Turn on red

A turn on red is a principle of law permitting vehicles at a traffic light showing a red signal to turn into the direction of traffic nearer to them (almost always after a complete stop) when the way is clear, without having to wait for a green signal. It is intended to allow traffic to resume moving, with minimal risk provided that proper caution is observed.

It is commonly known as a right turn on red (or simply right on red) in countries that drive on the right side of the road, or a left turn on red in countries which drive on the left side of the road.

Turn right on red
French sign indicating to cyclists that they may treat the red light as a yield if turning right
No Right Turn On Red Sign
"No right turns on red light" sign in Quebec City, Quebec, Canada
Rightonred
Turning right on red is forbidden in New York City unless this sign or similar is posted.[1]
In the United States outside New York City, right turns are permitted on red (except for school buses and trucks carrying hazardous materials) unless there is a "No Turn on Red" or a "Right Turn Signal" light indicating the same and controlling the right turn.
Right turn on red Belgrade, Serbia
"Right turn on red" traffic light in Belgrade, Serbia, right turn only after pedestrians and traffic pass from left.

North America

Right turns on red are permitted in many regions of North America. In the United States, western states have allowed it for more than 50 years, and eastern states amended their traffic laws to allow it in the 1970s as a fuel-saving measure in response to motor fuel shortages in 1973. The Energy Policy and Conservation Act of 1975 required in §362(c)(5) that in order for a state to receive federal assistance in developing mandated conservation programs, they must permit right turns on red lights.[2] All 50 states, the District of Columbia, Guam, and Puerto Rico have allowed right turns on red since 1980, except where prohibited by a sign or where right turns are controlled by dedicated traffic lights. (The last state with a right-on-red ban, Massachusetts, ended its ban on 1 January 1980[3]) The few exceptions include New York City,[4] where right turns on red are prohibited, unless a sign indicates otherwise.

In some states, such as New York,[5] Virginia, North Carolina, Nebraska, Minnesota, and California, a right turn on red is prohibited when a red arrow is displayed.

At intersections where U-turns are permitted and controlled by a U-turn arrow from the left-most lane, motorists turning right on red onto the same road must yield to those making U-turns before turning, as the motorists making U-turns have the right of way and a collision could easily occur. At intersections where U-turns are prohibited in the same fashion, a green right turn arrow will sometimes appear for those turning right onto the road, allowing only traffic turning right to proceed without having to stop or yield to other vehicles or pedestrians. Some states such as California have "No U-Turn" signs posted at these intersections because of the green right turn arrow.

Most Caribbean countries with right-hand traffic, such as the Dominican Republic, allow right turn on red unless a sign prohibits it. Some vehicles, such as those carrying hazardous materials and school buses, are not allowed to turn on red under any circumstance and must wait for a green light or arrow.

During 1982–1992, approximately 84 fatal crashes per year occurred in the U.S. where a vehicle was turning right at intersections where right turn on red was permitted. As of 1992, right turn on red is governed federally by 42 U.S.C. § 6322(c) ("Each proposed State energy conservation plan to be eligible for Federal assistance under this part shall include: ...(5) a traffic law or regulation which, to the maximum extent practicable consistent with safety, permits the operator of a motor vehicle to turn such vehicle right at a red stop light after stopping, and to turn such vehicle left from a one-way street onto a one-way street at a red light after stopping."). All turns on red are forbidden in New York City unless a sign is posted permitting it.[6]

Québec P-115-1-mtl

Through most of Canada, a driver may turn right at a red light after coming to a complete stop unless a sign indicates otherwise. In the province of Quebec, turning right on a red was illegal until a pilot study carried out in 2003 showed that the right turn on red manoeuvre did not result in significantly more accidents. Subsequent to the study, the Province of Quebec now allows right turns on red except where prohibited by a sign. However, like in New York City, it remains illegal to turn right on a red anywhere on the Island of Montreal.[7] Motorists are reminded of this by large signs posted at the entrance to all bridges.

In Mexico, right turns on red are generally allowed unless a sign indicates otherwise.[8] Mexico City has implemented a new transit law which prohibits right turns and motorists can be issued a citation for noncompliance.[9]

Central America

In Costa Rica, right turns on red are allowed in general, but a sign can forbid them.

South America

Chile road sign RA-2
Chilean right turn on red permitted sign

In Chile, right turns on red are only allowed when a sign permitting it is shown.

In Paraguay, right turns on red are allowed in some towns.

In Argentina, Brazil, Colombia, Peru and Uruguay, right turns on red are not allowed.

Europe

Zeichen 720 - Grünpfeil, StVO 1994
German Right turn on red permission sign

In the European Union member states in general, it is illegal to turn on a red light, unless it is indicated otherwise, for example by a green arrow on a red light, a flashing amber arrow with a red light or a permanent green board next to the red light.

In Poland, right turns on red are permitted, only if an additional green arrow light (apart from the main signal light) is present and lit. However, the regulations require drivers to stop completely, as their paths intersect with other vehicles or pedestrians in at least one direction. Green arrow light can be also directed left (the same regulations apply).[10]

In Germany, right turns on red are only permitted, after a complete stop, when a specific sign is present. This rule was first introduced in 1978 in East Germany and was originally supposed to become obsolete together with the East German highway code by the end of 1990, following German reunification. However, authorities were unable to remove the signs in time, and public opinion caused them to leave the regulation unchanged, even extending its scope to the areas of the former West Germany in 1994. By 1999, there were 300 turn-on-red intersections on the territory of the former West Germany while that of the former East Germany featured 2,500. However, the numbers in the former West Germany have risen considerably since then and as of 2002 a total of 5,000 turn-on-red intersections were counted, representing 48% of the national total.

In Russia, turns on red are prohibited unless a separate arrow-shaped green light allows it; drivers must give way to any vehicle coming from a different direction. When the arrow is not lit, turns in the arrow direction are prohibited. However, in some cities, they have allowed turns on right provided there is a fixed green arrow with the writing below saying "Give way to everyone, you can turn on right".[11]

Feux avec passage
French Right turn (or others) on red permission sign

In the Netherlands, bicycles are occasionally allowed to turn right on a red light (assuming that the design of the junction is such that the light is even applicable to right turning cyclists, which it often is not in the Netherlands). Wherever this is the case, a sign "rechtsaf voor fietsers vrij" (right turn free for cyclists) or "rechtsaf voor (brom)fietsers vrij" (right turn free for cyclists and mopeds) is present.

In France a right turn on red without stopping is allowed when a separate arrow-shaped amber light flashes, but drivers do not have priority. They must check if any pedestrians are crossing before turning and must give way to vehicles coming from other directions.[12]. In France, cyclists are permitted to turn right on red if a sign indicates it.

In Belgium, road signs that allow cyclists to turn right on a red light have been added to traffic law in 2012.[13] Such roads signs have been placed on intersections in the Brussels Capital Region.[14]

Like in the Netherlands, Belgium and France have a road sign that allows cyclists to turn right on a red light. The French and Belgian signs consist of a yield sign with a yellow bike and arrow inside. Such signs are placed under traffic lights.[15]

Panneau tourne à droite
Sign allowing cyclists to turn right on red in France and Belgium.

In the United Kingdom, which drives on the left, left turn on red is prohibited, but at some junctions there is a separate left arrow-shaped green "filter" light which, when lit, allows left-hand turns but conflicting traffic will always have a red signal.[16] Other non conflicting traffic movements may have their own left or right arrow-shaped green light. Sometimes there are specific lanes without signals for turning left, separated from the through traffic signalled traffic by traffic islands, but give way signs are installed.

In the Republic of Ireland, which drives on the left, left turns on red are prohibited.

In Lithuania, drivers are allowed to turn right on red when a particular sign with a green arrow on a white background is mounted beside the red light of the traffic signal. However, on 10 November 2014, national traffic rules were altered meaning that this sign will be valid only until 31 December 2019 at the latest, by which time all such signs will have been eliminated. These changes for reasons of road safety.[17]

In Czech Republic and Slovakia right turns on red are allowed only when there is a lit green arrow present (called S 5 in Czech Republic and S 10 in Slovakia). Also in this case the car turning on red must give way to ongoing traffic, to pedestrians and other road users. (According to Czech law §70 of decree 30/2001 of Law Codex; and Slovak law §9, part 3g, decree 9/2009 of Law Codex)

In Romania, right turns on red are prohibited, except when there is a small green flashing light with a right turn arrow. Drivers must yield to pedestrians and oncoming vehicles from their left. In some one-way junctions, the same rule applies for left on red (such as Cluj-Napoca Avram Iancu Square).

In Bulgaria, right turns on red are prohibited.

In Spain, right turns are allowed only if there's either a flashing amber or lit green arrow-shaped traffic light. Flashing amber arrow allows turning without priority (turn must be done exercising caution, giving way to any other vehicles and pedestrians that may cross the path), while a lit green arrow grants priority. If just a regular set of traffic lights is present (no light arrows), then turning on red is prohibited.

In Iceland, right turn on red is allowed only when the "Hægri Kveiktu á Rauðum" sign is displayed at the traffic junction. The driver will have to stop at the red light first and give way to pedestrians and oncoming vehicles from their left before turning.

Asia

Singapore road sign - Informatory - Left turn on red permitted
Singapore "Left Turn On Red" sign

As in the United Kingdom, left turn on red is always prohibited in Hong Kong. At some junctions, however, there may be separate sets of signals for left turns, or specific lanes for turning left separating from the through traffic by traffic islands and give way signs are installed. One such example is at the junction of Queen's Road East and Morrison Hill Road.

In China, a right turn on red is generally permitted, unless there is a red arrow pointing to the right. However, certain cities such as Shantou prohibited right turn on red.

In India, which drives on the left, a "free left turn" is generally prohibited.[18][19] However, some cities specifically permit turning left on a red signal.[20][21] An explicit green or blinking orange left signal also permits a turn on red, which usually means that conflicting traffic is not permitted to enter the same road.[22]

In Japan, which drives on the left, the only left turn allowed requires a green left arrow along with the red light.

In Malaysia, left turn on red can only be observed in Sarawak since 1960s and Putrajaya since mid-2000s. The road sign by the traffic lights in Sarawak may state "Turn Left when Exit is Clear", as English, Malay and Chinese are used for road signage. The practice is not implemented nationwide.

In Singapore, which drives on the left, left turn on red is allowed only when the "Left Turn On Red" sign is displayed at the traffic junction. The driver will have to stop at the red light first and give way to pedestrians and oncoming vehicles from their right before turning.[23]

In Taiwan, right turn on red is always prohibited, except when there is a green arrow along with the red light.

In Thailand, which drives on the left, left turn on red is allowed unless a sign prohibits it.

In Saudi Arabia, right turn on red is generally permitted, unless there is a dedicated slip lane for right turn.

In Lebanon, unless sign or a red arrow prohibits it, right turning on red is permitted after coming to a full stop to give way to oncoming traffic and pedestrians.

Oceania

Left Turn on Red sign Australia
Australian "left turn on red" sign at traffic lights

In Australia, which drives on the left, left turns on red are not permitted unless a sign indicating otherwise exists at the intersection. At such intersections, a sign generally reads "left turn on red permitted after stopping," meaning a vehicle can make a left turn only after coming to a complete stop first and giving way to approaching traffic and any crossing pedestrians or cyclists.[24][25] Such signs are only in limited locations in the states of New South Wales, Queensland, South Australia (six locations as of 2016[26]) as well as the Northern Territory and Australian Capital Territory and are banned in other states.[27] In New South Wales, a number of tests to the intersection must be met before a turn on red will be permitted, including pedestrian volume, bus stop locations, geometry of the intersection, and the amount of lane changing at the intersection.[28] There are conflicting views on the policy of left turns on red, with supporters pointing to lower vehicle emission and time savings, while opponents cite safety concerns.[26][29]

In New Zealand, which drives on the left, left turns on red are not permitted. However, there is usually a fork before the traffic lights with a giveway sign on busy intersections.

Pedestrian and bicyclist safety

A 1981 US Department of Transportation study determined that the frequency of motor vehicle collisions with bicyclists and pedestrians when the vehicle was turning right increased significantly after the adoption of "Western RTOR". According to that study "Estimates of the magnitude of the increases ranged from 43% to 107% for pedestrian accidents and 72% to 123% for bicyclist accidents."[30] A 1984 study found that where RTOR was allowed "all right-turning crashes increase by about 23%, pedestrian crashes by about 60%, and bicyclist crashes by about 100%."[31] A 1993 study also concluded that RTOR increased crashes for pedestrians and cyclists, by 44% and 59% respectively.[32] However, a 2002 study brought those results into question, while agreeing that "No-Turn-on-Red restrictions are desirable where high volumes of pedestrian and conflicting vehicular traffic exist."[33]

Left turn on red in countries with right hand traffic

Legality of left turn on red in USA
Left turns on red for US states
  Left turns on red from one-way and two-way streets into one-way streets permitted
  Left turns on red from one-way streets into one-way streets permitted
  State prohibits left turns on red

In the U.S., 36 states and Puerto Rico allow left turns on red only if both the origin and destination streets are one way. (See South Carolina law Section 56-5-970 C3,[34] for example.)

Five other states, namely Alaska, Idaho, Michigan, Oregon and Washington, allow left turns on red onto a one-way street even from a two-way street.[35][36][37][38][39]

The following states and territories ban left turns on red: South Dakota (unless permitted by local ordinance), Connecticut, Maine, Missouri, New Hampshire, New Jersey, North Carolina, Rhode Island, the District of Columbia, and Guam. New York City also prohibits left turn on red lights, unless a sign indicates otherwise.[40]

In Canada, left turn on red light from a one-way road into a one-way road is permitted except in some areas of Quebec, New Brunswick, and Prince Edward Island. Left turn on red light from a two-way road into a one-way road is permitted in British Columbia[41] after yielding to pedestrians and cross traffic.

See also

References

  1. ^ "Driver's Manual" (PDF). New York State Department of Motor Vehicles. Archived from the original (PDF) on 9 October 2010. Cite uses deprecated parameter |dead-url= (help)
  2. ^ "Energy Policy and Conservation Act". govtrack.us.
  3. ^ Rabinovitz, Jonathan D (4 December 1979). "Right-On-Red Comes to Boston". The Harvard Crimson. Retrieved 1 July 2017.
  4. ^ "Right Turn on Red" (PDF). Sustainable Streets Index. New York City Department of Transportation. 2009.
  5. ^ "Chapter 4: Traffic Control". Online Driver's Manual and Study Guide. New York State Department of Motor Vehicles.
  6. ^ "Right Turn on Red" (PDF). nyc.com. Archived from the original (PDF) on 4 March 2011. Retrieved 22 January 2010. Cite uses deprecated parameter |dead-url= (help)
  7. ^ "Transports Québec : Right Turn on Red". mtq.gouv.qc.ca. Archived from the original on 16 July 2011. Cite uses deprecated parameter |dead-url= (help)
  8. ^ Estado de Mexico Archived 4 March 2016 at the Wayback Machine
  9. ^ "Adiós a la vuelta continua y multas por usar el teléfono, así el nuevo Reglamento de Tránsito del DF - Animal Político". Retrieved 28 October 2016.
  10. ^ Rozporządzenie Ministrów Infrastruktury oraz Spraw Wewnętrznych i Administracji z dnia 31 lipca 2002 r. w sprawie znaków i sygnałów drogowych Archived 30 March 2016 at the Wayback Machine, § 96.1. and 96.3.
  11. ^ Правила дорожного движения Российской Федерации Archived 13 November 2016 at the Wayback Machine, п.6.3
  12. ^ Arrêté du 24 novembre 1967 relatif à la signalisation des routes et des autoroutes - Article 7 "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 12 April 2016. Retrieved 2 October 2015. Cite uses deprecated parameter |deadurl= (help)CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link), Legifrance, accessdate=2 October 2015
  13. ^ "Wet tot wijziging van artikel 6.3 van het koninklijk besluit van 1 december 1975 houdende algemeen reglement op de politie van het wegverkeer en van het gebruik van de openbare weg teneinde te voorzien in een afwijking op het algemene voorrangsbeginsel voor de verkeerslichten, in geval van verkeersborden die voorrang verlenen aan de fietsers".
  14. ^ "Brussel plaatst 100 extra borden waar fietser door het rood mogen rijden". Het Laatste Nieuws. Retrieved 15 June 2015.
  15. ^ Trotignon, Jean-Michel. "Tourne à droite au feu rouge: il manque juste le panneau" (PDF). Vélocité. Fédération française des Usagers de la Bicyclette. Retrieved 16 July 2011.
  16. ^ "The Highway Code: Using the road (rule 177)". Retrieved 26 June 2015.
  17. ^ "Changes of Lithuanian Traffic rules on 3 October 2014 - valid from 10 October 2014" (in Lithuanian). Archived from the original on 23 November 2014. Cite uses deprecated parameter |dead-url= (help)
  18. ^ Adhiraj Joglekar (8 May 2007), Driving in India: At Red Lights There are no Free Left Turns, retrieved 4 November 2016
  19. ^ "Common Traffic Rules". India Study Channel. 30 August 2009. Retrieved 4 November 2016.
  20. ^ Ramu, Marri (26 December 2015). "For a change, it's a hassle-free ride". The Hindu. ISSN 0971-751X. Retrieved 5 November 2016.
  21. ^ "Chandigarh traffic police, promoting road safety, traffic safety, India road signs & rules, safe responsible driving, first aid India". www.chandigarhtrafficpolice.org. Retrieved 5 November 2016.
  22. ^ "Did govt change the "No Free Left" Rule, off late - Team-BHP". Team-BHP.com. Retrieved 5 November 2016.
  23. ^ Left Turn On Red Scheme, Singapore Archived 10 June 2016 at the Wayback Machine ONE Motoring, Land Transport Authority Singapore 27 August 2011
  24. ^ "Traffic lights and road markings - Safety & Rules". Roads and Maritime Services. Archived from the original on 14 October 2016. Retrieved 14 October 2016. Cite uses deprecated parameter |dead-url= (help)
  25. ^ "Left Turn on Red project". Brisbane City Council. Archived from the original on 14 October 2016. Retrieved 14 October 2016. Cite uses deprecated parameter |dead-url= (help)
  26. ^ a b "Call to allow left-hand turns on red lights in SA". ABC News. 24 July 2016. Retrieved 14 October 2016.
  27. ^ Fuller, Peta (19 October 2013). "Left turns at red lights to be allowed in new traffic trial". news.com.au. Retrieved 14 October 2016.
  28. ^ "Traffic Signal Design: Appendix E Left Turn on Red" (PDF). NSW Government Roads and Maritime Services. 14 July 2016.
  29. ^ Acott, Kent (27 April 2014). "Turn left on red possible solution". The West Australian. Retrieved 14 October 2016.
  30. ^ D. F. Preusser, W. A. Leaf, K. B. DeBartolo, R. D. Blomberg (October 1981). The Effect of Right-Turn-On-Red on Pedestrian and Bicyclist Accidents (PDF) (Report). US.Department of Transportation National Highway Traffic Safety Administration. p. vii. Retrieved 5 February 2019.CS1 maint: uses authors parameter (link)
  31. ^ Zador, Paul (August 1984). "Right-turn-on-red laws and motor vehicle crashes: A review of the literature". Accident Analysis & Prevention. 16 (4): 241–245. Retrieved 5 February 2019.
  32. ^ Dussault, Claude (14–16 June 1993). Safety Effects of Right Turn on Red: A Meta Analysis. Proceedings of the Canadian Multidisciplinary Road Safety Conference VIIII. Saskatoon, Saskatchewan.
  33. ^ Fleck, Jack; Yee, Bond. "Safety Evaluation of Right Turn on Red" (PDF). Retrieved 5 February 2019.
  34. ^ "South Carolina Code of Laws (Unannotated): Current through the end of the 2010 Session". South Carolina Legislature Online. Office of Legislative Printing, Information & Technology Systems. 5 November 2011. Archived from the original on 5 November 2011. S.C. Code Section 56-5-970(C)(3). Except when a sign is in place prohibiting a turn, vehicular traffic facing any steady red signal may cautiously enter the intersection to turn right or to turn left from a one-way street into a one-way street after stopping as required by item (1) or (2). Such vehicular traffic shall yield the right-of-way to pedestrians lawfully within an adjacent crosswalk and to other traffic lawfully using the intersection.
  35. ^ "DOC Frame Page". Legis.state.ak.us. Retrieved 28 October 2016.
  36. ^ "Florida Motor Vehicles Code Section 316.075 - State Uniform Traffic Control - Traffic control signal devices. - Florida Attorney Resources - Florida Laws". law.onecle.com. Archived from the original on 10 October 2008. Cite uses deprecated parameter |deadurl= (help)
  37. ^ Offices, Legislative. "Idaho State Legislature". Retrieved 28 October 2016.
  38. ^ "Michigan Legislature - Section 257.612". Retrieved 28 October 2016.
  39. ^ "RCW 46.61.055: Traffic control signal legend". Retrieved 28 October 2016.
  40. ^ "The place in New York City where you can turn left on red". Retrieved 28 October 2016.
  41. ^ BC Motor Vehicle Act Archived 20 September 2016 at the Wayback Machine, Section 129

External links

  1. ^ Sarkar, Sheila; Van Houten, Ron; Moffatt, John (1 January 1999). "Using License Manuals To Increase Awareness About Pedestrian Hazards at Intersections. Missed Opportunity for Educating Drivers". Transportation Research Record: Journal of the Transportation Research Board. 1674: 49–56. doi:10.3141/1674-07. ISSN 0361-1981.
Cycling in Madrid

The city of Madrid has been increasing in the last years its network of bicycle paths. In 2016, there were 195 km of cyling routes. The city council has planned to build 400 km more for the year 2024 despite a very vocal opposition to the construction of segregated infrastructure by a significant part of the local cycling community.

Heilbronn

Heilbronn (German pronunciation: [haɪlˈbʁɔn] (listen)) is a city in northern Baden-Württemberg, Germany. It is surrounded by Heilbronn District and, with approximately 123,000 residents, it is the sixth-largest city in the state.

The city on the Neckar is a former Imperial Free City and is the seat of Heilbronn District. Heilbronn is also the economic center of the Heilbronn-Franken region that includes most of northeast Baden-Württemberg. Furthermore, Heilbronn is known for its wine industry and is nicknamed Käthchenstadt, after Heinrich von Kleist's Das Käthchen von Heilbronn.

Intersection (road)

This article primarily reflects practice in jurisdictions where vehicles are driven on the right. If not otherwise specified, "right" and "left" can be reversed to reflect jurisdictions where vehicles are driven on the left.

An intersection is an at-grade junction where two or more roads or streets meet or cross. Intersections may be classified by number of road segments, traffic controls, and/or lane design.

MercyMe

MercyMe is an American contemporary Christian music band founded in Edmond, Oklahoma. The band consists of lead vocalist Bart Millard, percussionist Robby Shaffer, bassist Nathan Cochran and guitarists Michael Scheuchzer and Barry Graul.

The band formed in 1994 and released six independent albums prior to signing with INO Records in 2001.

The group first gained mainstream recognition with the crossover single, "I Can Only Imagine" which elevated their debut album, Almost There, to triple platinum certification. Since then, the group has released eight additional studio albums (six of which have been certified gold) and a greatest hits album, 10. The group has also had 13 consecutive top 5 singles on the Billboard Christian Songs chart, with 7 of them reaching No. 1. MercyMe has won 8 Dove Awards and has had many Grammy Award nominations. On April 8, 2014, the band released its eighth studio album titled Welcome to the New. MercyMe's ninth studio album, Lifer, was released on March 31, 2017.

One-way traffic

One-way traffic (or uni-directional traffic) is traffic that moves in a single direction. A one-way street is a street either facilitating only one-way traffic, or designed to direct vehicles to move in one direction. One-way streets typically result in higher traffic flow as drivers may avoid encountering oncoming traffic or turns through oncoming traffic. Residents may dislike one-way streets due to the circuitous route required to get to a specific destination, and the potential for higher speeds adversely affecting pedestrian safety. Some studies even challenge the original motivation for one-way streets, in that the circuitous routes negate the claimed higher speeds.

Pedestrian crossing

A pedestrian crossing (primarily British English) or crosswalk (American English) is a place designated for pedestrians to cross a road, street or avenue. Pelican crosswalks are designed to keep pedestrians together where they can be seen by motorists, and where they can cross most safely across the flow of vehicular traffic.

In Europe, the Zebra crossing is a common kind of crossing facility. The wording pedestrian crossing is used in some international treaties on road traffic and road signs, such as the Vienna Convention on Road Traffic and the Vienna Convention on Road Signs and Signals.

Marked pedestrian crossings are often found at intersections, but may also be at other points on busy roads that would otherwise be too unsafe to cross without assistance due to vehicle numbers, speed or road widths. They are also commonly installed where large numbers of pedestrians are attempting to cross (such as in shopping areas) or where vulnerable road users (such as school children) regularly cross. Rules govern usage of the pedestrian crossings to ensure safety; for example, in some areas, the pedestrian must be more than halfway across the crosswalk before the driver proceeds.

Signalised pedestrian crossings clearly separate when each type of traffic (pedestrians or road vehicles) can use the crossing. Unsignalised crossings generally assist pedestrians, and usually prioritise pedestrians, depending on the locality. What appears to be just pedestrian crossings can also be created largely as a traffic calming technique, especially when combined with other features like pedestrian priority, refuge islands, or raised surfaces.

Protected intersection

A protected intersection is an at-grade road junction in which cyclists and pedestrians are separated from cars. Vehicles turning right (in countries driving on the right, or left in countries driving on the left) are separated by a car length from crossing cyclists and pedestrians, providing increased reaction times and visibility. Drivers looking to turn right have better visibility to cyclists and pedestrians as they can look to the side for conflicts instead of over their shoulders.

This type of intersection is common in the bike-friendly Netherlands. A few other countries and jurisdictions are beginning to install protected intersections similar to those in the Netherlands , including U.S. cities Salt Lake City, Austin, Davis and Boston, and Canadian cities Ottawa, Vancouver, and Waterloo.

Red Rodney

Robert Roland Chudnick (September 27, 1927 – May 27, 1994), known professionally as Red Rodney, was an American jazz trumpeter.

Road

A road is a thoroughfare, route, or way on land between two places that has been paved or otherwise improved to allow travel by foot or some form of conveyance, including a motor vehicle, cart, bicycle, or horse.

Roads consist of one or two roadways (British English: carriageways), each with one or more lanes and any associated sidewalks (British English: pavement) and road verges. There is sometimes a bike path. Other names for roads include parkways, avenues, freeways, tollways, interstates, highways, or primary, secondary, and tertiary local roads.

Road junction

A junction is where two or more roads meet.

Road signs in Chile

Chile is a signatory to the Vienna Convention on Road Signs and Signals, and therefore its signs are compliant with international standards. Chile uses yellow diamonds for warning signs in common with most of the rest of the Americas. Speed limit signs are a red circle with a white background and the limitation in black, and are in kilometres per hour. There are also some signs unique to Chile. Chile also currently uses a mixture of both types of mandatory signs.

Chile drives on the right.

Road signs in the Philippines

Road signs in the Philippines are regulated and standardized by the Department of Public Works and Highways. Most of the signs reflects minor influences from American and Australian signage, but keeps close to the Vienna Convention as an original signatory.

It is unclear if the Department of Public Works and Highways mandates the use of Clearview as its official typeface for signs, but some road signs do use them.

Special regulation sign

Special regulation signs are road signs which are used to indicate a regulation or danger warning applying to one or more traffic lanes, indicate to lanes reserved for buses, indicate the beginning or end of a built-up area or signs having zonal validity.

Special regulation signs are usually square or rectangle with a blue ground and a light coloured symbol or inscription or with a light coloured ground and a dark coloured symbol or inscription.

Stop sign

A stop sign is a traffic sign designed to notify drivers that they must come to a complete stop and make sure no other vehicles are coming and no pedestrians are crossing before proceeding.

Three-way junction

A 3-way junction (or 3-way intersection) is a type of road intersection with three arms. A Y junction (or Y intersection) generally has 3 arms of equal size. A T junction (or T intersection) also has 3 arms, but one of the arms is generally a minor road connecting to a larger road.

Traffic

Traffic on roads consists of road users including pedestrians, ridden or herded animals, vehicles, streetcars, buses and other conveyances, either singly or together, while using the public way for purposes of travel. Traffic laws are the laws which govern traffic and regulate vehicles, while rules of the road are both the laws and the informal rules that may have developed over time to facilitate the orderly and timely flow of traffic.

Organized traffic generally has well-established priorities, lanes, right-of-way, and traffic control at intersections.

Traffic is formally organized in many jurisdictions, with marked lanes, junctions, intersections, interchanges, traffic signals, or signs. Traffic is often classified by type: heavy motor vehicle (e.g., car, truck), other vehicle (e.g., moped, bicycle), and pedestrian. Different classes may share speed limits and easement, or may be segregated. Some jurisdictions may have very detailed and complex rules of the road while others rely more on drivers' common sense and willingness to cooperate.

Organization typically produces a better combination of travel safety and efficiency. Events which disrupt the flow and may cause traffic to degenerate into a disorganized mess include road construction, collisions, and debris in the roadway. On particularly busy freeways, a minor disruption may persist in a phenomenon known as traffic waves. A complete breakdown of organization may result in traffic congestion and gridlock. Simulations of organized traffic frequently involve queuing theory, stochastic processes and equations of mathematical physics applied to traffic flow.

Traffic light

Traffic lights, also known as traffic signals, traffic lamps, traffic semaphore, signal lights, stop lights, robots (in South Africa, Zimbabwe and other parts of Africa), and traffic control signals (in technical parlance), are signalling devices positioned at road intersections, pedestrian crossings, and other locations to control flows of traffic.

The world's first traffic light was a manually operated gas-lit signal installed in London in December 1868. It exploded less than a month after it was implemented, injuring its policeman operator. Earnest Sirrine from Chicago patented the first automated traffic control system in 1910. It used the words "STOP" and "PROCEED", although neither word was illuminated.Traffic lights alternate the right of way accorded to users by illuminating lamps or LEDs of standard colours (red, amber (yellow), and green) following a universal colour code. In the typical sequence of colour phases:

The green light allows traffic to proceed in the direction denoted, if it is safe to do so and there is room on the other side of the intersection.

The amber light warns that the signal is about to change to red. In a number of European countries – among them the United Kingdom – a phase during which red and yellow are displayed together indicates that the signal is about to change to green. Actions required by drivers on a yellow light vary, with some jurisdictions requiring drivers to stop if it is safe to do so, and others allowing drivers to go through the intersection if safe to do so.

A flashing amber indication is a warning signal. In the United Kingdom, a flashing amber light is used only at pelican crossings, in place of the combined red–amber signal, and indicates that drivers may pass if no pedestrians are on the crossing.

The red signal prohibits any traffic from proceeding.

A flashing red indication requires traffic to stop and then proceed when safe (equivalent to a stop sign).In some countries traffic signals will go into a flashing mode if the conflict monitor detects a problem, such as a fault that tries to display green lights to conflicting traffic. The signal may display flashing yellow to the main road and flashing red to the side road, or flashing red in all directions. Flashing operation can also be used during times of day when traffic is light, such as late at night.

Traffic stop

A traffic stop, commonly called being pulled over, is a temporary detention of a driver of a vehicle by police to investigate a possible crime or minor violation of law.

Traffic violations reciprocity

Under traffic violations reciprocity agreements, non-resident drivers are treated like residents when they are stopped for a traffic offense that occurs in another jurisdiction. They also ensure that punishments such as penalty points on one's license and the ensuing increase in insurance premiums follow the driver home. The general principle of such interstate, interprovincial, and/or international compacts is to guarantee the rule "one license, one record."

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