey Bogart have the unique opportunity to see most of the films that were made during their careers, from beginning to end. Turner Classic Movies presents many of its features in their original aspect ratio (widescreen or full screen) whenever possible – widescreen films broadcast on TCM are letterboxed on the network's standard definition feed. TCM also regularly presents widescreen presentations of films not available in the format on any home video release.

Occasionally, TCM shows restored versions of films, particularly old silent films with newly commissioned musical soundtracks. Turner Classic Movies is also a major backer of the Descriptive Video Service (created by Boston PBS member station WGBH-TV), with many of the films aired on the network offering visual description for the blind and visually impaired, which is accessible through the second audio program option through most television sets, or a cable or satellite receiver.

Now Playing

TCM publishes Now Playing, a monthly guide, originally available through a standalone subscription, which provides daily listings and descriptions for films scheduled to air on Turner Classic Movies in the coming month. The digest-size magazine highlights a featured actor on the cover, and features essays about the "guest programmer" as well as a movie-and-actor themed crossword puzzle. The May 2017 issue, following the death in March 2017 of host Robert Osborne, contained "Remembering Robert Osborne" by Ben Mankiewicz.[11] TCM ceased print publication of Now Playing (which had been one of the few channel-specific program guides that remained in print circulation for most of the 2000s and 2010s) with the August 2017 issue, moving it to an electronic format available via email free of charge.[12]

During the prime time hours, an ident for the "Watch TCM" app is shown after every movie.

Movie library

TCM's library of films spans several decades of cinema and includes thousands of film titles. Besides its deals to broadcast film releases from Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer[13] and Warner Bros. Entertainment, Turner Classic Movies also maintains movie licensing rights agreements with Universal Studios, Paramount Pictures,[14] 20th Century Fox as FX Movie Channel,[15] Walt Disney Studios (primarily film content from Walt Disney Pictures), as well as most of the Selznick International Pictures library,[16] Sony Pictures Entertainment (primarily film content from Columbia Pictures), StudioCanal, and Janus Films.

Most Paramount sound releases made prior to 1950 are owned by EMKA, Ltd./NBCUniversal Television Distribution, while Paramount (currently owned by Viacom) holds on to most of its post-1949 releases, which are distributed for television by Trifecta Entertainment & Media. Columbia's film output is owned by Sony (through Sony Pictures Television); distribution of 20th Century Fox's film library is handled for television by its 21st Century Fox subsidiary 20th Television, and the Walt Disney Studios (owned by The Walt Disney Company) has its library film output handled for television by Disney-ABC Domestic Television. Classic films released by 20th Century Fox, Paramount Pictures, Universal Studios, and Columbia Pictures are licensed individually for broadcast on Turner Classic Movies.

Also TCM has aired movies from the 1900s, 1910s and the 1920s. Although most movies shown on TCM are releases from the 1930s to the 1960s, some are more contemporary – Turner Classic Movies sometimes airs films from the 1970s and 1980s, and occasionally broadcasts movies released during the 1990s and the early 2000s.

Hosted and special programming

Regular features

Robert Osborne at the 73rd Annual Peabody Awards
TCM prime time host Robert Osborne at the 73rd Annual Peabody Awards (May 2014)

Most feature movies shown during the prime time and early overnight hours (8:00 p.m. to 2:30 a.m. Eastern Time) were presented by the late film historian Robert Osborne (who had been with the network since its 1994 launch until 2016, except for a five-month medical leave from July to December 2011, when guest hosts presented each night's films),[17] Ben Mankiewicz presenting only late evening films on Wednesday through Sunday evenings, and the "Silent Sunday Nights" and "TCM Imports" blocks on Sundays, Tiffany Vasquez presenting the films on Saturday afternoons from 2016-2018, Dave Karger presenting the films on Saturday afternoons and the primetime films on Mondays and Alicia Malone presenting the films on Sunday afternoons and the primetime films on Tuesdays.

TCM regularly airs a "Star of the Month" throughout the year on Wednesdays starting at 8:00 p.m. Eastern Time, in which most, if not all, feature films from a classic film star are shown during that night's schedule. February and August are the only months to not have a "Star of the Month". The network also marks the occurrence of a film actor's birthday (either antemortem or posthumously) or recent death with day- or evening-long festivals showcasing several of that artist's best, earliest or least-known pictures; by effect, marathons scheduled in honor of an actor's passing (which are scheduled within a month after their death) pre-empt films originally scheduled to air on that date. TCM also features a monthly program block called the "TCM Guest Programmer", in which Osborne is joined by celebrity guests responsible for choosing that evening's films (examples of such programmers during 2012 include Jules Feiffer, Anthony Bourdain, Debra Winger, Ellen Barkin, Spike Lee, Regis Philbin and Jim Lehrer);[18] an offshoot of this block featuring Turner Classic Movies employees aired during February 2011.

Turner Classic Movies also airs regularly scheduled weekly film blocks, which are periodically preempted for special themed month-long or seasonal scheduling events, such as the "31 Days of Oscar" film series in the month preceding the Academy Awards and the month-long "Summer Under the Stars" in August; all featured programming has their own distinctive feature presentation bumper for the particular scheduled presentation. The Essentials, with various hosts from 2001 through 2015, was a weekly film showcase airing on Saturday evenings (with a replay on the following Sunday at 6:00 p.m. Eastern Time), which spotlighted a different movie and contained a special introduction and post-movie discussion.

One of the weekly blocks is "Noir Alley", featuring film noir movies. It broadcasts on Sunday mornings and is hosted by Eddie Muller. The channel also broadcasts two movie blocks during the late evening hours each Sunday: "Silent Sunday Nights", which features silent films from the United States and abroad, usually in the latest restored version and often with new musical scores; and "TCM Imports" (which previously ran on Saturdays until the early 2000s), a weekly presentation of films originally released in foreign countries. TCM Underground – which debuted in October 2006 – as Saturday late night block which focuses on cult films, the block was originally hosted by rocker/filmmaker Rob Zombie until December 2006 (though as of 2014, it is the only regular film presentation block on the channel that does not have a host). TCM Underground recently changed its timeslot - it now airs Friday mornings at 2AM.

Seasonal blocks

Each August, Turner Classic Movies suspends its regular schedule for a special month of film marathons called "Summer Under the Stars", which features entire daily schedules devoted to the work of a particular actor, with movies and specials that pertain to the star of the day. In the summer of 2007, the channel debuted "Funday Night at the Movies", a block hosted by actor Tom Kenny (best known as the voice of SpongeBob SquarePants). This summer block featured classic feature films (such as The Wizard of Oz, Sounder, Bringing Up Baby, Singin' in the Rain, Mr. Smith Goes to Washington, The Adventures of Robin Hood, and 20,000 Leagues Under the Sea) aimed at introducing these movies to new generations of children, and their families.

"Funday Night at the Movies" was replaced in 2008 by "Essentials Jr.", a youth-oriented version of its weekly series, The Essentials (originally hosted by actors Abigail Breslin, and Chris O'Donnell, then by John Lithgow from 2009 to 2011, and then by Bill Hader, starting with the 2011 season), which included such family-themed films as National Velvet, Captains Courageous, and Yours, Mine and Ours, as well as more eclectic selections, such as Sherlock, Jr., The Music Box, Harvey, Mutiny on the Bounty, and The Man Who Knew Too Much.

In 2014, the channel debuted "Treasures from the Disney Vault", hosted by Leonard Maltin. This block showcases a compilation of vintage Disney feature films, cartoons, documentaries, episodes of the Walt Disney anthology television series, and episodes of The Mickey Mouse Club.[19][20][21][22]

Documentaries

In addition to films, Turner Classic Movies also airs original content, mostly documentaries about classic movie personalities, the world of filmmaking and particularly notable films. An occasional month-long series, Race and Hollywood, showcases films by and about people of non-white races, featuring discussions of how these pictures influenced white people's image of said races, as well as how people of those races viewed themselves. Previous installments have included "Asian Images on Film" in 2008,[23] "Native American Images on Film" in 2010,[24] "Black Images on Film" in 2006[25] "Latino Images on Film" in 2009[26] and "Arab Images on Film" in 2011.[27] The network aired the film series Screened Out (which explored the history and depiction of homosexuality in film) in 2007 and Religion on Film (focusing on the role of religion in cinematic works) in 2005. In 2011, TCM debuted a new series entitled AFI's Master Class: The Art of Collaboration.[28][29]

TCM Remembers

Most of the actors appearing in most TCM films are deceased. In December 1994, TCM debuted "TCM Remembers", a tribute to recently deceased notable film personalities (including actors, producers, composers, directors, writers and cinematographers) that occasionally airs during promotional breaks between films. The segments appear in two forms: individual tributes and a longer end-of-year compilation. Following the recent death of an especially famous classic film personality (usually an actor, producer, filmmaker or director), the segment will feature a montage of select shots of the deceased's work.

Every December, a longer, more inclusive "TCM Remembers" interstitial is produced that honors all of the noted film personalities who died during the past year, interspersed with scenes from settings such as an abandoned drive-in (2012) or a theatre which is closing down and is being dismantled (2013). Since 2001, the soundtracks for these clipreels have been introspective melodies by indie artists and/or singer-songwriters such as Badly Drawn Boy (2007) or Steve Earle (2009).[30]

TCM Remembers soundtracks

Year Artist Song
2002 Rickie Lee Jones "Cycles"
2003 Sarah McLachlan "I Will Remember You"
2004 Ryan Adams "Goodnight, Hollywood Blvd."
2005 Joe Henry "Flesh and Blood"
2006 Robinella "Press On"
2007 Badly Drawn Boy "Promises"
2008 Joe Henry "God Only Knows"
2009 Steve Earle "To Live is To Fly"
2010 Sophie Hunger "Headlights"
2011 OK Sweetheart "Before You Go"
2012 M83 "Wait"
2013 Sleeping at Last "In the Embers"
2014 Kodaline "All I Want"
2015 Eryn McHugh "Quickly Now"
2016 Dan Auerbach "Goin' Home"
2017 The Cardigans "Lead Me Into The Night"
2018 Lord Huron "When the Night is Over"

Accolades

Robert Osborne - Mark Cousins (14282451582)
Robert Osborne, Mark Cousins and Charles Tabesh in 2014, with the Peabody Award that TCM received for its presentation of The Story of Film: An Odyssey

TCM received a 2008 Peabody Award for its dedication to film preservation and "a continuing, powerful commitment to a central concept—the place of film in social and cultural experience".[2]

TCM received a 2013 Peabody Award for its presentation of Mark Cousins' The Story of Film: An Odyssey, a 15-episode documentary about the development and advancement of the medium of motion pictures. Drawing on its exhaustive film library, TCM complemented each episode with short films and feature films from the familiar to the little-seen. The Peabody Award praised TCM's The Story of Film "for its inclusive, uniquely annotated survey of world cinema history".[31]

Turner Classic Movies HD

Turner Classic Movies operates a high definition simulcast feed, with programs broadcast in HD presented in an upconverted 1080i resolution format; the HD feed of the network was launched in June 2009. Initial programming was not available in native high definition and was instead upconverted from standard definition, but benefited from the greater bandwidth allocated to the channel. By November 2014, film masters meant for high definition presentation, along with Osborne and Mankiewicz-hosted continuity had transitioned to the format (though films meant to be presented in the Academy ratio or other anamorphic formats lower than 16:9 are presented as intended by the director or studio with the appropriate black boxing around the frame).

Merchandising

TCM Vault Collection

The TCM Vault Collection consists of several different DVD collections of rare classic films that have been licensed, remastered and released by Turner Classic Movies (through corporate sister Warner Home Video). These boxed set releases are of films by notable actors, directors or studios that were previously unreleased on DVD or VHS. The sets often include bonus discs including documentaries and shorts from the TCM library. The initial batch of DVDs are printed in limited quantities and subsequent batches are made-on-demand (MOD).

In October 2015, TCM announced the launch of the TCM Wineclub, in which they teamed up with Laithwaite to provide a line of mail-order wines from famous vineyards such as famed writer-director-producer Francis Ford Coppola's winery. Wines are available in 3 month subscriptions, and can be selected as reds, whites, or a mixture of both. From the wines chosen, TCM also includes recommended movies to watch with each, such as a "True Grit" wine, to be paired with the John Wayne film of the same name.[32]

International versions

Turner Classic Movies is available in many other countries around the world. In Canada, TCM began to be carried on Shaw Cable and satellite provider Shaw Direct in 2005. Rogers Cable started offering TCM in December 2006 as a free preview for subscribers of its digital cable tier, and was added to its analogue tier in February 2007. While the schedule for the Canadian feed is generally the same as that of the U.S. network, some films are replaced for broadcast in Canada due to rights issues and other reasons. Other versions of TCM are available in France, Greece, Italy, Middle East, Africa, Spain, Asia, Latin America, Nordic countries, the United Kingdom, Ireland and Malta. The UK version operates two channels, including a spinoff called TCM 2.

See also

References

  1. ^ Fabrikant, Geraldine. "Turner to Sell MGM Assets." The New York Times. June 7, 1986.
  2. ^ a b "The Peabody Awards, Institutional Award: Turner Classic Movies (TCM)". Grady College of Journalism and Mass Communication, University of Georgia. Retrieved 2018-07-12.
  3. ^ Mitchell, Kim; Rod Granger. "Turner launches TCM", Multichannel News, April 18, 1994. Retrieved February 28, 2011 from HighBeam Research.
  4. ^ Lon Grahnke. "Classic Films Find New Cable Outlet In Turner Empire", Chicago Sun-Times, April 10, 1994. Retrieved February 28, 2011 from HighBeam Research.
  5. ^ Gerard, Jeremy (1988-10-03). "TV Notes". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 2019-01-18.
  6. ^ Brown, Rich. "Few tickets for Turner Classic Movies", Broadcasting & Cable, April 18, 1994. Retrieved February 28, 2011 from HighBeam Research.
  7. ^ "Turner picks up Warner films", Broadcasting & Cable, December 6, 1993. Retrieved February 28, 2011 from HighBeam Research:
  8. ^ Littleton, Cynthia; Littleton, Cynthia (2019-03-04). "WarnerMedia Shakeup: Bob Greenblatt In, Jeff Zucker and Kevin Tsujihara Gain Turf". Variety. Retrieved 2019-03-04.
  9. ^ Littleton, Cynthia; Littleton, Cynthia (2019-03-04). "Warner Bros. Wants to Rev Up Kid's Content With Looney Tunes, Hanna-Barbera". Variety. Retrieved 2019-03-04.
  10. ^ Lumenick, Lou (November 5, 2009). "New TCM Film Festival goes head-to-head with Tribeca". New York Post. Archived from the original on June 5, 2011. Retrieved 2012-03-16.
  11. ^ "TCM:NOW PLAYING: A Viewer's Guide to Turner Classic Movies". Palm Coast, Florida: Turner Classic Movies. May 2017. p. 46.
  12. ^ "TCM To Cease Printing the Now Playing Guide" http://mercurie.blogspot.com/2017/04/tcm-to-cease-printing-now-playing-guide.html
  13. ^ Katz, Richard. "TCM purchases large MGM/UA film package", Multichannel News, November 21, 1994. Retrieved February 28, 2011 from HighBeam Research.
  14. ^ Brown, Rich. "Turner signs Paramount titles for $30M: new classic movie channel seeks additional packages to supplement MGM/RKO library", Broadcasting & Cable, August 16, 1993. Retrieved February 28, 2011 from HighBeam Research.
  15. ^ Dempsey, John. "TCM lands passel of pix from Fox", Daily Variety, August 13, 2004. Retrieved February 28, 2011 from HighBeam Research.
  16. ^ Elliot, Stuart (November 25, 2014). "Disney Pairs Up With Turner to Promote TCM and Great Movie Ride". The New York Times. Retrieved November 26, 2014.
  17. ^ Lumenick, Lou (July 11, 2011). "Robert Osborne taking leave from TCM". The New York Post. Archived from the original on September 13, 2012.
  18. ^ Bibel, Sara (February 22, 2012). "TCM Announces Guest Programmers for 2012, Including Jules Feiffer, Anthony Bourdain, Debra Winger, Ellen Barkin, Spike Lee, Regis Philbin and Jim Lehrer". Press release. Archived from the original on February 27, 2012. Retrieved 2012-03-16.
  19. ^ "Disney". TCM.com. Archived from the original on 17 December 2018. Retrieved 11 March 2019.
  20. ^ "Treasures from The Disney Vault" (PDF). Turner Communications Group. Retrieved 11 March 2019.
  21. ^ "Disney Ride". TCM.com. Archived from the original on 25 July 2016. Retrieved 30 July 2016.
  22. ^ McKenzie, Gina (26 November 2014). "Turner Classic Movies, Walt Disney World Resort and The Walt Disney Studios Team Up to Share Stories Centered on Classic Film" (PDF). Turner Communications Group. Retrieved 11 March 2019.
  23. ^ "Asian Images on Film Introduction". TCM website. Archived from the original on 14 December 2016. Retrieved 11 March 2019.
  24. ^ "Native American Images on Film Introduction". TCM website. Archived from the original on 25 October 2017. Retrieved 11 March 2019.
  25. ^ "Race & Hollywood: Black Images on Film - TCM Special in May". TCM website. Archived from the original on 6 November 2018. Retrieved 11 March 2019.
  26. ^ "Latino Images in Film -- (TCM Original) Latin, Non-Latin". TCM. Archived from the original on 24 September 2015. Retrieved 11 March 2019. Hispanic actors talk about casting}
  27. ^ "Reca & Hollywood: Arab Images on Film Tuesdays & Thursdays in July". TCM website. Archived from the original on 4 March 2016. Retrieved 11 March 2019.
  28. ^ Hinckley, David (14 November 2011). "Steven Spielberg and John Williams tell stories by the score about 'Jaws' & 'E.T.' in 'AFI Master Class'". Daily News. Archived from the original on 15 September 2016. Retrieved 11 March 2019.
  29. ^ Maçek III, J.C. (14 January 2013). "'AFI Master Class': Zemeckis and Burgess Break It Down". PopMatters. Archived from the original on 17 May 2013. Retrieved 11 March 2019.
  30. ^ "TCM Remembers 2009". TCM Website. 2009. Archived from the original on 22 August 2017. Retrieved 11 March 2019.
  31. ^ "The Peabody Awards, The Story of Film: An Odyssey (TCM)". Grady College of Journalism and Mass Media, University of Georgia. Retrieved 2018-07-12.
  32. ^ "About TCM Wine Club". Tcmwineclub.com.

External links

Bernie Casey

Bernard Terry Casey (June 8, 1939 – September 19, 2017) was an American actor, poet, and professional football player.

Carol Burnett

Carol Creighton Burnett (born April 26, 1933) is an American actress, comedian, singer and writer, whose career spans seven decades of television. She is best known for her groundbreaking television variety show, The Carol Burnett Show, originally aired on CBS. It was the first of its kind to be hosted by a woman. She has achieved success on stage, television and film in varying genres including dramatic and comedic roles. She has also appeared on various talk shows and as a panelist on game shows.

Born in San Antonio, Texas, Burnett moved with her grandmother to Hollywood, where she attended Hollywood High School and eventually studied theater and musical comedy at UCLA. Later she performed in nightclubs in New York City and had a breakout success on Broadway in 1959 in Once Upon a Mattress, for which she received a Tony Award nomination. She soon made her television debut, regularly appearing on The Garry Moore Show for the next three years, and won her first Emmy Award in 1962. Burnett had her television special debut in 1963 when she starred as Calamity Jane in the Dallas State Fair Musicals production of Calamity Jane on CBS. Burnett moved to Los Angeles, California, and began an 11-year run as star of The Carol Burnett Show on CBS television from 1967 to 1978. With its vaudeville roots, The Carol Burnett Show was a variety show that combined comedy sketches with song and dance. The comedy sketches included film parodies and character pieces. Burnett created many memorable characters during the show's run, and both she and the show won numerous Emmy and Golden Globe Awards.

During and after her variety show, Burnett appeared in many television and film projects. Her film roles include Pete 'n' Tillie (1972), The Front Page (1974), The Four Seasons (1981), Annie (1982), Noises Off (1992), and Horton Hears a Who! (2008). On television, she has appeared in other sketch shows; in dramatic roles in 6 Rms Riv Vu (1974) and Friendly Fire (1979); in various well-regarded guest roles, such as in Mad About You, for which she won an Emmy Award; and in specials with Julie Andrews, Dolly Parton, Beverly Sills, and others. She returned to the Broadway stage in 1995 in Moon Over Buffalo, for which she was again nominated for a Tony Award.

Burnett has written and narrated several memoirs, earning Grammy nominations for almost all of them, and a win for In Such Good Company: Eleven Years Of Laughter, Mayhem, And Fun In The Sandbox.In 2005, she was recognized as "one of America's most cherished entertainers" and awarded the Presidential Medal of Freedom "for enhancing the lives of millions of Americans and for her extraordinary contributions to American entertainment."

Charles Napier (actor)

Charles Lewis Napier (April 12, 1936 – October 5, 2011) was an American character actor and voice actor in film and television, known for his prolific career playing memorable supporting and leading roles in genre cinema, often in the role of a cop, soldier, or authority figure.

After leaving his Kentucky hometown to serve in the army, he graduated from college and worked as a sports coach and art teacher before settling on acting as a career. Napier established himself in character roles and worked steadily for the next 35 years. He made numerous collaborations with director Jonathan Demme, including roles in the critically acclaimed drama Philadelphia, comedy Married to the Mob, historical horror-drama Beloved, the political-thriller remake The Manchurian Candidate, and the Best Picture-winning psychological horror film adaptation The Silence of the Lambs. Other notable roles include the short-tempered country singer Tucker McElroy in The Blues Brothers, gruff army Commander Gilmour in Austin Powers: International Man of Mystery, and bureaucratic CIA officer Marshall Murdock in Rambo: First Blood Part II. He also had numerous voiceover roles in television, most notably the character of Duke Phillips on the prime time animated sitcom The Critic and Agent Zed on Men in Black: The Series.

Doris Roberts

Doris Roberts (born Doris May Green; November 4, 1925 – April 17, 2016) was an American actress, author, and philanthropist whose career spanned six decades of television and film. She received five Emmy Awards and a Screen Actors Guild award during her acting career, which began in 1951.

Roberts studied acting at The Neighborhood Playhouse School of the Theatre in New York City and started in films in 1961. She had several prominent roles in movies, including playing opposite Shirley Stoler in The Honeymoon Killers (1970), Elliott Gould in Little Murders (1971), Steven Keats in Hester Street (1975), Billy Crystal in Rabbit Test (1978), Robert Carradine in Number One with a Bullet (1987), and Cady McClain in Simple Justice (1989), among many others.

She achieved continuing success in television, becoming known for her role as Mildred Krebs in Remington Steele from 1983 to 1987 and her co-starring role as Raymond Barone's mother, Marie Barone, on the long-running CBS sitcom Everybody Loves Raymond (1996–2005). Towards the end of her acting career, she also had a prominent role opposite Tyler Perry in Madea's Witness Protection (2012).

She appeared as a guest on many talk and variety shows, along with appearing as a panelist on several game shows. She was an advocate of animal rights and animal-rights activism, supporting groups such as the United Activists for Animal Rights.

George Gaynes

George Gaynes (born George Jongejans; May 3, 1917 – February 15, 2016) was an American singer, actor and voice artist. Born to Dutch and Russian parents in Finland, he served in the Royal Netherlands Navy during World War II and subsequently emigrated to the United States, where he became a citizen and began his acting career on Broadway.

Gaynes' most recognized roles in cinema were that of Commandant Eric Lassard in the Police Academy series and as John Van Horn in the 1982 comedy film Tootsie. He appeared as the curmudgeonly but lovable foster parent Henry Warnimont on the NBC series Punky Brewster; as high-powered theatrical producer Arthur Feldman on The Days and Nights of Molly Dodd, in which Gaynes' real-life wife, Allyn Ann McLerie, co-starred as his love interest; and as Frank Smith, the mob boss brought down by Luke Spencer (Anthony Geary) on the soap opera General Hospital.

George Kennedy

George Harris Kennedy Jr. (February 18, 1925 – February 28, 2016) was an American actor who appeared in more than 100 film and television productions. He played "Dragline" opposite Paul Newman in Cool Hand Luke (1967), winning the Academy Award for Best Supporting Actor for the role and being nominated for the corresponding Golden Globe. He received a second Golden Globe nomination for portraying Joe Patroni in Airport (1970).

Among the notable films he had a significant role in are Charade, Strait-Jacket, McHale's Navy, Shenandoah, The Sons of Katie Elder, The Flight of the Phoenix, The Dirty Dozen, The Boston Strangler, Guns of the Magnificent Seven, Thunderbolt and Lightfoot, Airport 1975, Earthquake and The Eiger Sanction.

Kennedy was the only actor to appear in all four films in the Airport series, having reprised the role of Joe Patroni three times. He also played Police Captain Ed Hocken in the Naked Gun series of comedy films, and corrupt oil tycoon Carter McKay on the original Dallas television series.

James Burrows

James Edward Burrows (born December 30, 1940), sometimes known as Jim Burrows, is an American television director who has been working in television since the 1970s. Burrows has directed over 50 television pilots and co-created the long-running television series Cheers.

In 2016, Burrows directed his 1000th TV episode, on NBC's Crowded.

Janis Paige

Janis Paige (born Donna Mae Tjaden; September 16, 1922) is an American actress and singer.

Ken Howard

Kenneth Joseph Howard Jr. (March 28, 1944 – March 23, 2016) was an American actor, best known for his roles as Thomas Jefferson in 1776 and as basketball coach and former Chicago Bulls player Ken Reeves in the television show The White Shadow (1978–1981). Howard won the Tony Award for Best Featured Actor in a Play in 1970 for his performance in Child's Play, and later won the Primetime Emmy Award for Outstanding Supporting Actor in a Miniseries or a Movie for his work in Grey Gardens (2009).

Howard was elected president of the actors' union, Screen Actors Guild (SAG), in September 2009 and reelected to a second term, in September 2011. He was the last president of the Screen Actors Guild and the first president of the newly formed union, SAG-AFTRA, after the Screen Actors Guild and another union, the American Federation of Television and Radio Artists (AFTRA), voted to merge in 2012. He was reelected in 2015.

List of international Turner Classic Movies channels

Turner Classic Movies, a movie-oriented network that was originally established as a cable channel in the United States, has expanded to include worldwide versions.

Marie Wilson (American actress)

Marie Wilson (born Katherine Elizabeth Wilson; August 19, 1916 – November 23, 1972) was an American radio, film, and television actress. She may be best remembered as the title character in My Friend Irma.

Nancy Kulp

Nancy Jane Kulp (August 28, 1921 – February 3, 1991) was an American character actress best known as Miss Jane Hathaway on the CBS television series The Beverly Hillbillies.

Robert Osborne

Robert Jolin Osborne (; May 3, 1932 – March 6, 2017) was an American actor, film historian, television presenter, and author, best known for more than twenty years as the primary host of the cable channel Turner Classic Movies (TCM). Prior to TCM, Osborne had been a host on The Movie Channel, and, earlier, a columnist for The Hollywood Reporter. Osborne also wrote the official history of the Academy Awards, originally published in 1988, and most recently revised in 2013.

Robert Vaughn

Robert Francis Vaughn (November 22, 1932 – November 11, 2016) was an American actor noted for his stage, film and television work. His best-known television roles include suave spy Napoleon Solo in the 1960s series The Man from U.N.C.L.E.; wealthy detective Harry Rule in the 1970s series The Protectors; Morgan Wendell in the 1978–79 mini series Centennial; formidable General Hunt Stockwell in the fifth season of the 1980s series The A-Team; and grifter and card sharp Albert Stroller in the British television drama series Hustle (2004–2012), for all but one of its 48 episodes. He also appeared in the British soap opera Coronation Street as Milton Fanshaw, a love interest for Sylvia Goodwin between January and February 2012.In film, he portrayed quiet, skittish gunman Lee in The Magnificent Seven, Major Paul Krueger in The Bridge at Remagen, the voice of Proteus IV, the computer villain of Demon Seed, Walter Chalmers in Bullitt, Ross Webster in Superman III, General Woodbridge in The Delta Force, and war veteran Chester A. Gwynn in The Young Philadelphians, which earned him a 1960 Academy Award nomination for Best Supporting Actor.

TCM (North European TV channel)

Turner Classic Movies (TCM or sometimes called TCM Nordic) was a television channel broadcasting "classic" films from the 1940s to the 1990s (mostly from the Warner Bros. and pre-May 1986 MGM film libraries) to Denmark, Finland, Flanders, Iceland, Netherlands, Norway and Sweden. The channel used English audio with optional subtitles in Danish, Dutch, Finnish, Norwegian and Swedish. The channel was commercial-free and films were not interrupted.

TNT Africa

Turner Network Television (TNT) is a digital television channel featuring blockbuster movies with a mix of TNT in its line-up for modern viewers, mostly from the Turner Entertainment and Warner Bros. film libraries, which include many MGM, United Artists, RKO and Warner Bros. titles. This version of the channel is available in Africa and the Arab world. In the Arab world, TNT has a unique schedule, it broadcasts in 4:3, and Arabic subtitles are optional.

TNT MENA started broadcasting on January 1, 2016, the date when it separated from TNT Africa and became an independent feed.

Turner Network Television Middle East is exclusively available on beIN Channels Network in the Arab world.Turner Network Television Africa is exclusively available on DStv and Black in Africa.

Turner Broadcasting System Europe

Turner Broadcasting System Europe (also known simply as Turner Europe, Middle East and Africa) is the company managing the collection of cable and satellite networks around Europe, Middle East and Africa.

Turner Broadcasting System Europe operates the following brands: CNN International, Boomerang, Turner Classic Movies, TNT, Cartoon Network, Boing, truTV, HLN, Toonami, Warner TV and Cartoonito. The availability of these brands depends on what country in Europe, Middle East and Africa the viewer is from. The most available brands include Cartoon Network, Boomerang, CNN and Turner Classic Movies. In 2019, Turner EMEA will be moving to their new headquarters in Old Street, Shoreditch, London. The new headquarters will have more office space allowing room for the company's European operations to expand and a brand new custom-built CNN newsroom.

Turner Classic Movies (Asia)

Turner Classic Movies was a Asian digital classic film channel featuring commercial-free classic movies, mostly from the Turner Entertainment and Warner Bros. film libraries, which include many MGM, United Artists, RKO and Warner Bros. titles, mainly classic films (e.g. The Wizard of Oz and Citizen Kane). It is the Asian iteration of the US Turner Classic Movies and airs in Indian Subcontinent, South East Asia and Middle East.After more than 24 years of broadcast, TCM ceased its transmission from 31 December 2018 in the several parts of Asia and gave thanks to its viewers before they sign-off on 2 January 2019 at midnight.

Turner Classic Movies (UK and Ireland)

Turner Classic Movies (TCM) is a subscription digital television channel featuring classic movies, mostly from the Turner Entertainment and Warner Bros. film libraries, which include many MGM, United Artists, RKO and Warner Bros. titles.

Founders
Executives
WB Pictures Group
WB TV Group
WB Home
Entertainment
WB Digital Networks
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Global Kids &
Young Adults
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Over-the-air
digital television
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Defunct
Movie television channels in Canada
Specialty channels
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Foreign
Defunct

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