Turkish Canadians

Turkish Canadians (Turkish: Türk asıllı Kanadalılar; literally "Turkish-originating Canadians"), also called Canadian Turks (Turkish: Kanadalı Türkler) are Canadian citizens of Turkish descent, or Turkey-born people who reside in Canada.[2][3] According to the Canadian government's 2016 Census, there were 63,955 Canadians who claimed full or partial Turkish descent or ancestry.[1]

Turkish Canadians
Türk asıllı Kanadalılar
Turkish Canadians 2005
Turkish Canadians at the Victoria Day Parade in 2005
Total population
63,955 (by ancestry, 2016 Census)[1]
Regions with significant populations
Predominantly Sunni Islam, significant minority of Shi'a Islam (Alevi), Christianity as well as Judaism


Turks first began to immigrate to Canada in small numbers from the Ottoman Empire. However, significant migration initially began in the late 1950s and early 1960s when the Turkish government encouraged student education abroad.[4] There have also been Turks fleeing from unrest and oppression in Bulgaria and Cyprus who arrived in Canada as both political and economic refugees.[4]

Ottoman migration

In 1901, Canada had between 300–400 Muslim residents, equally divided between Turks and Syrian Arabs.[5] By 1911, the size of the Muslim community had increased to about 1,500, of whom 1,000 were of Turkish origin and the remainder were Arabs.[5] During the pre-World War I period, Turks were to be found in mining and logging camps across Canada.[6] However, due to bad relations between the Ottoman Empire and Allied Powers of WWI, further migration was made difficult for the Turks and the Canadian government discouraged "Asian" immigration.[6] Thus, by the onset of World War I, Canada witnessed the return of many Turkish immigrants who were then classified as "enemy aliens".[5] Another reason for the return-migration of Ottoman Turks was because for the majority of Turks, the founding of the new republic of Turkey in 1923 was a greater incentive to stay at home.[6]

Mainland Turkish migration

In the late 1950s and early 1960s, the government of Turkey encouraged and financially supported Turkish students to study in Canada.[4] Thus, the early 1960s consisted primarily of students and professionals, especially doctors and engineers.[7] Significant Turkish immigration began during the 1960s and 1970s; most Turks went to Canada for educational and economic opportunities.[7] According to the 1972 Canada census there were 9,342 Turkish-born persons living in Canada.

Bulgarian Turks' migration

In 1989, Turks in Bulgaria were fleeing from the unrest and oppression of the Bulgarian government; many have arrived in Canada as political and economic refugees.[6]

Turkish Cypriot migration

During the 1950s, Turkish Cypriots started to leave Cyprus for political reasons when the Greek Cypriots held a referendum in which 95.7% of Greek Cypriots supported enosis, the union of Cyprus with Greece. By 1963, inter-ethnic fighting broke out in Cyprus, with Turkish Cypriots bearing the heavier cost in terms of casualties and some 25,000 Turkish Cypriots became internally displaced accounting to about a fifth of their population.[8] Tension continued to grow by the late 1960s and approximately 60,000 Turkish Cypriots left their homes and moved into enclaves.[9] This resulted in an exodus of more Turkish Cypriots from the island, many migrating to Canada. In 1983, Turkish Cypriots unilaterally proclaimed the establishment of their own state, the Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus (TRNC), which has since remained internationally unrecognized except by Turkey. Since the division of the island, the Turkish Cypriot economy has remained stagnant and undeveloped because of the economic embargoes which have been imposed on the north.[10] Turkish Cypriots are still forced to emigrate, as a result of unemployment, and economic, social and moral degradation. Furthermore, due to the 'Turkification' policies administered in the north, Turkish Cypriots responses to such policies of nationalization have been to leave the island and moved to Britain, Australia, and Canada.[11]


According to the Canada 2006 Census, there were 43,700 Turks living in Canada; the majority were concentrated in Toronto (14,970), Montreal (10,345), Vancouver (3,380), Ottawa (2,455), Hamilton (1,590), Calgary (1,305), and Edmonton (1,250).[12] However, the actual number of Turkish Canadians is believed to be considerably higher,[3] as ethnic Turks have also immigrated to Canada via Bulgaria, Cyprus, and the Republic of Macedonia.[3] Statistics on Bulgarian Turks, Turkish Cypriots, and Macedonian Turks present particular problems because it is unclear how many have immigrated to Canada; they are recorded by their citizenship (i.e. "Bulgarian", "Cypriot", and "Macedonian") rather than their ethnicity.

Turkish settlement

Rank Provinces/territories Population (2001 census)[13] Population (2006 census)[12] Percentage increase/decrease
1  Ontario 14,580 23,425 > 62%
2  Quebec 5,680 11,390 > 49.8%
3  British Columbia 2,395 4,250 > 56.35%
4  Alberta 1,515 2,970 > 51%
5  Nova Scotia 190 425 > 44.7%
6  Saskatchewan 105 400 > 26.25%
7  Manitoba 275 345 > 79%
8  New Brunswick 125 275 > 45%
9  Newfoundland and Labrador 35 135 > 25.9%
10  Northwest Territories 10 65 > 15%
11  Yukon 0 10 ≠ 0%
12  Nunavut 0 (10 Multiple responses) 0 ≠ 0%
13  Prince Edward Island 0 0 ≠ 0%
Total  Canada 24,910 43,700 > 57%
(Source: 2001 & 2006 Canadian Census')



The vast majority of Turkish Canadians are Sunni Muslims, whilst the remaining people generally do not have any religious affiliation. Prior to 1980, Turkish Canadian immigrants were from both urban and secular backgrounds.[14] Religion remained an affair of the private conscience.[14] In May 1983, the Canadian Turkish Islamic Heritage Association (Kanada Türk Islam Kültür Derneği) was established, followed by the Canadian Turkish Islamic Trust (Kanada Türk Islam Vakfi) in April 1987.[14]



Turkish Canadians are generally fluent in Turkish, but may speak an Anglicized dialect, slang, or version, informally called "Turkilizce". This unofficial, informal dialect is common among younger Canadian Turks, and is characterized by the addition of English loanwords to otherwise completely Turkish conversations (for example, the Turkish translation of "to schedule" would be "tarih belirlemek", but a Turkilizce speaker would say "schedule etmek").[16][17][18][19]


Social media

  • Turkish Association of Canada[20]
  • TurkKanada[21]
  • Anatolian Heritage Foundation[22]
  • Intercultural Dialogue Institute[23]

Turkish newspapers


  • Atak Sports - Zafer Biryol Soccer Academy[27]


Since 2005, Nile Academy, a private, secular school[28] run by Turkish administration linked to a nonprofit organization called Canadian Turkish Friendship Community,[29] has grown exponentially over the years. Within eleven years, they managed to open their 3rd[30] school within Ontario. They have also opened a dormitory located near Jane Street and Eglinton Avenue West, Toronto. Throughout the years, Nile Academy has competed in Turkish Language Olympiads and many wrestling tournaments in Ontario.[31]

In the mid 2010s, Nile Academy closed its main dormitory, and merged its three campuses into a single one, located in the Humber Summit neighbourhood of Toronto[32].

Nile Academy is also linked with the Islamic cleric, author, and scholar, Fethullah Gülen as well as the Gülen Movement.[33] They have had many notable alumni[34] since they opened in 2005.


Since the 1960s, many community organizations have appeared representing various groups of Turkish immigrants. The various associations across Canada are currently represented by the "Federation of Canadian Turkish Associations", an umbrella organization founded in the mid-1980s.[35] The federation serves as a referral and communications centre for news of Turkey, local events, business and governmental inquiries, and intergroup relations. More recently, a similar Turkish Cypriot umbrella group, the "Federation of Turkish Cypriot Associations of Canada", was established; the "Canadian Association for Solidarity of Turks from Bulgaria" also forms part of the federation.[35]

The Federation of Canadian Turkish Associations is an umbrella organization representing 17 member associations from Victoria to Quebec, which include approximately 50,000 Canadians of Turkish origin. The federation was established in 1985 and is a non-profit organization with no political affiliations. It supports and encourages activities that deal with important cultural, economic, educational, historical, social and religious issues that relate to the Turkish community in Canada.

  • Anatolian Heritage Federation[36]
  • Ankara Library[37]
  • Association of Balkan Canadians[38]
  • Association of Canadian Turkish Cypriots
  • Canadian Alevi Culture Centre[39]
  • Canadian Association for Solidarity of Turks from Bulgaria
  • Canadian Iraqi Turkmen Culture Association of London
  • Canadian Turkish Cultural Association of Hamilton
  • Canadian Turkish Film Society
  • Canadian Turkish Islamic Heritage Association INC.[40]
  • Council of Turkish Canadians[41]
  • The Federation of Canadian Turkish Associations[42]
  • Intercultural Dialogue Institute[43]
  • K-W Turkish cultural association
  • Turkish Association of Canada (TAC)[44]
  • The Turkish Canadian Association of London
  • Turkish Canadian Cultural Association[45]
  • Turkish Canadian Cultural Association of Calgary[46]
  • Turkish Canadian Society[47]
  • Turkish Canadian Society of Edmonton[48]
  • Turkish Canadian Society of Vancouver[47]
  • The Turkish Community Heritage Centre of Canada[49]
  • Turkish Federation Community Foundation[50]
  • Turkish Culture and Folklore Society[51]
  • The Turkish Quebec Cultural and Friendship Association[52]
  • Turkish Society of Canada[53]
  • Turkish Society of Nova Scotia[54]
  • The United Canadian Muslim Association
  • United Canadian Turkish Cultural Association

See also


  1. ^ a b "Ethnic Origin, both sexes, age (total), Canada, 2016 Census – 25% Sample data". Canada 2016 Census. Statistics Canada. Retrieved 6 November 2017.
  2. ^ Karpat 2004, 632
  3. ^ a b c Powell 2005, 297
  4. ^ a b c Aksan 1999, 1277.
  5. ^ a b c Abu-Laban 1983, 76.
  6. ^ a b c d Aksan 1999, 1276.
  7. ^ a b Powell 2005, 298
  8. ^ Cassia 2007, 19.
  9. ^ Tocci 2004, 53.
  10. ^ Tocci 2004, 61.
  11. ^ Papadakis, Peristianis & Welz 2006, 94.
  12. ^ a b Statistics Canada. "2006 Census". Retrieved 25 February 2009.
  13. ^ Statistics Canada. "Selected Ethnic Origins, for Canada, Provinces and Territories - 20% Sample Data". Retrieved 23 February 2009.
  14. ^ a b c Aksan 1999, 1279
  15. ^ The Ottawa Turkish Festival
  16. ^ "Müzmin Saksı: Türkilizce sözlük". Müzmin Saksı. 18 December 2011. Retrieved 19 March 2019.
  17. ^ Şafak, Yeni (6 December 2004). "'Türkilizce' konuşacağız". Yeni Şafak (in Turkish). Retrieved 19 March 2019.
  18. ^ "Türkilizce". www.bizimanadolu.com. Retrieved 19 March 2019.
  19. ^ Kandemir, Murat (15 March 2010). "Kanada Göçmenlik: Kanada'da Türk Olmak ve Kanada Türk Toplumu". Kanada Göçmenlik. Retrieved 19 March 2019.
  20. ^ "Security Check Required". Facebook.com. Retrieved 20 August 2017.
  21. ^ "Turk Kanada - Kanada hakkında bilmeniz gereken herşey". Turk Kanada. Retrieved 20 August 2017.
  22. ^ "Turk Kanada - Kanada hakkında bilmeniz gereken herşey". Turk Kanada. Retrieved 20 August 2017.
  23. ^ "Turk Kanada - Kanada hakkında bilmeniz gereken herşey". Turk Kanada. Retrieved 20 August 2017.
  24. ^ "Main Page". Canadaturk.ca. Retrieved 20 August 2017.
  25. ^ "Edmonton Intercultural Dialogue Institute - IDI Edmonton". Edmonton.interculturaldialog.com.
  26. ^ "Bizim Anadolu". Bizimanasdolu.com. Retrieved 20 August 2017.
  27. ^ "ataksports.com". Ataksports.com. Retrieved 20 August 2017.
  28. ^ "Nile Academy". nileacademy.ca. Retrieved 23 February 2016.
  29. ^ "Job Offers - Nile Academy BlueHaven". nileacademy.ca. Retrieved 23 February 2016.
  30. ^ "Nile Academy 2013 Awards (PDF)" (PDF).
  31. ^ "Nile Academy, Plunkett's Wrestling Team - Nile Academy-Plunkett Campus". nileacademy.ca. Retrieved 23 February 2016.
  32. ^ "Nile Academy Blue Haven Campus · 5 Blue Haven Crescent, Toronto, Ontario M9M 1W6". opengovca.com. Retrieved 19 March 2019.
  33. ^ "Fethullah Gülen Web Sitesi - Kanada'daki Türk Okulundan Büyük Başarı". tr.fgulen.com. Retrieved 23 February 2016.
  34. ^ "Alumni - Nile Academy-Plunkett Campus". nileacademy.ca. Retrieved 23 February 2016.
  35. ^ a b Aksan 1999, 1278
  36. ^ "Anatolian Heritage Federation Canada". Anatolianheritage.ca. Retrieved 20 August 2017.
  37. ^ "ANKARA KITAPLIGI". Ankarakitapligi.ca. Retrieved 20 August 2017.
  38. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 22 January 2014. Retrieved 20 January 2014.CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link)
  39. ^ "Kanada Alevi Kültür Merkezi". Kanadaalevi.com. Retrieved 20 August 2017.
  40. ^ "Kanada Türk İslam Kültür Derneği & Pape Cami - Ana sayfa". Papecami.com. Retrieved 20 August 2017.
  41. ^ "Council of Turkish Canadians". Turkishcanadians.com. Retrieved 20 August 2017.
  42. ^ YILDIRIM, Inanc. "The Federation of Canadian Turkish Associations - Kanada Turk Dernekleri Federasyonu". Turkishfederation.ca. Retrieved 20 August 2017.
  43. ^ "Intercultural Dialogue Institute, Canada". Interculturaldialog.com. Retrieved 20 August 2017.
  44. ^ "Home". Turkishcanada.com. Retrieved 20 August 2017.
  45. ^ "Turkish Canadian Cultural Association - Turkish Canadian Cultural Association". Turk.ca. Retrieved 20 August 2017.
  46. ^ "Turkish Canadian Cultural Association of Calgary". calgaryturkishcanadian.org. Retrieved 20 August 2017.
  47. ^ a b "new homepage". Trukishcanadiansociety.org. Retrieved 20 August 2017.
  48. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 9 May 2012. Retrieved 18 May 2012.CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link)
  49. ^ "TCHCC Home". Turkishcommunitycentre.org. Retrieved 20 August 2017.
  50. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 23 May 2014. Retrieved 18 May 2012.CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link)
  51. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 7 December 2013. Retrieved 18 May 2012.CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link)
  52. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 15 April 2012. Retrieved 18 May 2012.CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link)
  53. ^ "Turkish Society of Canada - Turkish Society of Canada". Turkishcanada.org. 15 March 2014. Retrieved 20 August 2017.
  54. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 4 July 2013. Retrieved 18 May 2012.CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link)


  • Abu-Laban, Baha (1983), "The Canadian Muslim Community: The Need for a New Survival Strategy", in Waugh, Earle H.; Abu-Laban, Baha; Abu-Qureshi, Regula (eds.) (eds.), The Muslim Community in North America, University of Alberta, ISBN 0-88864-034-XCS1 maint: Extra text: editors list (link).
  • Aksan, Virginia H. (1999), "Turks", in Magocsi, Paul R. (eds.) (ed.), Encyclopedia of Canada's Peoples, University of Toronto Press, ISBN 0-8020-2938-8CS1 maint: Extra text: editors list (link).
  • Cassia, Paul Sant (2007), Bodies of Evidence: Burial, Memory, and the Recovery of Missing Persons in Cyprus, Berghahn Books, ISBN 1-84545-228-3.
  • Karpat, Kemal H. (2004), "Turkish Immigration to Canada", Studies on Turkish Politics and Society: Selected Articles and Essays, BRILL, ISBN 90-04-13322-4
  • Ozcurumez, Saime (2009), "Immigrant Associations in Canada:Included, Accommodated, or Excluded?", Turkish Studies, Routledge, 10 (2): 195–215, doi:10.1080/14683840902864002
  • Papadakis, Yiannis; Peristianis, Nicos; Welz, Gisela (2006), Divided Cyprus: Modernity, History, and an Island in Conflict, Bloomington: Indiana University Press, ISBN 0-253-21851-9.
  • Powell, John (2005), "Turkish Immigration", Encyclopedia of North American Immigration, Infobase Publishing, ISBN 0-8160-4658-1
  • Tocci, Nathalie (2004), EU accession dynamics and conflict resolution: catalysing peace or consolidating partition in Cyprus?, Ashgate Publishing, ISBN 0-7546-4310-7.

External links

Asian Canadians

Asian Canadians are Canadians who can trace their ancestry back to the continent of Asia or Asian people. Canadians with Asian ancestry comprise the largest and fastest growing visible minority group in Canada, with roughly 17.7% of the Canadian population. Most Asian Canadians are concentrated in the urban areas of Southern Ontario, the Greater Vancouver area, Calgary, and other large Canadian cities.

Asian Canadians considered visible minorities may be classified as East Asian Canadian (e.g. Chinese Canadians, Korean Canadians, Japanese Canadians); South Asian Canadians (e.g. Bangladeshi Canadians, Indian Canadians, Pakistani Canadians, Sri Lankan Canadians); Southeast Asian Canadian (e.g. Filipino Canadians, Vietnamese Canadians); or West Asian Canadians (e.g. Iranian Canadians, Iraqi Canadians, Lebanese Canadians).

Iraqi Canadians

Iraqi Canadians comprise Canadian citizens of full or partial Iraqi descent, as well as people from the state of Iraq who are ethno-linguistic and religious minorities. According to the 2011 Census there were 49,680 Canadians who claimed Iraqi ancestry, an increase compared to the 2006 Census.

Jim Karygiannis

James Karygiannis, (listen) (Greek: Δημήτρης Καρύγιαννης; born May 2, 1955) is a Canadian politician. He formerly served in the House of Commons of Canada as a Liberal MP from 1988 to 2014, and is currently a member of the Toronto City Council.

Karygiannis served concurrently as the parliamentary secretary to the Minister of Human Resources and Skills Development and Minister responsible for Democratic Renewal (2005) and was previously parliamentary secretary to the Minister of Transport (2003–2005).

On April 1, 2014, he resigned his seat as a Member of Parliament in order to stand in the Toronto municipal election for Toronto City Councillor in Ward 39, and subsequently was elected to that seat.

Kurdish Canadians

Kurdish Canadians may refer to people born in or residing in Canada of Kurdish origin.

The Kurdish community in the Canada is 11,685 based on the Canadian Census 2011, among which the Iraqi Kurds make up the largest group of Kurds in Canada, exceeding the numbers of Kurds from Turkey, Iran and Syria.

In Canada, Kurdish immigration was largely the result of the Iran–Iraq War, the Gulf War and Syrian Civil War. Thus, many Iraqi Kurds immigrated to Canada due to the constant wars and suppression of Kurds and Shiites by the Iraqi government.Like all Canadians with origins in West Asia, Kurdish Canadians are legally defined as a visible minority, irrespective of their appearance.

List of Turkish Canadians

The following is a list of Turkish Canadians.

List of solidarity rallies with the Gezi Park protests

International reactions to the Gezi Park protests in Turkey included many expressions of concern about the excessive use of force against peaceful protestors. There were also supporting protests in a number of countries outside Turkey, particularly those with a large Turkish diaspora.

Pakistani Canadians

Pakistani Canadian refers to the community in Canada of Pakistani heritage or descent. It can also refer to people who hold dual Pakistani and Canadian citizenship.

Turkish Americans

Turkish Americans (Turkish: Amerikalı Türkler) are Americans of Turkish descent or origin.

Turkish Brazilians

Turkish Brazilians or Turk Brazilians (Turkish: Brezilya Türkleri) are Turkish people who have immigrated to Brazil. However, the term also refers to Brazilian-born persons who have Turkish parents or who have a Turkish ancestral background. The number of Turks in Brazil is 6,200.The majority of Turks in Brazil live in Sao Paulo. In Rio de Janeiro the Tijuca neighbourhood is rich in references to Turkish culture.

Turkish Venezuelan

Turks in Venezuela or Turkish Venezuelans (Turkish: Venezüella Türkleri) are Turkish people who have immigrated to Venezuela. However, the term also refers to Venezuelan-born persons who have Turkish parents or who have a Turkish ancestral background. The Turkish community is largely made up of immigrants, or the descendants of immigrants, born in the Ottoman Empire before 1923, in the Republic of Turkey since then, or in neighbouring countries once part of the Ottoman Empire that still have some Turkish population. An estimated 30,000 Turkish Venezuelan people live in the country.

Turkish diaspora

The Turkish diaspora (Turkish: Türk diasporası or Türk gurbetçiler) is the estimated population of the Turks all around the world who have migrated out from Turkey and former Turkish (Ottoman) territory. This includes citizens of Turkey living abroad (including ethnic Turks and other ethnic minorities), as well asethnic Turks who have emigrated from other post-Ottoman states, particularly Turkish communities from the Balkans (such as Bulgaria, Greece, Macedonia, Romania etc.), the island of Cyprus, the region of Meskhetia in Georgia, and the Arab world (such as Algeria, Iraq, Lebanon, and Syria).

Due to the large numbers of Mainland Turks, and Turkish minorities from other post-Ottoman states who have emigrated from their traditional homelands, there are no official statistics which represent a true indication of the total ethnic Turkish population in the host countries. For example, although official data shows that there are 52,893 Turkish citizens in the United Kingdom, the Home Affairs Committee states that there are now 500,000 British Turks made up of 300,000 Turkish Cypriots, 150,000 Turkish nationals (i.e. people from Turkey), and smaller groups of Bulgarian Turks and Romanian Turks. Nonetheless, it is known that Germany, Austria, the Netherlands and France all have larger Turkish diaspora communities than the UK.

Turkish people

Turkish people or the Turks (Turkish: Türkler), also known as Anatolian Turks (Turkish: Anadolu Türkleri), are a Turkic ethnic group and nation living mainly in Turkey and speaking Turkish, the most widely spoken Turkic language. They are the largest ethnic group in Turkey, as well as by far the largest ethnic group among the speakers of Turkic languages. Ethnic Turkish minorities exist in the former lands of the Ottoman Empire. In addition, a Turkish diaspora has been established with modern migration, particularly in Western Europe.

Turks arrived from Central Asia and settled in the Anatolian basin in around the 11th century through the conquest of Seljuk Turks, mixing with the peoples of Anatolia. The region then began to transform from a predominately Greek Christian one to a Turkish Muslim society. Thereafter, the Ottoman Empire came to rule much of the Balkans, the Caucasus, the Middle East (excluding Iran), and North Africa over the course of several centuries, with an advanced army and navy. The Empire lasted until the end of the First World War, when it was defeated by the Allies and partitioned. Following the successful Turkish War of Independence that ended with the Turkish national movement retaking most of the land lost to the Allies, the movement abolished the Ottoman sultanate on 1 November 1922 and proclaimed the Republic of Turkey on 29 October 1923. Not all Ottomans were Muslims and not all Ottoman Muslims were Turks, but by 1923, the majority of people living within the borders of the new Turkish republic identified as Turks.

Article 66 of the Turkish Constitution defines a "Turk" as "anyone who is bound to the Turkish state through the bond of citizenship"; therefore, the legal use of the term "Turkish" as a citizen of Turkey is different from the ethnic definition. However, the majority of the Turkish population are of Turkish ethnicity and are estimated at 70–75 percent.

Turkish population

The Turkish population refers to the number of ethnic Turkish people in the world. During the Seljuk (1037–1194) and Ottoman (1299-1923) eras ethnic Turks were settled across the lands conquered by the two empires. In particular, the Turkification of Anatolia (modern Turkey) was the result of the Battle of Manzikert in 1071 and the formation of the Sultanate of Rum. Thereafter, the Ottomans continued Turkish expansion throughout the regions around the Black Sea and the Mediterranean Sea. Consequently, today the Turkish people form a majority in Turkey and Northern Cyprus. There are also significant Turkish minorities who still live in the Balkans, the Caucasus, and the Levant, and North Africa.

More recently, the Turkish people have emigrated from their traditional areas of settlement for various reasons, forming a large diaspora. From the mid-twentieth century onwards, unskilled workers from Turkey settled mainly in German and French speaking countries of Western Europe, in contrast, a "brain drain" of skilled workers from Turkey migrated mostly to North America. Moreover, ethnic Turks from other traditional areas of Turkish settlement have emigrated mostly due to political reasons. For example, the Meskhetian Turks were deported to Central Asia from Georgia in 1944; Turkish Cypriots have emigrated mostly as refugees to the English-speaking world during the Cyprus conflict and its immediate aftermath; Cretan Turks have significant populations in the Arab world as a result of being expelled from Greece; etc.

Victoria Day

Victoria Day (French: Fête de la Reine, [lit. "Celebration of the Queen"]) is a federal Canadian public holiday celebrated on the last Monday preceding May 25, in honour of Queen Victoria's birthday. As such, it is the Monday between the 18th to the 24th inclusive, and thus is always the penultimate Monday of May. The date is simultaneously that on which the current Canadian sovereign's official birthday is recognized. It is sometimes informally considered the beginning of the summer season in Canada.

The holiday has been observed in Canada since at least 1845, originally falling on Victoria's actual birthday (May 24, 1819). It continues to be celebrated in various fashions across the country; the holiday has always been a distinctly Canadian observance. Victoria Day is a federal statutory holiday, as well as a holiday in six of Canada's ten provinces and all three of its territories. In Quebec, before 2003, the Monday preceding 25 May of each year was unofficially the Fête de Dollard, a commemoration of Adam Dollard des Ormeaux initiated in the 1920s to coincide with Victoria Day. In 2003, provincial legislation officially created National Patriots' Day on the same date.

Canadian people
and society
List of
Traditional areas of
Turkish settlement
Diaspora in Africa
Diaspora in Europe
Diaspora in North America
Diaspora in the Persian Gulf
Diaspora in Oceania
Diaspora in South America
Diaspora in South Asia
Diaspora in East Asia
Diaspora in the former Soviet Union
See also

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