Turbo marmoratus

Turbo marmoratus, known as the green turban, the marbled turban or great green turban, is a large species of marine gastropod with a thick calcareous operculum in the family Turbinidae, the turban snails.[1]

The shells of these large sea snails have a very thick layer of nacre; this species has been commercially fished as a source of mother of pearl.

Turbo marmoratus
Turbo marmoratus light 2
Two views of a shell of Turbo marmoratus.
Scientific classification
T. marmoratus
Binomial name
Turbo marmoratus
Linnaeus, 1758
  • Turbo cochlus Gmelin, 1791
  • Turbo olearius Linnaeus, 1758
  • Turbo regenfussi Deshayes, G.P., 1843
  • Turbo undulata Röding, 1798
  • Turbo (Lunatica) marmoratus Linnaeus, 1758


These large snails live in tropical reefs in the Indian Ocean (off Tanzania, Madagascar, Aldabra and the Mascarene Basin) and tropical western Pacific oceans; also off Queensland, Australia. They are nocturnal and feed on algae.[1]


The distinctive shell grows to a length of 18 cm. The large, imperforate, solid shell is ventricose, as broad as long. Its color pattern is green, marbled with white and rich brown. The 6-7 whorls are flattened or concave above, rounded and bearing two nodose keels below, and a stronger nodose carina above. It bears blunt tubercles, especially strong on the shoulders Its large, circular aperture has a golden, pearly shine. The base of the shell is produced. The columellar region is more or less excavated.

The subcircular operculum is somewhat concave within. Its outer surface is closely tuberculate and whitish.[2]

Turbo marmoratus is the host of the ectoparasitic copepod Anthessius isamusi Uyeno & Nagasawa, 2012

The shell of marbled turbans is used as a source of nacre. The large opercula of Turbo marmoratus have been sold as paperweights or door stops.[3]


  1. ^ a b WoRMS (2012). Turbo marmoratus Linnaeus, 1758. Accessed through: World Register of Marine Species at http://www.marinespecies.org/aphia.php?p=taxdetails&id=216369 on 2012-10-01
  2. ^ G.W. Tryon (1888), Manual of Conchology X; Academy of Natural Sciences, Philadelphia
  3. ^ Man and mollusc
  • Oostingh, C.H., 1925. Report on a collection of recent shells from Obi and Halmahera, Molluccas. Mededeelingen van de Landbouwhoogeschool Wageningen, 29(1):1-362.
  • Allan, J., 1950. Australian Shells: with related animals living in the sea, in freshwater and on the land. Georgian House, Melbourne. xix 470 pp..
  • Drivas, J. & M. Jay (1988). Coquillages de La Réunion et de l'île Maurice
  • Wilson, B., 1993. Australian Marine Shells. Prosobranch Gastropods. Odyssey Publishing, Kallaroo, WA
  • Alf A. & Kreipl K. (2003). A Conchological Iconography: The Family Turbinidae, Subfamily Turbininae, Genus Turbo. Conchbooks, Hackenheim Germany.

External links

  • Coastal Fisheries Program info
  • "Turbo (Lunatica) marmoratus". Gastropods.com. Retrieved 16 January 2019.
Aquaculture in Vanuatu

Aquaculture in Vanuatu exists on a small scale, both commercially and privately. Several aquacultural efforts have been made in the country, including attempts to raise Pacific oyster, rabbitfish, Malaysian prawn, and tilapia. Experiments with Kappaphycus alvarezii and three species of giant clam were carried out by the Fisheries Department in 1999. The official Fisheries Department records state that $1165 US of cultured coral was exported from the country in 2000, with 275 pieces in total. The cultivation of Macrobrachium lar in taro terraces is practiced for subsistence purposes, and Macrobrachium rosenbergii has been identified by the Vanuatu government as a high-priority species.There is little commercial or private-sector aquaculture in Vanuatu. The Fisheries Department operates a small hatchery for trochus shell (Trochus niloticus), producing juveniles which are used in experiments to study the impact and potential of reef re-seeding as a means of enhancement the wild trochus fishery. Similar experimental work on green snail (Turbo marmoratus) is also carried out.In mid-1999 the Fisheries Department carried out some spawning trials of three specieis of giant clams. In the same year the Department brought seaweed (Kappaphycus alvarezi) from Fiji for some experimental culture. On September 1, 2008, Vanuatu became the first Pacific Island country to have an aquaculture development plan and an Aquaculture and Fisheries Association.

Green turban

Green turban may refer to:

A Sufi Muslim head covering. See Turban#Islam

Turbo marmoratus, a snail

Karimunjawa National Park

Karimunjawa National Park, also Crimon Java National Park, is a national marine park designated in the Karimun Java archipelago, Jepara Regency, Central Java, Indonesia. It lies 80 km north west of Jepara, Central Java in the Java Sea. The national park was formally declared as Marine Protection Area in 2001. Based on popular local myth, this archipelago was discovered by Sunan Nyamplungan, the nephew of Sunan Kudus who is one of the Wali Sanga.Karimun Java is also a tourist attraction popular for its white sandy beach, pristine coral reefs, challenging treks through the hills, the pilgrimage to Sunan Nyamplungan Cemetery, and the customs and traditions of the Karimunjava community.

Kilu Cave

Kilu Cave is a paleoanthropological site located on Buka Island in the Autonomous Region of Bougainville, Papua New Guinea. Kilu Cave is located at the base of a limestone cliff, 65 m (213 ft) from the modern coastline. With evidence for human occupation dating back to 29,000 years, Kilu Cave is the earliest known site for human occupation in the Solomon Islands archipelago.


Nacre ( NAY-kər also NAK-rə), also known as mother of pearl, is an organic-inorganic composite material produced by some molluscs as an inner shell layer; it also makes up the outer coating of pearls. It is strong, resilient, and iridescent.

Nacre is found in some of the most ancient lineages of bivalves, gastropods, and cephalopods. However, the inner layer in the great majority of mollusc shells is porcellaneous, not nacreous, and this usually results in a non-iridescent shine, or more rarely in non-nacreous iridescence such as flame structure as is found in conch pearls.

The outer layer of pearls and the inside layer of pearl oyster and freshwater pearl mussel shells are made of nacre. Other mollusc families that have a nacreous inner shell layer include marine gastropods such as the Haliotidae, the Trochidae and the Turbinidae.

National Museum of the Philippines

The National Museum of the Philippines (Filipino: Pambansang Museo ng Pilipinas) is an umbrella government organization that oversees a number of national museums in the Philippines including ethnographic, anthropological, archaeological and visual arts collections. Since 1998, the National Museum has been the regulatory and enforcement agency of the Government of the Philippines in the restoring and safeguarding of important cultural properties, sites, and reservations throughout the Philippines.

The National Museum operates the National Museum of Fine Arts, National Museum of Anthropology, National Museum of Natural History, and National Planetarium, all located in the National Museum Complex in Manila. The institution also operates branch museums throughout the country.

Operculum (gastropod)

The operculum (plural: opercula or operculums), meaning little lid, is a corneous or calcareous anatomical structure like a trapdoor which exists in many (but not all) groups of sea snails and freshwater snails, and also in a few groups of land snails; the structure is found in some marine and freshwater gastropods, and in a minority of terrestrial gastropods, including the families Helicinidae, Cyclophoridae, Aciculidae, Maizaniidae, Pomatiidae, etc.

The operculum is attached to the upper surface of the foot and in its most complete state, it serves as a sort of "trapdoor" to close the aperture of the shell when the soft parts of the animal are retracted. The shape of the operculum varies greatly from one family of gastropods to another. It is fairly often circular, or more or less oval in shape. In species where the operculum fits snugly, its outline corresponds exactly to the shape of the aperture of the shell and it serves to seal the entrance of the shell.

Many families have opercula that are reduced in size, and which are not capable of closing the shell aperture. Opercula have sometimes been modified: in the Strombidae the operculum is claw-shaped and is used to push into the substrate in a leaping form of locomotion.

Virtually all pulmonate snails are inoperculate, i.e. they do not have an operculum, with the exception of the Amphiboloidea. However, some terrestrial pulmonate species are capable of secreting an epiphragm, a temporary structure that can in some cases serve some of the same functions as an operculum. The epiphragm may be distinguished from the true operculum by its homogeneity and want of growth marks.

In ammonites (extinct shelled cephalopods), a calcareous structure known as the aptychus (plural aptychi) existed. When these were first described they were thought to be valves of a bivalve species, then for many years after that they were considered to be a form of paired or single operculum-like structures belonging to ammonites. More recently the aptychus or paired aptychi have been hypothesized to be a jaw apparatus of ammonites.

Shell tools in the Philippines

Shell tools, in the archaeological perspective, were tools fashioned by pre-historic humans from shells in lieu of stone tools. The use of shell tools during pre-historic times was a practice common to inhabitants of environments that lack the abundance of hard stones for making tools. This was the case with the islands surrounding the Pacific, including the Philippines.

Shells were fashioned into tools, as well as ornaments. From adzes, scoops, spoons, dippers and other tools to personal ornaments such as earrings, anklets, bracelets and beads. These different artefacts made of shells were unearthed from various archaeological sites from the country.

Turbo (gastropod)

Turbo is a genus of large sea snails with gills and an operculum, marine gastropod molluscs in the family Turbinidae, the turban snails.Turbo is the type genus of the family.

Vermes in the 10th edition of Systema Naturae

In 1758, in the 10th edition of Systema Naturae, the Swedish scientist and taxonomist Carl Linnaeus described the class "Vermes" as:

Animals of slow motion, soft substance, able to increase their bulk and restore parts which have been destroyed, extremely tenacious of life, and the inhabitants of moist places. Many of them are without a distinct head, and most of them without feet. They are principally distinguished by their tentacles (or feelers). By the Ancients they were not improperly called imperfect animals, as being destitute of ears, nose, head, eyes and legs; and are therefore totally distinct from Insects.

Linnaean Characteristics

Heart: 1 auricle, 0 ventricles. Cold, pus-like blood.

Spiracles: obscure

Jaw: various

Penis: frequently hermaphrodites

Organs of Sense: tentacles (generally), eyes, no brain, no ears, no nostrils

Covering: calcareous or none, except spines

Supports: no feet, no fins. Crawls in moist places & are muteThe class Vermes, as Linnaeus conceived it, was a rather diverse and mismatched grouping of animals; basically it served as a wastebasket taxon for any invertebrate species that was not an arthropod. With the advent of the scientific understanding of evolution, it became clear that many of the animals in these groups were not in fact closely related, and so the class Vermes was dropped for several (at least 30) phyla.


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